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1590]

JAMES THE FIRST'S GRANT.

69

became of the colonists was never ascertained, but it is supposed that they were killed by the Indians.

Raleigh had spent nearly $200,000 in these attempts to settle Virginia; and, having exhausted his means, he made over his charter to a company of merchants. He was afterwards unjustly condemned on a charge of plotting against James I.; and after a long imprisonment, which he employed in writing a history of the world, he was at length beheaded, under a sentence which had for years been forgotten. Thus perished one of the wisest men and most skilful navigators of the age.

101. The attempts made up to this time to colonize America had been signally unsuccessful. Adventurers, however, were not discouraged. In 1602, Bartholomew Gos'-nold crossed the Atlantic by a new and direct route in seven weeks, and reached the coast of Massachusetts. He discovered Cape Cod, and gave it that name from the fish taken there. The next year, Pring explored part of the coast of Maine, and in 1605 Weymouth ['-muth] discovered the Pe-nob'-scot River.

102. Gosnold's representations induced Wingfield, a merchant, Robert Hunt, a clergyman, and John Smith, an adventurer of genius and distinction, to attempt a permanent settlement in Virginia; and, to encourage the movement, James I., in 1606, granted an extensive tract, 12 degrees in width and reaching from Halifax to Cape Fear, to two associations known as the Plymouth Company and the London Company. The territory of the former lay between parallels 45 and 41; that of the latter, between 38 and 34: the intermediate country was to be open to both. The same year the London Company sent out a colony of 105 persons, including 48" gentlemen" and four carpenters, under command of Capt. Newport. A storm carried them past the ruins of Raleigh's settlement into Chesapeake Bay, where they found a noble river which they named from King James.

render his charter, and why? What was his subsequent history? 101. What is said of the attempts to colonize America up to 1602? What discovery was made in this year, and by whom? What coast and river were explored soon after ? 102. Whom did Gosnold induce to attempt a permanent settlement in Virginia ? How did James I. encourage the movement? In 1606, whom did the London

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THE VIRGINIA SETTLEMENTS.

In May, 1607, the new-comers selected a peninsula 50 miles from the mouth of the river, and there laid the foundation of their contemplated city,giving it the name

Yu Norfolk of “ Jamestown”. While exploring the country, Newport and Smith visited the native chief Powhatan, at his capital, on the site now occupied by Richmond. This king of thirty tribes resided in a village of twelve wigwams, and kept a guard of Indians about his person. He was now about sixty years old, a tall, grave, and dignified warrior.

103. Newport soon returned to England, but not before disease had begun its work on the settlers. The effects of hot weather, bad lodging, and food spoiled on the long voyage, were speedily felt. A fortnight after Newport's departure, hardly ten of the party were able to stand. The groans of the sick and helpless were heard on every side, and despair weighed down the hearts of all. Before autumn, half the party, including Gosnold, had died. Wingfield, who had been elected president, was deposed for conspiring with a few others to seize the public stores and escape to the West Indies. His successor had neither nerve nor energy. At this juncture, the management of the colony was by common consent intrusted to Capt. John Smith. The previous career of this remarkable man had been event

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Company send out? Where were they carried ? Where did they fix their settlement? What name did they give to it? [See Map.-On which bank of the James River was Jamestown? In what direction from Richmond ? Name the three rivers that flow into Chesapeake Bay. What Indian tribe lived east of Chesapeake Bay ?] Whom did Newport and Smith visit? Give an account of this warrior and his village. 103. What befell the colony after Newport's departure ! Before autumn, how many had died ? What plan was formed by Wingfield ? What was the character of his successor? To whom was the management of the

1607]

CAPTURE OF CAPTAIN SMITH.

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ful. He had fought for freedom in Holland; he had travelled through France, and visited Italy and Egypt; he had battled against the Turks in Hungary, served as a slave in Constantinople and the Crimea, escaped through Russia, and found a new field for adventure in Morocco. He now rose among his dying comrades as the guardian genius of Virginia. Smith's prudent measures soon brought about a better

a state of things. He prevented the timid from abandoning the colony, and awed the rebellious into obedience. Several voyages of discovery were also undertaken, during one of which his companions, in consequence of leaving their boat contrary to orders, were captured by the Indians and put to death, Smith himself, after killing three of his enemies, sunk in a marsh and was obliged to surrender. He saved himself from immediate death by awakening the curiosity of the savages, showing them his pocket-compass, and telling them the wonders of astronomy. Wishing to propitiate the Indians with presents, he wrote to his countrymen at Jamestown to deposit certain articles in a place in the forest which he mentioned, and then told his captors when and where they would be found. The colonists complied with his directions; and, when the Indians found every thing as Smith had predicted, they reverenced him as a superior being. He was led in triumph through various villages of wondering natives, and thus became acquainted with their character and customs. At one place where they stopped, the simple inhabitants brought him the gunpowder they had taken from the captured party, and told him that they intended to plant it in order to discover “the nature of the seed”.

At last they arrived at the residence of Powhatan, to whom the fate of the captive was referred. The Indian king condemned Smith to death, and the brave adventurer bowed his head on a large stone to receive the fatal blow.

colony now intrusted ? Give some account of Smith's previous career. How did he manage affairs? What happened during one of his voyages? How did Smith save himself from immediate death? How did he astonish the Indians ! How did he become acquainted with their customs ? What anecdote is told of the Indians ? Where did they at last arrive? What sentence was pronounced

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He was rescued in an unexpected manner. Po-ca-hon'-tas, Powhatan's daughter and the favorite of the whole tribe, had become warmly attached to the kind and friendly prisoner, who had amused his leisure hours by making toys for the beautiful child and setting the wonders of nature before her inquiring mind. Though only twelve years old, Pocahontas was distinguished for ready wit and generosity of spirit. As the savage executioner lifted his war-club, she threw herself between it and the prisoner, placed her head upon his, and, entreating her father to spare the life of her friend, declared that she would save him or perish. Powhatan's heart relented; and Smith was not only spared, but allowed to return to Jamestown with assurances of friendship on the part of the Indians. From this time, Pocahontas was the devoted friend of the colonists. She often visited them and relieved their distress with presents of corn.

104. On his return from captivity, Smith found the colony reduced to forty men, the strongest of whom were preparing to desert their companions and embark in a career of piracy. This desperate act was prevented by the return of the commander; and soon after Newport arrived with 120 immigrants. Some of these were goldsmiths; who, finding what they took for an ore of gold, quickly enkindled among the colonists an insane passion for that precious metal. Newport returned to England with a cargo of the new-found treasure, which proved to be but glittering sand.

Three months of the year 1608 were spent by Smith in exploring Chesapeake Bay and the Susquehanna. Here he first heard of the Mo'-hawks, who “dwelt upon a great water, had many boats and many men, and made war on all the world”. He discovered the harbor of Baltimore, passed up the Potomac above Mount Vernon, met the natives, whether friendly or hostile, in a way that commanded their

on Smith ? How was he saved ? For what was Pocahontas distinguished ? How did she afterwards treat the colonists? 104. On his return, in what state did Smith find the colony? What were some preparing to do? What prevented this desperate act? Who soon after arrived ? What delusion distracted the colonists for a time? How did Smith spend part of the year 1608? How many miles did he go, and what did he discover and accomplish during the voyage? What honor

1608]

SMITH'S ADMINISTRATION.

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respect, and made an accurate map of the whole region. Three thousand miles were thus traversed in an open boat.

Smith's superiority as a leader was now so evident that he was elected president of the council; and the colony was soon increased by the arrival of Newport with 70 immigrants. The new-comers, however, were not accustomed to labor or hardship; and Smith wrote home, “When you send again, I entreat you rather send but thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers up of trees' roots, well provided, than a thousand of such as we have.”

105. In 1609, a new charter was granted to the company, which extended the limits of the colony and endowed the council and governor with greater power than they had before enjoyed. Lord Del'-a-ware was appointed governor, and nine vessels containing supplies and 500 men were sent out under Gates, Newport, and Somers (sum'-erz], who were to manage affairs till Delaware should arrive. A violent storm off the Ber-mu'-das stranded the vessel that bore the three leaders; but the rest of the fleet for the most part reached Jamestown in safety. It was nine months before Gates and his shipwrecked companions joined their countrymen; and in the mean time it required all Smith's genius to suppress dissensions and prevent the dissolution of the colony. Many of those who had recently arrived, were loose in their habits and averse to toil; they refused to comply with Smith's regulations and denied his authority. The Indians, too, began to be jealous of the growing numbers of the English, and formed a plot for surprising and murdering them. This was defeated by Pocahontas; who, at the risk of her own life, came through the woods at midnight, and with tears warned the colonists to be on their guard.

Despite these trying circumstances, Smith was not dis

was next conferred on Smith ? How was the colony soon after increased ? What was the character of the new comers? What did Smith write home about them? 105. In 1609, what change was made in the company's charter? Who was appointed governor? How many vessels and men were sent out? Under whom ? What happened to the fleet and the leaders ? What difficulties beset Smith meanwhile? What plot was formed by the Indians ? How was it defeated? What

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