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disease, many of the Spaniards wished to give up the enterprise. Pizarro called them together, drew a line on the sand with his sword from east to west, and thus addressed them : -“Comrades, on that side are toil, hunger, nakedness, the drenching storm, battle, and death; on this side are ease and safety. But on that side lies Peru with its wealth; on this is Panama with its poverty. Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian. For my part, I go to the south.” With these words Pizarro crossed the line, and thirteen of his company followed. With this small but determined band Pizarro persevered. Succor reached him, and he was enabled to penetrate to the city of Tumbez [toom'-bes), and see with his own eyes the riches of which he had heard.

94. In 1531, armed with authority from the Spanish court, Pizarro commenced his last expedition for the conquest of Peru. With an insignificant force of 110 foot-soldiers, 67

is told of Pizarro and his men? How far did they penetrate ? 94. When did Pi.




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horsemen, and two pieces of artillery, he overthrew the empire of the Incas, extending 2,000 miles in length, inhabited by millions of wealthy and civilized natives, and defended by large and well-disciplined armies. It was only by consummate skill and bravery, and too often by brutality and fraud, that he succeeded in this vast enterprise. try being subdued, Pizarro ruled it with royal power, and cruelly oppressed the natives. He founded Lima [le'-mah], and made it his capital, planted various colonies, and worked the mines with which the land abounded. A conspiracy was formed against him in 1541, to which he fell a victim.

95. About the time that Cortez was engaged in conquering Mexico, Magellan [ma-jel-lan], a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, was trying to find the southern extremity of America, and to reach the East Indies by sailing around it. In 1520, he entered the strait since called by his name. Clearing it in safety, he saw the great ocean spread out before him. With tears of joy, he returned thanks to Heaven for having crowned his labors with success. He pursued his way westward as far as the Philippine (fil-ippin] Islands, and called the ocean the Pacific, on account of its tranquillity during his voyage. The king of Ze-bu', one of the Philippines, promised to embrace Christianity with his subjects, on condition that the Spaniards would aid him against the inhabitants of a neighboring island. Magellan accepted the offer, but was killed in the engagement that followed. The expedition was carried on under another commander. One of the ships finally reached home by way of the Cape of Good Hope, after an absence of a little over three years.

This was the first vessel that ever sailed round the globe.

zarro commence his last expedition ? With what force ? How was it that he succeeded in his enterprise ? Having subdued the country, how did Pizarro rule ? What became of him at last? 95. What great navigator flourished at this time? What achievement did he perform? Where did he then go ? What ocean did he name? What was his fate? After Magellan's death, what became of the expedition ?




96. DURING the reigns of Edward VI. and Mary, no attempts were made by England to explore or colonize America; but with the accession of Elizabeth the spirit of adventure revived. Sir Francis Drake made several voyages to the new world, during which he suffered much from the Spaniards; but in 1572 he avenged his injuries, by landing on the Isthmus of Panama and capturing a large amount of treasure that was about to be shipped for Spain. On this expedition, one of the native guides showed Drake a “goodlie and great high tree”, from the top of which the Pacific Ocean could be seen. Drake climbed it; and gazing out on that broad expanse whose shores were thought to teem with riches, he solemnly “besought God to give him health and life once to sail an English ship in those seas”.

On his return to England, Drake fitted out a squadron to explore the unknown

ocean he had beheld. Passing through the Strait of Magellan, he cruised on the Pacific, took number of Spanish vessels and a vast amount of treasure, and pen



DRAKE'S SHIP, THE GOLDEN HIND. etrated as far north as latitude 43, on the coast of Oregon. He spent the winter of 1579–80 in the harbor of San Francisco, and gave the

96. In whose reign did the spirit of adventure revive in England? Who made several voyages to the new world ? From what people did he suffer? How did he avenge his injuries ? What incident took place on the isthmus ? On his return to England, what did Drake do? Give an account of his cruise on the Pa




name of New Albion to the surrounding country. Fearing an attack from the Spaniards if he should attempt to recross the Atlantic, he returned home by way of the Cape of Good Hope, having circumnavigated the globe in two years and ten months.

97. In 1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a patent from Queen Elizabeth, by which he was created lord of any land he might settle with an English colony. He made two voyages, but accomplished little more than the erection of a pillar bearing the arms of England. On his last return voyage in a very small vessel, he was overtaken by a violent storm. The lights of his ship suddenly disappeared in the night, and he was never seen again.

98. Sir Walter Raleigh (rav'-le], not discouraged by the fate of Ibert, who was his brother-in-law, next carried on the work of discovery under an ample charter from Elizabeth. Two of his vessels under Am'-i-das and Bar'-low reached the coast of Carolina in 1584. The new land seemed to the adventurers a delightful paradise. Luxuriant vines twined round the “sweete smelling timber trees”; grapes hung in abundance from the branches; and shady bowers echoed on all sides the music of beautiful wild birds. The natives seemed to be gentle and confiding, and to live “after the manner of the golden age”. The voyagers were hospitably entertained by an Indian queen on Roanoke Island; but, without waiting to see much of the country, they returned home, accompanied by two of the natives. The virgin queen of England was so pleased with their description of this enchanting region that she named it Virginia in honor of herself.

99. Thus encouraged, Raleigh, in 1585, sent out a fleet under Sir Richard Grenville, for the purpose of making a permanent settlement. Grenville was brave, but hasty; and,

cific. 97. In 1578, who received a patent from the queen? Give an account of Gilbert's voyages. 98. Who next carried on the work of discovery? By whom were two of his vessels commanded? What part of the coast did they reach? How did the new land appear to the adventurers ? By whom were the voyagers entertained ? Who accompanied them on their return voyage? What name was given to the region, and why? 99. What was Raleigh thus encouraged to attempt? What was Grenville's character? What imprudent act did he commit?

while exploring the coast, he burned a village of the Indians in revenge for their having stolen a silver cup from his party. Having landed the colonists on the Island of Roanoke, Grenville returned to England, leaving Ralph Lane in command as governor. The Indians, meanwhile, had not forgotten the wanton destruction of their property; and, with glowing stories respecting the interior of the country, they lured the English on a disastrous expedition up the Roanoke. It was with great difficulty that the adventurers made their way back to the coast, sassafras tea and dog-flesh being all that saved them from starvation during part of the journey.

Soon after this, Sir Francis Drake touched at Roanoke, and allowed the colonists, who longed once more for their native land, to return in his vessel. They had learned from the Indians the use of tobacco and the potato, and introduced both into England. The Indians were in the habit of smoking tobacco, but the practices of chewing and snuffing it originated among civilized Europeans.

A few days after they had sailed, Grenville arrived with reënforcements and supplies. He left fifteen men to keep possession of the country for England, but the following year their bones alone could be found.

100. In 1587, Raleigh sent out another party, who arrived at Roanoke and commenced building“ the City of Raleigh", for which they had received a charter. White, the governor of the little settlement, soon returned to England for further supplies, leaving on the island 89 men, 17 women, and 2 children, one of whom, Virginia Dare, was the first child born of English parents in America. He found his countrymen in a state of great excitement on account of a threatened invasion by the Spanish; and no relief could be sent to the infant colony till 1590. In that year, White returned to seek his family and settlement, but found only a heap of ruins. What

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What took place soon after? How did the Indians revenge their injuries? Who reached Roanoke soon after? What did he allow the colonists to do? What had they learned from the Indians ? A few days after, who arrived ? What became of the men he left ? 100. In 1587, what city was commenced in the new world ? How many did White leave in the colony! What prevented White from immediately returning? What became of the colonists? To whom did Raleigh sur.

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