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Forks, covering the Southside Railroad, and took 6,000 prisoners. Immediately afterwards (April 2d), an attack was made along the whole line in front of Petersburg, and was everywhere successful. On the afternoon of April 2d, Jefferson Davis, while in church, received a telegram from Lee to the effect that his army had been driven from its intrenchments, and that both Petersburg and Richmond must be abandoned without delay. The evacuation was hastily accomplished that same night. On the 3d of April, before daylight, Grant moved into Petersburg, and four hours afterwards Gen. Weitzel took possession of Richmond. Heartfelt were the rejoicings, and fervent the thanksgivings, with which this news was received. It was felt that the days of the rebellion were numbered.

689. Lee, with his army, made for Lynchburg, where he hoped to continue his resistance. But Grant rapidly pushed forward his forces in pursuit, and Sheridan succeeded in intercepting the fugitives. A severe encounter took place near Deatonsville, which resulted in the complete rout of the Confederates and the capture of several thousand prisoners. Nothing was now left for Lee but a surrender; and on the 9th of April, his army, now reduced to about 25,000 men, laid down their arms.

690. On the 13th of April, Mobile surrendered, after a combined military and naval attack. The same day, Salisbury, N. C., was taken by Gen. Stoneman, on a raid from Tennessee. Another successful raid was also made at this time by Gen. Wilson, who, riding between 600 and 700 miles through Alabama and Georgia, captured Selma, Montgomery (the first Confederate capital), and Columbus, taking 6,000 prisoners, 200 cannon, and property estimated at many millions.

691. The loyal heart of the nation, filled with joy at these victories, was suddenly chilled by the appalling gained hy Sheridan? How was this followed up, the next day? How was Davis interrupted in church on the 2d of April? Relate what followed. place did Lee make for? How was he prevented from reaching it? What battle was fought, and with what result? What was the consequence? 690. What city surrendered, April 13th ? The same day, what place was taken by Stoneman ? Give an account of Wilson's raid. 691. Relate the incidents attending the presi

689. What

1865]

ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN.

505

news that President Lincoln had been assassinated. While sitting in a private box in the theatre at Washington, on the evening of April 14th, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a violent sympathizer with the south, and died at 22 minutes past 7 the following morning. Springing from the box to the stage, and rushing through the passages, with which he was familiar, Booth made his escape from the rear of the building. Never before was such intense sorrow manifested throughout the land as when the news of this terrible event flashed over the wires. Mr. Lincoln's honesty of purpose and kindness of heart had won even those who differed from him politically, and there were few eyes

that rendered not the tribute of a tear to “the martyr president”. His honored remains left Washington on the 21st of April, and were entombed in Springfield, Ill., on the 4th of May, the long journey being one great funeral procession.

Simultaneously with the president's assassination, an attempt was made on the life of Secretary Seward, then confined to his bed by dangerous illness. The murderer failed to accomplish his deadly purpose, though he succeeded in wounding Mr. Seward, his son, and two others who were present. A nefarious plot had evidently been formed by enemies of the Union to destroy the heads of the government, and every effort was made to discover the perpetrators and instigators of the crime. Booth, with an accomplice named Harold, was finally traced, and surrounded in a barn where he had taken refuge. On a summons to surrender, Harold came out; Booth refused to do so, and was shot down while in the act of aiming at one of his pursuers. Other arrests were made; a military trial was held; and on the 7th of July four of Booth's accomplices, who were found guilty, were hanged. Three were sentenced to imprisonment for life, and one to hard labor for six

years.

dent's assassination. Where were his remains buried? What is said of the journey? Give an account of the attempt on Mr. Seward's life. What was the fate of the president's murderer? What punishments were inflicted on his accomplices ?

CHAPTER XVIII.

JOHNSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1865–1869. 692. The melancholy event just related made Andrew Johnson president of the United States; on the 15th of April he took the oath of office.—Born in humble life, in 1808, in Raleigh, N. C., the future president was apprenticed to a tailor, and went to his trade without knowing a letter of the alphabet. By self-denying application after working hours, he had learned at the age of 17 to read and write. In his twentieth year he settled at Greenville, Tenn.; where, embracing every opportunity to educate himself, he soon made his mark on the community in which he lived. Successively elected alderman, mayor, member of the legislature, congressman,

and
governor,

he
was,

at the time of the secession movement, in the senate of the United States, where he hurled scathing denunciations on those who were aiming to destroy the Union. The firmness and sagacity which he displayed as military governor of Tennessee under President Lincoln, were now to be exhibited in a wider sphere.

693. The surrender of Lee deprived the Confederates of all hope, and was speedily followed by the surrender of the other generals in the field. Johnston's army, numbering about 30,000 men, laid down their arms on the 26th of April. On the 4th of May, Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered to Gen. Canby all the forces, munitions of war, &c., in the department of Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana; and on the 26th, Gen. Kirby Smith, of the trans-Mississippi department, followed his example. Armed resistance was now at an end. The great rebellion had terminated.

694. After his hurried departure from Richmond, Jefferson Davis first went to North Carolina; then, abandoning all

692. Who became president in consequence of the death of Mr. Lincoln ? Give a sketch of Mr. Johnson's previous history. 693. What was the effect of Lee's surrender on the Confederates ? What surrenders followed, and on what dates ?

1865]

END OF THE CIVIL WAR.

507

hope, he tried to reach the coast, to effect an escape to the West Indies. He was intercepted by Wilson's cavalry near Irwinville, Ga., on the 10th of May, and was brought to Fortress Monroe. After being confined there for some time under an indictment for treason, he was finally released on bail. His trial was postponed from time to time, and early in 1869 the prosecution was abandoned. 695. On the termination of the war,

the government, without unnecessary delay, proceeded to raise the blockade of the southern ports, and reduce the navy

and

army. The latter, on the 1st of May, consisted of over a million of men; most of these were discharged, and returned peacefully to the pursuits of civil life. An immense debt of nearly $2,800,000,000 had been entailed by the war; yet there was a general confidence that it could be provided for, with the blessing of Heaven on the natural resources of the country and the industry of its inhabitants. The great body of the southern people, having left their cause to the arbitrament of the sword, accepted its decision, and yielded to the new condition of things.

696. Under an amnesty proclamation issued by the president, May 29th, 1865, pardon was offered to all who had taken part in the secession movement, except those embraced in certain specified classes, on condition of their taking an oath of allegiance to the United States; and on application it was afterwards extended to many individuals belonging to the classes excepted. On the 4th of July, 1868, full pardon and amnesty were granted by the president unconditionally to all who were not at that time under presentment or indictment for treason; and on the 25th of December, 1868, they were extended to all without exception.

697. Early in 1865, Congress passed a resolution pro

694. What became of Jefferson Davis after leaving Richmond ? 695. On the termination of the war, what did the government proceed to do? How large a debt had been incurred ? What was the general feeling regarding it? What is said of the great body of the southern people? 696. State the substance of the amnesty proclamation of May 29th, 1865. What was done July 4th, and December 25th, 1868? 697. Early in 1865, what amendment to the Constitution was pro

posing an amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery throughout the United States. Three-fourths of the states having ratified this 'amendment, it was announced on the 18th of December, 1865, that it had become a part of the Constitution (see Constitution, Article XIII., p. xiii.], and slavery ceased to exist. Different measures were subsequently adopted for the protection of the freedmen,—the Civil Rights Bill, among others, being passed by Congress, April 9th, 1866, over President Johnson's veto.

698. No little excitement was caused in June, 1866, by the invasion of Canada by bodies of Fe'nians, a secret society of Irishmen, banded together for the purpose of wresting Ireland from the British government and establishing its independence. Numbers crossed the frontier from Buffalo and Vermont, but after some skirmishing were driven back. President Johnson issued a proclamation cautioning all against the enterprise as a violation of neutrality; and the vigorous measures of Gen. Meade, who was sent to the frontier, put a stop to the movement. Fenians on their way to the scene of action were turned back, and many stands of arms were seized.

699. The question of Reconstruction,—that is, of readmitting the seceded states to their former position in the Union,-was one which deeply agitated the country during 1866 and 1867. A difference of opinion on the subject between the president and Congress added to the difficulty. The president recognized loyal governments as existing in Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisi

In the case of the other seceded states he appointed provisional governors, with authority to call conventions to establish permanent governments; and his policy was to recognize such governments, and restore the states to their former rights, as soon as they should repeal their ordinances of secession, repudiate their Confederate debt,

ana.

posed by Congress ? What was the result ? What further measures were adopted ? 698. Who were the Fenians ? Give an account of their invasion of Canada. 699. What question agitated the country during 1866 and 1867 ? What added to the difficulty? What were the views of the president? Of Congress ? State one of the provisions of the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution,

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