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explore Jamaica [ja-ma'-ka] and the surrounding islands. Soon after completing this work, he was filled with delight by the arrival of his brother Bartholomew, whom he had not seen for 13 years, and whom, returning from his mission to England after his brother had sailed the second time, Isabella had sent to the new world with supplies.

Tired of hardship and disappointed in the hope of obtaining gold, the followers of Columbus now began to murmur. His management of affairs was complained of, and an emissary of his enemies was sent out to examine into it. Columbus deemed it proper to return to Spain and plead his own cause before the throne. He established his innocence beyond dispute, and was once more received into favor.

71. In 1498, Columbus undertook a third voyage. Directing his course more towards the equator than he had previously done, he discovered Trin-i-dad' and the South American coast near the mouth of the O-ri-no'-co. He was for a time in great danger on account of the rush of waters from the mouth of this great river, and judged aright that 80 mighty a stream could belong only to a continent. On his return to Hispaniola, he set about regulating the affairs of the colony, but was interrupted in the work by the arrival of Bovadilla [bo-va-deel'-ya], whom, at the instigation of enemies, the Spanish sovereigns had invested with powers to examine into his conduct, and, if needful, supersede him in the command. Columbus was sent back to Spain in chains. The master of the vessel, indignant that the great discoverer should be treated so unworthily, offered to take off his fetters; but Columbus, grieved at the ingratitude of those he had faithfully served, refused to have them removed, took them with him wherever he went, and ordered that they should be placed with him in his coffin. He triumphantly repelled every charge, but his sovereigns never had the jus

again set sail? With how many vessels and men ? On arriving at Hispaniola, what did he find ? Where did he next go ? On returning to Hispaniola, whom was he surprised to see? What did the followers of Columbus now begin to do? Who was sent out to examine into his conduct ? On this, what did Columbus do? 71. Give an account of the third voyage of Columbus. On reaching Hispaniola, to what did he devote himself? How was he interrupted? What indig.

tice to restore him to his station. They put him off on different pretexts; and, when it became necessary to remove Bovadilla on account of his mismanagement, O-van' do was appointed his successor.

72. Though cut to the heart by this ingratitude, and beginning to feel the infirmities of age, Columbus in 1502 set out on a fourth voyage. He still believed that the land he had discovered formed part of Asia, and did not live to have the delusion dispelled. The object of this last voyage was to find a passage to India by pushing farther westward than he had yet been. He explored the coast for a considerable distance along the Gulf of Darien; but at last, after a succession of disasters, in the attempt to return to Hispaniola he was wrecked on the coast of Jamaica. Reduced to the verge of starvation, and in danger of attack from the Indians, Columbus saved himself and his men by an ingenious device. From his acquaintance with astronomy, he knew that an eclipse of the moon was about to take place; and, on the morning of the day, summoning the natives around him, he informed them that the Great Spirit was displeased because they had not treated the Spaniards better, and that he would shroud his face from them that night. When the moon became dark, the Indians, convinced of the truth of his words, hastened to him with plentiful supplies, praying that he would beseech the Great Spirit to receive them again into favor. After undergoing extraordinary hardships, Columbus finally succeeded in reaching Hispaniola, and in the summer of 1504 he landed once more in Spain.

73. Queen Isabella had died shortly before; and the remaining two years of the great discoverer's life were shrouded in gloom. He died peaceably at Valladolid [val-la-dolid'], in the 71st year of his


His chains were buried with him, and his remains now rest in the cathedral of Ha-van'-a.

nity was put upon him? How was he received at court? Who was appointed successor to Bovadilla ? 2. What did Columbus still believe respecting the land he had discovered ? When did he start on his fourth voyage? What was his object? What finally befell him? How did Columbus on one occasion save himself and his men? At last, what island did they succeed in reaching? 73. What is said of the last two years of Columbus's life? Where and at what age did he




Columbus was tall, well-formed, and muscular. His countenance bore an air of authority, and his demeanor was grave and dignified. He was distinguished by a vivid imagination, lofty enthusiasm, high moral worth, great inventive genius, and a steadfastness of purpose

which overcame all difficulties.

74. Meanwhile, encouraged by the success of Columbus, other Spanish navigators had found their way to the new world. Among these was Ojeda [o-'-dah]. Following the course taken by Columbus in his second voyage, he touched on the South American coast, without, however, making any important discovery. In Ojeda's company was a well-educated Florentine gentleman, named Amerigo Vespucci [a-mer'e-go ves-poot'-she], who published an interesting description of the lands he had visited. This was the first written account of the new world; and, as it left Columbus out of view, the Western Continent, instead of being called after its real discoverer, was unjustly styled, from the name of this Florentine, AMERICA.



English Discoveries. In the latter part of the fifteenth century, England was laid waste by civil wars, known in history as the Wars of the Roses. As soon as they ended, commerce began to receive attention. Adventures to the new world promised large profits; and Henry VII., wishing to secure his share, commissioned John Cab'-ot, a Venetian merchant of Bristol, to sail on a voyage of discovery and take possession of all new lands in the name of England. On the 24th of June, 1497, before Columbus had yet seen the main

die? Where is he buried ? Describe his person and character. 174. Meanwhile, what had other Spanish navigators been doing? Among these, who is specially mentioned? Who went in Ojeda's company? What did he do on his return ? What honor did he thus unjustly obtain ?

75. What desolated England towards the end of the fifteenth century? When these wars had ended, what began to receive attention? What did Henry VII.

land of America, Cabot reached what is now called Newfoundland [new'-fund-land], and gave it the name of Prima Vista (pre' mah vees'-tah], first view. As the profits of the enterprise, he brought back to King Henry three savages, and two turkeys, the first specimens of this bird ever seen in Europe.

Soon after the return of John Cabot, Sebastian, his son, set sail with 300 men, for the purpose of discovering a northwest passage to China. The icebergs of the northern ocean

compelled him to turn from his course; and, visiting various points as far south as Albemarle Sound, he took possession of the whole for the crown of Eng land. Sebastian made several subsequent voyages, and explored various parts of the coast. Till 1578, England made no attempt to colonize the lands to which she had thus

secured the title. 76. Portuguese Discoveries. The principal Portuguese navigators that made discoveries in America were Cabral [kah-brahl] and Cortereal [kor---ahl']. The former, on his way to the East Indies round the Cape of Good Hope, crossed the Atlantic to avoid the delays of the coast voyage, and thus by accident discovered Brazil in the year 1500. He took possession of it in behalf of Portugal, and erected a cross which is still preserved. The next year, Cortereal coasted Labrador with the view of finding a northwest passage to India ; but, not succeeding, he captured fifty of the natives, and sold them on his return as slaves.

77. French Discoveries.—Though the French early visited the fishing-banks of Newfoundland, they made no attempt



do? What discovery did Cabot make? What did he bring back as the profits of his enterprise ? Who set sail soon after John Cabot's return? What was his object? What success did be meet with? 76. Who were the principal Portuguese discoverers ? Give an account of Cabral's discovery. What did Cortereal do ? 77. What part of the new world did the French visit at an early period ?




at discovery till 1524. In that year, Verrazzani, a Florentine commissioned by the enterprising Francis I., explored the coast of North Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, and Rhode Island, and opened a traffic with the Indians, who showed a friendly disposition. He called the whole country New France, a name afterwards confined to Can'-a-da.

78. James Cartier [kar-te-ä'], in 1534, 1535, made two voyages to the northern part of the continent under a commission from the French government. In the former of these he explored the Gulf, and in the latter the River, St. Lawrence, which received their names from him. Passing up the river to the principal Indian settlement, Hochelaga [hoshe-lah'-ga], he was struck with the fineness of the situation, and gave the place the name of Mont Réal [mong rā'al] royal mountain, afterwards written as one word, Montreal [mon-tre-awl]. Most of his men died of scurvy. The Indians treated him kindly, but he repaid them by carrying their chief a prisoner to France.

79. In 1540, Lord Roberval [ro-bare-vaht'] was appointed viceroy of New France, and sailed thither for the purpose of colonizing the country; but the severity of the climate and other difficulties led him to abandon the idea. A body of Hu'-gue-nots, or French Protestants, subsequently settled on Port Royal, an island off the coast of South Carolina, and another party fixed their abode on the St. John's River, in Florida (see Map, p. 151). The former, after suffering much from hunger and disease, returned to France. The latter were attacked by the Spaniards of St. Augustine [aro'-gusteen] and mostly massacred, the few survivors being incorporated among their conquerors.

80. The first permanent French settlement was made in 1605, at Port Royal, Nova Scotia [no'-va sko'-sha], on the

In 1524, who was commissioned to make discoveries? What part of the coast did he explore? What name did he give to the country? 78. Give an account of Cartier's explorations. To what place did he give name? What disease carried off his men? How did he repay the Indians for their kindness ? 79. In 1540, who was appointed French viceroy? What discouraged him from planting a colony ? Where were two Huguenot settlements made ? What became of them? [See Map. p. 151.-In what part of Florida is the St. John's? In what direction is it from St. Augustine? What inlet south of St. Augustine ?] 80. Where was the first

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