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the neighborhood, Endicott's party finally settled at a place whose Indian name, Naum'-ke-ag, they changed to Sa'-lem. Two hundred more soon followed, some of whom joined the Salem colony, while others founded Charlestown.'

124. Winter, as usual, brought suffering and disease. The following year, those who held the charter transferred it to the colonists themselves, and the change resulted happily. In July, 1630, about 1,500 persons arrived. An in

Newbary dependent provincial gov

Andover ernment was formed, with

PAWTUCKETS John Winthrop at its head.

Marblehead Dor-ches-ter, Rox'-bu-ry, Cambridge

MASSACHUSETTS

BOSTON Cambridge [kame'-bridje), and Watertown, founded; but the greater

Jpuxburyo? part settled on a peninsula jutting out into the bay, invited thither by the excellence of its water and the fertility of the land. This peninsula they named Boston, after a city in Lincolnshire [link-un-sheer], England, from which some SETTLEMENTS IN EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS. of them had come.

Shortness of provisions and the severity of the climate caused many deaths during the ensuing winter, and for a season a greater number left the colony than joined it. The following year, affairs assumed a more flourishing aspect; and Boston was visited by various Indian chiefs, who promised peace and friendship.

125. In 1631, the General Court passed a law that no man

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what took place? What places were founded by Endicott's party? 124. What judicious movement was made the next year? In 1630, how many arrived ! Who was elected governor? What places were founded? Where did the greater part settle? [See Map.-How is Boston situated ? In what direction from it is Cambridge? Salem ? What river flows into Massachusetts, Bay just north of Boston ?] What was the state of affairs the next winter? What, in the following

1631]

DIFFICULTY WITH ROGER WILLIAMS.

85

should vote who was not a member of some church in the colony. This greatly reduced the number of voters, for only a fourth of the adult population were church-members. The dissatisfaction of the people with this enactment led to earnest discussion and the extension of popular rights. Winthrop was governor for four years, during which the colony became firmly established. A fort was built at Boston; mills were introduced; a coast trade with Virginia and New Amsterdam sprung up; and a ferry was established between Boston and Charlestown.

126. Though the Puritans had left England to secure religious liberty, they were unwilling to grant it to others, and required every one by law to attend their churches and conform to their opinions. Roger Williams, a young preacher who had come over in 1631 and settled at Salem, was the first to teach that every man had a right to worship God as he saw fit, and that bigotry, whether in New England or old England, was contrary to reason and the Bible. The stern Puritan leaders did not relish such opposition to their authority. Roger Williams was censured and pronounced unsound in judgment; and, on his election by the people of Salem as their pastor, a tract of land was withheld from them by the Boston council by way of punishing their contumacy. A spirited remonstrance from Williams and his congregation followed; in consequence of which the town of Salem was disfranchised by the next General Court. Frightened at these measures, the supporters of Williams at last submitted, and their minister was left to advocate his cause alone. To prevent further trouble, the Boston authorities ordered that he should be sent back to England.

Before the sentence could be executed, Williams was beyond the limits of the colony, determined to find in some other part of the new world that freedom which was denied

spring? By whom was Boston visited ? 125. What law was passed by the General Court in 1631 ? To what did this enactment lead ? How long was Winthrop governor? What was done during his administration ? 126. What disposition did the Puritans manifest towards those of different religious opinions ? Towards whom was this feeling first exhibited ? What did Roger Williams teach? Give the history of the successive difficulties to which his dissemination of such doc

him there. For fourteen weeks he wandered in the wilderness, amid the snows of a severe winter, “not knowing what bread or bed did mean”. At last he reached the wigwams of the Wampanoags, who received him kindly; and in the summer he obtained from the Narragansetts a tract of land on the bay called by their name. Here, with five companions, he commenced a settlement, which he named Providence in commemoration of the divine mercy. Thus originated the first settlement in RHODE ISLAND.

Roger Williams was soon joined by friends from Salem and Boston, to whom he freely gave portions of his land. The settlement rapidly increased in strength and prosperity. Perfect freedom prevailed, and the will of the people was the supreme law.

127. In 1635, 3,000 immigrants arrived at Boston, among whom was Henry Vane, a young man of distinction, who was soon elected governor. During his term of office, the colony was again troubled by religious dissensions. Ann Hutchinson, who hesitated not to censure the Puritan clergy and to teach doctrines even more objectionable in their eyes than those of Roger Williams, won over to her opinions a number of the settlers, among whom was Governor Vane himself. It was only after serious difficulties that peace was restored by Mrs. Hutchinson's banishment. Many of her followers left the colony with her, and settled on Aquiday [ak'-we-da] (the isle of peace) in Narragansett Bay (see Map, p. 84], which they bought from the Indians and called the Isle of Rhodes. Vane returned to England. To prevent these troubles from recurring, a law was passed in the colony forbidding any person to enter it without a permit from the magistrates.

trines led. What sentence was pronounced upon him by the authorities? How did he avoid it? For fourteen weeks what was he obliged to do? By whom was he received? What was the origin of the first settlement in Rhode Island ? By whom was Williams joined ? What was the supreme law of the colony ? 127. In 1636, how was the Massachusetts Bay colony augmented ? During Vane's term of office, how and by whom was the colony troubled? Who was numbered among Mrs. Hutchinson's converts ? What became of Mrs. Hutchinson? [See Map, p. 84.-What promontory is north of the Isle of Rhodes?] What law was soon after

1639]

SETTLEMENT OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.

87

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In 1639, Newport was founded on the southern part of the island, near stone tower. This curious structure, twenty-four feet high, was evidently of great antiquity, but the Indians could give no information respecting its origin.

The same principles that prevailed at Providence were carried out in the Rhode Island colony, though at first they were independent of each other. was not till 1644 that they received a charter, and were united under the name of the Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

128. In 1622, Sir Ferdinand Gorges [gor'-jez] and John Mason obtained a grant of land extending from the St. Lawrence to the Kennebec and Merrimac, and named the tract Laconia. Two fishing colonies were soon established at Portsmouth and Dover. In 1629, Exeter was founded, and the name of the colony was changed to NEW HAMPSHIRE. Trading-posts were established at various points on the coast, but they were mostly unimportant.

129. In 1641, the feeble settlements of New Hampshire asked to be received into the colony of Massachusetts Bay. Their request was granted, and the union continued till 1680, when they were separated by the king, and again made an independent province under the name of New Hampshire.

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STONE TOWER AT NEWPORT.

passed ? In 1639, what place was founded? What object of interest is near it ? What principles prevailed in the colony of Rhode Island ? When, and under what name, were the Providence and Rhode Island colonies united ? 128. Give the history of the first settlements in New Hampshire. 129. What was their subsequent history?

CHAPTER VIII.

SETTLEMENT OF CONNECTICUT.—PEQUOD WAR. 130. THE Connecticut, so called from its Indian name, which means long river, was discovered in 1614 by the Dutch. They established a trading-post near the place where Hartford now stands, and for a time enjoyed undisputed possession of the country. At length, reports of the fruitfulness and beauty of this inviting region reached England; and in 1630 it was granted to the Earl of Warwick [wör'-rik], who transferred it to Lord Say-and-Seal and Lord Brooke. In their honor the name of Saybrook was given to a fort erected at the mouth of the river in 1635. [See Map, p. 91.]

131. Meanwhile, settlements had been made from both of the Massachusetts colonies. The Dutch had tried to prevent the first comers from sailing up the Connecticut, but without

In the autumn of 1635, a company from Massachusetts Bay made the journey by land; but when they arrived the river was frozen, their cattle perished, and they were reduced to the greatest extremities for food. Another party started from Boston the following summer. Traversing the wilderness with the aid of the compass and driving their cattle before them, they finally reached the site of Hartford, and settled on lands bought from the Indians.

132. Difficulties with the natives soon arose. The Pequods, a warlike tribe east of the Connecticut, regarded the whites with distrust; and the latter, apprehensive of attack, only waited for an opportunity to inflict such vengeance on the savages as would forever prevent their aggressions.

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130. When and by whom was the Connecticut discovered? What is the meaning of the name? Where did the Dutch settle? Who soon heard of this fruitful region? To whom was it granted, and transferred? Where and when was Saybrook built ? [See Map, p. 91.-On which side of the Connecticut is Saybrook! Near what other water is it? On which bank of the Connecticut is Hartford ? What Indians lived just east of the Connecticut ? What tribe lived on the banks of the Thames ?] 131. Whom did the Dutch soon find settling in the valley of the Connecticut ? What took place in 1635? What, the following summer? 132. With whom did difficulties arise ? In what did they originate? How did

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