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the existence of which he firmly believed. Continuing the search too long, he found himself compelled to winter in this frozen region. Their severe hardships led his men to revolt; and Hudson, with his son and eight others, was put in a small boat and left to perish on the vast body of water which his enterprise had discovered.

113. In 1610 and the following years, a number of trading vessels were sent out by Dutch merchants. Valuable furs were obtained from the Indians, and the traffic proved highly profitable. Some huts were soon erected on the lower part of Manhattan Island, and in 1614 a fort was built for their defence. The settlement was called New Amsterdam, and the name of New Netherlands was given to the surrounding region. In the year last mentioned, Adrian Block sailed up the East River into the Sound, and circumnavigated Long Island. This same discoverer, having lost his ship by fire at New Amsterdam, built the first vessel ever constructed at that port. A settlement was commenced at Albany, then called Fort Orange, in 1615.

114. In 1616, a Dutch navigator named Schout'-en first rounded the southern extremity of the Western Continent, which he named from his native place Cape Horn.



115. THE Plymouth company, to which King James granted the tract between the 41st and the 45th parallel of north latitude, made several attempts to colonize their territory, but without success. One party spent a winter at the

What was he trying to find? What became of this great discoverer ? 113. In 1610, what was done! What was the chief article obtained ? What were erected on Manhattan Island ? What name was given to the settlement? What, to the surrounding region? What is said of Adrian Block? When was Albany founded ? 114. When and by whom was Cape Horn first rounded ?

115. What part of the new world had been granted to the Plymouth company ? What is said of their attempts to colonize it? Where did one party spend the

mouth of the Kennebec, but suffered so much from cold that they were glad to return in the spring. In 1614, Capt. John Smith, the illustrious founder of Jamestown, explored the coast from the Penobscot to Cape Cod, made a map of the country, and gave it the name of New England.

116. In 1620, James I granted an immense tract, extending from 40 to 48 degrees north latitude and from ocean to ocean, to a commercial company consisting of forty persons. So great were the privileges thus granted that the English parliament questioned the king's right to give them; and, while they were warmly debating the subject and the monopolists were quarrelling among themselves, the first permanent settlement in New England was made, without any charter, by the Puritans or “Pilgrim Fathers”.

11%. The Puritans were first known in England as a separate sect about 1550. They were distinguished by a stern abhorrence of gayety and amusements, a profound love of civil and religious liberty, and firmness in adhering to what they conceived' to be the teachings of Scripture. Persecution drove them from their country; and, among those who sought in Holland the right of worshipping God according to their own conscience, was a congregation under John Robinson.

In 1617, part of Robinson's flock, after living eight years in Leyden [li'-den], formed the design of emigrating to America. Two vessels, the Mayflower and Speedwell, were in 1620 got ready for the voyage; but the commander of the latter, declaring it unfit for crossing the ocean, returned to port, leaving the Mayflower to go on alone with 100 emigrants. They intended to settle near the Hudson River, but were carried to the coast of Massachusetts after a long voyage of sixty-three days. A party was sent out in a small boat to ' find a place suitable for landing. After encountering vari

winter? What became of them ? In 1614, what was done by Captain Smith ? 116. What grant was made by James I. in 1620 ? What question arose concerning it? Meanwhile, who had settled in New England ? 117. When were the Puritans first known in England ? By what were they distinguished ? What had driven many of them from their country? What congregation is mentioned in particular? What design did they form ? Name the vessels that were prepared for the voyage. What became of the Speedwell? Where did they intend to settle? Where were they carried ? What befell the party sent out to find a landing




ous dangers, losing their rudder and sail, and suffering from the extreme cold, which froze the spray upon their

persons, they at last reached a harbor on the eastern coast of Massachusetts, which they called Plymouth [plim'-uth], after the port from which they had sailed [see Map, p. 84). On the 11th of December (the 21st according to the New Style,see note, p. 155), 1620, the whole party landed on Plymouth rock, and near the shore was commenced the first town in New England.

118. Days of suffering came; but the Pilgrims met every hardship with a firm trust in God, thinking the civil and religious liberty they enjoyed a sufficient recompense. During the month of December, six of the colonists died from exposure, and many others fell sick. John Carver, who had been chosen governor before they landed, lost his son; shortly afterwards he himself slept in the same grave, and his widow was soon laid beside her husband and child. time, every person in the settlement, except seven, was on a sick-bed.

Towards the end of March, when hope began to revive with the milder weather, Sam'o-set, a Wampanoag Indian, entered the village of huts, exclaiming, “Welcome, Englishmen !” He had learned a little English from previous voyagers, and told the colonists that they might occupy the land where they had settled, as a pestilence had recently destroyed its former inhabitants. In a few days, Mas-sa-soit', a Wampanoag chief, visited Plymouth. By the aid of an Indian who had been to England, and was able to act as interpreter, a treaty was made with the Wampanoags, who promised not to molest the whites, and acknowledged the supremacy of King James.

119. The Nar-ra-gan'-setts, a neighboring tribe, were enemies of the Wampanoags, and did not like the arrival of the

At one

place? Where and when did they finally land ? [See Map, p. 84.–What is the latitude of Plymouth ? In what direction is it from Cape Cod ?] 118. What ensued ? How did the pilgrima meet their hardships ? What took place in December? What befell Governor Carver's family? When did hope begin to revive ? Who visited them at this time? What did he tell them? Who soon after visited Plymouth? What did the Wampanoags promise ? 119. What is said of the

Puritans. In 1622, their chief Ca-non'-i-cus, to show his hostility, sent Governor Bradford (who had succeeded Carver) a bundle of arrows wrapped in the skin of a rattlesnake. The brave governor filled the skin with powder and shot, and sent it back. Finding that the colonists were not frightened, the chief thought it best to let them alone; but, that they might be prepared for the worst, they surrounded their settlement with a palisade of stakes a mile in circuit.

120. During the year 1622, thirty-five trading vessels visited New England, and some provisions were bought by the colonists at exorbitant prices, for as yet they had not raised sufficient for their support. Their agricultural implements were imperfect; they had no domestic cattle, and were so destitute of boats and tackle that the fish which swarmed in the harbor availed them little. The following year, they were so far reduced that at one time they had but a pint of corn to divide, and at another not a single kernel. Hitherto they had cultivated the land in common; but it was thought that the inducement to labor would be greater, if the land were divided and each planted for himself. Accordingly, in 1624 every colonist received a small tract. After this, corn was abundant. Other settlers of the same religious views came over, and in 1630 the population was about 300.

121. The affairs of the colony were managed by a gove ernor and council of five, afterwards increased to seven. At first the whole body of citizens assembled in town meeting, and decided all questions that arose. In 1639, their number had so increased that a representative system of government was introduced. The people made their own laws, and punished criminals as they chose, even with death, independently of the home government. The Plymouth settlers were never incorporated by royal charter, and it was not till

Narragansetts ? How did their chief show his hostility? How did Governor Bradford reply? With what did the Puritans surround their settlement? [See Map, page 84.-What water separated the Narragansetts from the Wampanoags ?] 120. In 1622, whence did the settlers obtain provisions ? Why did they not raise their own food? What is said of the scarcity of provisions the next year? In 1624, what change was made? What was the population in 1630 ? 121. By whom were the affairs of the colony managed ? At first, by whom were all questions




ten years

after their arrival that a title to the land they occupied was granted them by the company in England.

122. Massasoit and his tribe remained faithful to the colo nists, and were of service to them in various ways. The chief never forgot that not long after the arrival of the Pilgrims he was cured of a severe illness by one of their number, named Winslow, who turned the medicine-men out of his wigwam in the midst of their noisy ceremonies, and restored their patient with a few simple remedies. Massasoit, in his gratitude, disclosed to Winslow a plot that had been formed by some neighboring Indians for cutting off a party of settlers at Weymouth (see Map, p. 84]. Miles Standish, a very brave man though small in stature, was the military leader of the Puritans; and he was immediately sent with eight men to the aid of the Weymouth settlers. The Indians were put to flight with the loss of three men, including their chief, whose head Standish brought back in triumph on a pole to Plymouth. When the news reached Robinson, who, though still in Leyden, felt a deep interest in his former people, he wrote back to them, “Oh, how happy a thing had it been, had you converted some before






123. THE Puritans of England, still subjected to various restrictions, continued to seek an asylum in the new world. A grant having been obtained from the Plymouth Company, of a tract bordering on Massachusetts Bay, John En'-di-cott was sent out in 1628 with 100 followers. After exploring

decided? What change was made in 1639? What powers had the people ? When did the settlers get a title to their land ? 122. How did Massasoit feel towards the English? What claims had they on his gratitude? How did he repay them ? [See Map, p. 84.-In what direction was Weymouth from Plymouth ?] Who was sent to aid the Weymouth settlers ? What was the result of the battle ? When the news reached Leyden, what did Robinson say?

123. What led the Puritans of England still to seek the new world ? In 1628,

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