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couraged; and it is probable that he would have triumphed over every difficulty, had he not been wounded by an accidental explosion of powder, which rendered his return to England necessary. Though he was several times after this in New England, Capt. Smith never revisited Jamestown; and, notwithstanding his services, he received no reward from the home government. He died in 1631, leaving a name as honorable as any that the history of his age presents.

106. With Smith's departure began a series of disasters for the colonists. They were now 490 in number; and, too indolent to raise their own supplies, they made extravagant demands of the Indians, while their overbearing conduct added insult to injury. Open quarrels arose. Small parties of whites were cut off, and a plan was laid by the Indians for a general massacre. Famine ensued. Thirty of the settlers seized a ship, and sailed away as pirates; and, in six months from Smith's departure, the colony was reduced to a feeble remnant of 60, and these were on the point of perishing. This period of suffering was long remembered as “the starying time”.

On the arrival of Gates from Bermuda, so discouraging was the state of affairs that it was resolved to abandon the settlement. They had nearly reached the mouth of the river, when Lord Delaware's boat came in sight with abundant reënforcements and supplies. The sufferers were persuaded to return, and prosperity once more smiled on the little colony.

Labor was required of all, and new forts were erected as a defence against the Indians. But hardly were the good effects of Lord Delaware's wise and energetic measures beginning to be felt, when illness obliged him to return to England.

107. Sir Thomas Dale succeeded as governor, and further accident befell Smith? What became of him? What is said of his character? 106. With Smith's departure what commenced? How many were left in the colony? How did they conduct themselves towards the Indians ? What was the consequence? Six months after Smith's departure, wbat was the state of the colony? On the arrival of Gates, what resolution was formed ? What prevented them from carrying it out? Describe Lord Delaware's administration. What pat an end to it? 107. Who succeeded as governor? What took place during his

1611]

POCAHONTAS'S VISIT TO ENGLAND,

75

arrivals added much to the size and strength of the colony. Several new settlements were made higher up the river. In 1611, cattle and hogs were introduced from Europe.

108. In 1613, Pocahontas, the ever true and affectionate friend of the English, was purchased by Capt. Argall, from a tribe that she was visiting, for a copper kettle. Her father refused to ransom her on the terms proposed, and prepared for war.

This was averted by John Rolfe [rolf], an English planter, who offered to marry the gentle Indian girl, and instruct her in the doctrines of Christianity. The proposal was gladly accepted by Powhatan, who was ever afterwards a firm friend and ally of the English. Pocahontas, having renounced the religion of her fathers, was baptized as a Christian believer and married to Rolfe. Three years afterwards, he took her to England. In London, she was an object of general interest. An apartment was allotted her in the palace, where she was visited by crowds. Among others came her old friend, Captain Smith. She had heard that he was dead; and, on seeing so unexpectedly a man bound to her heart by tender recollections, she was overcome with emotion, and buried her face in her hands to conceal her tears. When about to return to America with her husband and infant son, she suddenly died, at the age of 22. This son, Thomas, was educated by his uncle, and became a man of wealth and distinction. From him some of the leading families of Virginia derive their descent.

109. An attempt was made by the colonists in 1614 to obtain aid from Parliament, but without success; and Virginia had to rely on the exportation of tobacco as a source of revenue: even the streets of Jamestown were planted with it. Tobacco thus became the staple; and, as coin was scarce,

it even passed for money. In 1619, after several years of mismanagement and tyranny, George Yeardley [yurd'-le] became governor of Virginia.

administration ? 108. In 1613, what happened to Pocahontas ? What seemed likely to be the result? How was war averted ? Give an account of Pocahontas's visit to England, and meeting with Smith. At what age did she die? What became of her son? 109. In 1614, what unsuccessful attempt was made by the colonists ? On what were they obliged to rely ? For what was tobacco used?

Within a few months after his appointment, a colonial assembly was established. It was known as “ the House of Burgesses”, and convened at Jamestown. This was the first representative body in America. It consisted of two members from each of the eleven boroughs into which the colony was, divided.

110. Hitherto there had been but few women in the colony; but Sir Edward San'-dys, convinced that pleasant homes were necessary to give permanence to the settlement, induced ninety young women to cross the ocean at the expense of the company; and they were soon disposed of as wives to the settlers, at the rate of 100 pounds of tobacco (worth about $75) each. The next year, sixty more were sent over, and the price of a wife rose to 150 pounds of tobacco. From 1619 to 1621, 3,500 persons found their way to Virginia. A written constitution was obtained, and trial by jury and a representative government became acknowledged rights.

Up to this time, the company had expended about $400, 000 on the colony; and the result was thus far unsatisfactory, though there was a good promise for the future.

CHAPTER V.

DUTCH DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS.

111. VERRAZZANI, during his voyage in 1524 in search of a northwest passage to India, passed along the coast of New Jersey, and came near discovering the harbor of New York. He reached the adjacent islands, but was driven to sea by adverse winds; and the discovery of the Hudson River and

Who became governor in 1619? This same year, what was established.? What was it called ? Where did it convene? What makes this body worthy of particular mention? Of what did it consist ? 110. How did Sandys contribute to the prosperity of the settlement? Give an account of the importation of wives. How many persons came to Virginia between 1619 and 1621 ? What did the colonists now obtain? How much had the company expended in colonizing Virginia ? What is said of the result thus far?

111. Who, in 1524, came near discovering the Hudson ? What prevented his

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the noble harbor at its mouth was reserved for the Dutch, eighty-five years later.

This enterprising people, having thrown off the Spanish yoke, established a commercial republic. Though their country contained not a single forest, they built more ships than all the rest of Europe; and, while yet battling for liberty, they traded with the most distant parts of the world. An association for traffic and colonization was formed in 1608, under the name of the East India Company; and Henry Hudson, who had previously made two voyages to the new world in behalf of English merchants, was taken into their employ. He embarked in 1609; and, after following the coast from Maine to Virginia, and discovering Delaware Bay, he turned to the north, and entered the passage between Long Island and Sandy Hook, the northeastern extremity of New Jersey. On the 11th of September, he sailed through the Narrows, and found himself in one of the finest harbors in the world. He entered the river since called by his name, and ascended it a few miles beyond where Albany now stands.

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doing so ? For whom was this honor reserved? What was the condition of the Dutch at that time? In 1608, what was formed? Whom did they employ! When did he sail ? Give an account of bis voyage. What was his vessel called ? What

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The natives, as elsewhere, were struck with amazement at sight of the new comers. When they beheld Hudson's ship, the Half-moon, approaching from the sea, they knew not what to make of the monster. As it came nearer, it seemed to be a floating house; and at last they found it to be an immense canoe filled with beings of a different

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whose mander, dressed in scarlet, they took to be the Manitou himself. Runners were sent with the news to all the surrounding tribes.

The Indians awaited the approach of the strangers on the southern point of the island now occupied by New York city, and received them with respect and friendship. Hudson landed with his crew, and ordered a calabash of rum to be brought. After drinking himself, he offered it to the chiefs. The first smelled the liquor, but passed it on; so did the next; and it went untasted till it reached the last of the party. Unwilling to offend the Manitou, he drank it off. His wondering companions beheld him reel and fall to the earth; but, when they saw that he recovered without injury and heard him describe his sensations, they all desired to feel the same excitement. Drinking of the "fire-water”, they also became intoxicated; and in this state Hudson left them. The spot was afterwards called by the Indians Manhattan, or "the place of drunkenness".

At this time, Manhattan Island and the valley of the Hudson were covered with giant trees draped with luxuriant grape-vines. Reptiles crawled amid the decayed boughs and foliage of former centuries. The spotted deer laved his sides in the noble river, or hid in dense thickets which the sun-light never penetrated. The fiercer inhabitants of the forest made their lairs in unexplored recesses, undisturbed save by the proud Algonquin, sole lord of these vast solitudes.

112. Hudson returned to England. On a subsequent voyage he discovered the bay that bears his name. In vain he explored that inland sea for a northwest passage to India, in

did the natives think of it ? Describe Hudson's meeting with the Indians. What name did they give to the island, and what does it signify? Describe the valley of the Hudson at this time. 112. What discovery did Hudson afterwards make ?

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