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1636]

THE PEQUOD WAR.

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This opportunity soon occurred. The captain of a tradingvessel, named Oldham, was murdered without provocation by the natives of Block Island. As soon as the news reached Boston, Endicott, with a suitable force, set out to avenge the injury. The Indians had abandoned the island, but he destroyed their wigwams and crops. Crossing to the mainland, he demanded from the Pequods damages for various injuries sustained at their hands, and some of their children as hostages. These being refused, he laid waste part of their country. The flame of revenge was thus kindled in the breasts of the Pequods. All the wiles and cruelties of Indian warfare were now experienced on the frontier. Solitary houses were attacked; stragglers were surprised and scalped; men were shot down while working in the fields; women and children were murdered round the fireside. Messengers were sent by the Pequods to the neighboring tribes, urging them to unite in exterminating the Connecticut settlers.

133. Roger Williams learned that proposals of this kind were being made to the Narragansetts; and, in order to save some of those very men who had banished him from Massachusetts, he resolved to defeat the plans of the Pequods. Setting out alone in a fearful storm, he paddled many a weary mile to the Narragansett village. The Pe quod ambassadors were there, and Williams nearly lost his life by interfering; but he pleaded his cause boldly, and after four days' hesitation the Narragansetts refused to join the Pequod league.

134. On the 1st of May, 1637, the authorities of Connect icut declared war against the Pequods; and, in a few days, about 80 settlers, and 60 Mohegans under the friendly Uncas, started against the foe. Captain John Mason, who had served as a soldier in Flanders, commanded the expedition;

the settlers panish the Indians for the murder of Oldham? What followed on the part of the Pequods ? What did they solicit the neighboring nations to do? 133. To what tribe in particular did the Pequods appeal? Who heard of this ? Tell what he did to prevent it, and the result. 134. In 1637, what was done by the authorities of Connecticut ? How large a force was raised ? Who commanded it? Where did they first sail, and for what purpose ? How were they

and, expecting aid from the Narragansetts, he sailed directly for their villages. The Narragansetts received him as a friend, but were discouraged from accompanying him by the smallness of his force. “Your design is good," said the chief, “but your numbers are too weak to brave the Pequods, who have mighty chieftains and are skilful in battle."

Though disappointed, Mason resolved to carry out the enterprise alone. The Pequod confederacy consisted of 26 tribes, numbering over 2,000 men. Their principal villages were on what is now called the Thames (tāmz] River (see Map, p. 91). When they saw the English sail past on their way to Narragansett Bay, they supposed that the attack was given up through fear, and uttered cries of defiance and exultation that were plainly heard by their enemies. On the 26th of May, just before sunrise, Mason's party, who had landed a little east of their village, cautiously approached the huts of the sleeping savages. An Indian dog gave the alarm; and the Pequods, though thus taken by surprise, defended themselves with great bravery. The battle was still doubtful, when Mason, crying “We must burn them !", threw a blazing brand among the mats with which one of the wigwams was covered, and thus decided the fortunes of the day. The English and their red allies formed a circle round the burning huts, and slew their enemies without mercy as the fire drove them into sight. Six hundred Pe quods, men, women, and children, perished in an hour, while but two of the English were lost.

The next morning, a body of 300 Pequods arrived from another village; and, though they fought with desperation on seeing the destruction of their homes and relatives, they too were defeated. The remnants of the tribe were driven from place to place, and butchered by their Indian enemies as well as by the English.

At last 200 of the survivors surrendered in despair to the English. They were either sold

received ? How many tribes and warriors composed the Pequod confederacy? Where were their principal villages ? [See Map, p. 91.-Where is the Thames River? What place is near its mouth?] What did they suppose when the English sailed past? Give an account of the attack. How many Pequods and

1637]

NEW HAVEN FOUNDED.

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into slavery or incorporated among the friendly tribes; and the name of Pequod was no longer heard.

135. After the first victory, the Narragansetts had joined the English; but the latter afterwards made a poor return to their chief, Mi-an-to-no'-moh, for his services. A war having broken out between the Narragansetts and the Mohegans, Miantonomoh, then an old man, was captured. “Let him be delivered,” said the ungrateful men of Connecticut, “to his old enemy, Uncas.” The cruel Mohegan took him to a solitary place, and there, in the presence of two of the settlers tomahawked his victim, and cutting a piece of quivering flesh from his shoulder ate it, declaring it the most delicious mor

Suffield? sel that had ever passed his lips.

Rindsor 136. In 1638, the colony of New Haven was

Wethersfield founded by John Dav'-enport, Theodore Eaton, and their followers, on land bought from the Indians. The rights of voting and holding office were confined to churchmembers, and the Bible was adopted as the only basis of law and rule of public action.

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how many English were lost? The next morning, what happened? What became of the remainder of the tribe ? 135. What course did the Narragansetts take after the first battle? How did the English repay their chief? Describe the death of Miantonomoh. 136. By whom was New Haven founded? [See Map.Near what water is New Haven? What two towns between it and the Connecticut?] Whom alone did the colonists allow to vote and hold office? What did they adopt as their only basis of law ?

CHAPTER IX.

FOUNDING OF MARYLAND AND DELAWARE.

137. The territory now called Maryland was included in the charter granted to the London company in 1609. William Clayborne, a surveyor, was sent out to make a map of the country, and was allowed a patent for trading with the Indians.

In 1632, George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, obtained from King James a charter for a large tract on the Potomac, which had reverted to the crown. This enterprising man had expended a large sum without success in an attempt to plant a colony on Newfoundland. He had then turned his attention to Virginia, but was there met with a religious test in the form of an oath, which, as a Roman Catholic, he could not take.

138. As truly democratic in politics as he was liberal in his religious views, Lord Baltimore determined to provide an asylum where men of all creeds might enjoy liberty in its perfection. He took care to have this guaranteed in his charter. A majority of the freemen, or their representatives, were to make the laws. The colony was to be entirely free from English taxation, and from all interference on the part of the king. Christianity was to be the basis of the laws, but all sects were to be treated alike. Lord Baltimore agreed to pay the king a yearly rent of two Indian arrows and one-fifth of whatever gold and silver he should find, and named his new territory MARYLAND, in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria.

139. Lord Baltimore did not live to plant a colony under this admirable charter; but his son Cecil [se'-sil] Calvert succeeded to his rights, and sent out his brother Leonard

137. To whom was the territory now called Maryland originally granted ? Who was sent out to make a map of it? In 1632, who obtained a charter for a tract on the Potomac ? Where had Lord Baltimore previously tried to found colonies ? 138. What was his character! Mention some of the chief provisions of his charter. What rent was he to pay? What did he name this tract, and from whom? 139. What became of Lord Baltimore ? Who succeeded to bis

1634]

CLAYBORNE'S REBELLION.

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with about 200 emigrants, mostly Roman Catholics and men of standing. They entered Chesapeake Bay early in 1634, sailed up the Potomac, and, having bought some land from the Indians, built the little village of St. Mary's.

The infant colony flourished, as it deserved, by reason of the freedom of its institutions and the justice with which its founders treated the natives. Its sole enemy was Clayborne, who had established two independent trading-posts, and refused to acknowledge Lord Baltimore's authority. A collision ensued, which resulted in the defeat of Clayborne, who fled to Virginia, and was thence sent to England. Assemblies were held, which enacted various wholesome laws in harmony with the liberal character of the charter. At first every freeman had the right to attend and vote; but when this was found inconvenient, the Assembly was made to consist of representatives chosen by the people.

Peace and prosperity reigned till 1642, when a short Indian war occurred. Hardly had it terminated, when Clayborne, who had found his way back to the new world, excited a rebellion, and drove Gov. Calvert from the province. In 1646, Calvert returned with troops from Virginia, and suppressed the insurrection. A general pardon was proclaimed, and order was restored.

140. Leonard Calvert died in 1647. During the troubles which followed the execution of Charles I. in England, several governors were successively appointed; and for a time the power was divided between two opposing sets of authorities, Roman Catholic and Protestant. In 1660, Philip Calvert was recognized by all parties as governor. The population of Maryland at this time is estimated at 10,000.

141. The colony of DELAWARE originated in the desire of Gustavus (gus-tah'-vus] Adolphus, the greatest of Swedish kings, to advance the Protestant religion, and the interests

charter? Give an account of the first settlement. Who was the only enemy of the infant colony? What became of Clayborne ? What was done by the early Assemblies? How were these Assemblies composed ? In 1642, what happened ? Relate the history of Clayborne's insurrection. 140. When did Leonard Calvert die? Give the subsequent history of the colony till 1660. What was its population about this time? 141. What was the origin of Delaware? What prevented

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