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Bay of Fun'-dy. De Monts [mong'], who planted this colony, explored the coast as far south as Cape Cod. In 1608, the first permanent settlement in Canada was made by Champlain (sham-plane'], who founded Que-bec' and afterwards discovered the lake still called by his name. While exploring the country, he defeated the Iroquois, who then for the first time heard the thunder and saw the strange fire of the Frenchmen's guns. Nor were the French, in turn, less dismayed by the barbarity with which the savages tortured their prisoners, and tore the scalps from dying and dead.

81. Spanish Discoveries.—To Spain belongs the honor, not only of discovering America, but also of penetrating to the Pacific, and thus proving that the new world formed a separate and independent continent.

After the death of Columbus, Ferdinand divided the Spanish possessions in America into two governments, one of which extended to the Gulf of Darien. Ojeda was sent out to colonize this southern region, to convert the natives, and to extend the dominion of Spain. The Indians resisted; the diseases of the climate proved fatal to the Spaniards ; and most of the colonists perished. The few that survived founded a feeble settlement at Santa Maria el Antigua (ale an-te'-gah], and chose Vasco Nuñez de Balboa [vah'-sko noon'-yeth bal-bo'-ah] for their commander. Among these colonists was Pizarro [pe-zăr'-ro], afterwards celebrated as the conqueror of Peru.

In 1513, Balboa subdued some of the neighboring tribes and required them to pay a tribute. One day two of his officers quarrelled about the division of some gold-dust they had received. A native chief, who was present, threw the dust from the scales in derision, and told them that if they were so fond of gold he could conduct them to a country

permanent French settlement made ? By whom? Who made the first permanent settlement in Canada ? What place did he found? What lake did he discover ? With what Indians did he have an engagement? 81. What two-fold honor belongs to Spain? How were the Spanish possessions divided after the death of Columbus ? Who was sent out to colonize the southern region? What was the result? Where did the survivors plant a feeble settlement? Whom did they choose for their commander ? In 1513, what did Balboa do? What incident is re

1513]

DISCOVERY OF THE PACIFIC.

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where the commonest vessels were made of it. At the same time he informed them of a great ocean, which lay at a distance of six days' journey towards the south. Balboa's curiosity was excited, and he determined to test the truth of these statements. To encourage adventurers to join him, he sent presents of gold to Cuba; but only 190 men could be raised. A perilous march was commenced. Instead of six days, they wandered for twenty-five days through woods and over mountains. Heat and disease had almost overcome the weary and discouraged party, when the Indian guides announced that from the top of the next mountain the great ocean could be seen. When most of the ascent was completed, Balboa ordered his men to halt, and toiled on to the summit alone. Reaching the top, he beheld the mighty Pacific, and falling on his knees thanked God for leading him safely to this great discovery. He went down to the shore, and, advancing with sword and buckler till the water reached his waist, took possession of the ocean in the name of the king his master, and vowed to defend it with his arms.

Four years afterwards, Balboa was executed by order of Pedrarias (-drah'-re-as), who had superseded him as governor of Darien, professedly for treason, but really on account of the jealousy inspired by his success.

82. Florida was first visited by Ponce de Leon (pon'-thā -on'], in 1512, and received its name from the day on which it was discovered, Easter Sunday, called in Spanish pascua florida (pah'-skoo-ah flor'-e-dah). Delighted with its profusion of foliage and flowers, he thought that its luxuriant woods must contain the fabled fountain which would restore old age to the vigor of youth. After vainly trying to discover these precious waters, he attempted to plant a colony, but was attacked by Indians, lost a number of his men, and was himself mortally wounded with an arrow.

83. In 1520, Vasquez de Ayllon [vah'-sketh ile-yon']

lated? What did the chief tell them of? What did Balboa determine to do? How many men did be raise ? Give an account of the march and discovery. What became of Balboa ? 82. By whom was Florida first visited ? Why was it so called? What did Ponce de Leon try to find in its luxuriant woods ? After failing in this, what did he attempt? What became of him ? 83. Give an account

visited the coast of South Carolina in search of slaves. Having enticed a crowd of natives on board his ships, he sailed for Haiti. One of his vessels foundered at sea, and on the other so many died that the adventure was unprofitable. Five years afterwards, under a commission from Charles V., Vasquez attempted to conquer the country. His largest ship was stranded, and his men were killed by the natives near the place where their former treachery had been committed.

84. In 1528, De Narvaez [nar-vah'-eth] landed in Florida under a commission to conquer the country. The natives allured him into the interior with stories of gold, but he found nothing to reward his trouble. After wandering nearly six months to no purpose, he returned to the sea, constructed some rude barks, and sailed for Cuba. A storm wrecked his boats near the mouth of the Mississippi, and only four of the party, after incredible hardships, succeeded in reaching their countrymen.

85. Ferdinand de Soto [so'-to), who had distinguished himself in the invasion of Peru, next attempted the conquest of Florida and the exploration of the interior. Landing at Tam'-pa Bay with 600 chosen men clad in complete armor, he marched boldly into the wilderness, in search of gold and slaves. The little army took with them a forge with which to make new weapons when they were needed, and a drove of hogs which supported themselves by feeding in the woods. Though avarice was their ruling passion, De Soto and his men carefully observed every ceremony of their church. For sixteen months, they wandered over the territory now comprised in Alabama and Georgia, misled by their captive guides, worn out with hardships, and disappointed in their hopes. The Indians whom they met were generally peaceable and unoffending. Without any provocation, the Spaniards treated them with the greatest cruelty, exacting what

of De Allyon's voyage in 1520. Five years afterwards, what befell him ? 84. In 1528, who landed in Florida ? What was the result of his expedition ? 85. Who next attempted the conquest of Florida ? Where did he land! With how many men! What did the little army take with them? How did they spend the first sixteen months ? What was the character of the Indians they met? How did

1540]

DE SOTO'S EXPEDITION.

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ever they wanted, requiring them to carry their baggage, and on the slightest suspicion setting fire to their villages, cutting off their hands, throwing them to bloodhounds, or burning them alive. In the fall of 1540, the invaders found themselves on the site now occupied by the city of Mobile [mo-beel']. Extravagant demands were here made upon the Indians; they resisted, and a battle ensued in which 2,500 natives and 18 Spaniards were killed.

Making his way northward, De Soto, with his men now reduced to 500, spent a cheerless winter on the Ya-zoo' River. Wishing to continue his march in the spring, he demanded of the Chickasaws 200 men to carry his baggage; but, instead of complying, they set fire by night to their wigwams, which the Spaniards had seized upon and occupied. Eleven of their party were thus burned alive. Most of the baggage was consumed, and many horses and hogs perished in the flames.

Their losses having been repaired as far as possible, the Spanish army moved to the west. Seven days brought them to the Mississippi, then (1541) for the first time seen by Europeans. They were kindly received by the Indians, who crossed the river in multitudes, bringing their visitors fish and loaves made of persimmons. A month was spent in crossing, and then De Soto, hearing of a rich country in the northwest, started in that direction. On the route, a tribe of Indians offered to worship the Spaniards as "children of the sun”, and brought them those that were blind to be restored to sight. “Pray only to God who is in Heaven, for what ye need,” was De Soto’s reply.

There was yet no gold, and not only the men but their leader were breaking down under long-continued fatigue. At length they found their way to the country of the Natchez. This warlike tribe they tried to frighten into supplying what they needed. The Natchez chief, however, questioned the

they treat them? In the fall of 1540, where did they find themselves ? What took place there? In what direction did they next move? Where did they winter? What took place in the spring ? In what direction did the Spanish army next move? What river did they discover? How were they received by the na

claims of his visitors, and was as ready for war as peace. "You say,” said he, “you are the children of the

sun;

dry up this river, and I will believe you."

De Soto could no longer endure his disappointments.

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Distress of mind and exhaustion of body brought on a malignant fever, of which he died in May, 1542. The priests chanted a requiem over his body, and his comrades wrapped it in his mantle, and sunk it at midnight beneath the waves of the mighty river he had discovered. The surviving Spaniards wandered as far south as the forests and plains of Texas, then turned their course north, and after great trials reached the Mississippi River, near the mouth of the Red. Here they erected their forge, made nails from the fragments of iron in their camp, and built some frail barks without decks.

tives? Where did they next go? What occurred on the route? What was the condition of both men and leader ? At last, where did they make their way? What did they try to obtain from the Natchez? What answer did the chief make? What became of De Soto ? Describe his burial. What became of the

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