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Manhattan, was now changed to NEW YORK, in honor of the duke to whom it had been granted. The valley of the Hudson quietly subrnitted; and Fort Orange was named Albany, to commemorate the duke's Scottish title. All the Atlantic coast, from Maine to Georgia inclusive, was now in possession of the English.

149. The region between the Hudson and the Delaware was made over by the Duke of York to Berkeley, who had been governor of the Isle of Jersey, and gave the name of NEW JERSEY to the tract thus received. With the view of attracting settlers, freedom of worship was guaranteed, and the right of taxation was confined to a colonial Assembly. In consequence of these advantages, New Jersey became rapidly peopled.


VIRGINIA FROM 1620 To 1660.

150. SLAVERY commenced in the new world with Spanish discoveries and conquests. In 1495, Columbus sent 500 Indians to Spain, where they were publicly sold. In 1501, negro slavery was recognized by law in the Spanish colonies, and introduced on a large scale into the West Indies, where the natives were rapidly perishing under the tasks imposed by their conquerors. Sir John Hawkins, an English adventurer, engaged in the traffic, and Queen Elizabeth shared in the profits. Negro slaves were first brought to Virginia in a Dutch man-of-war. They were soon after introduced into all the other colonies. The price of a negro in New Amsterdam ranged between $125 and $150.

What was the consequence ? How did the English treat the Dutch ? What change was made in the names of New Netherlands, New Amsterd and Fort Orange? 149. To whom was the tract between the Hudson and the Delaware made over? What name was given to it, and from what circumstance? How was it sought to attract settlers ? What was the result ?

150. When did slavery commence in the new world ? By whom and when were Indian slaves introduced into Spain? When and why were negroes introduced as slaves into the West Indies ? What Englishman engaged in the traffic? How were negro slaves first brought to Virginia ? At what price were they sold

151. In 1622, the white population of Virginia amounted to about 4,000. English settlements had been planted on both sides of the James River for nearly 150 miles, and all fear of the Indians was laid aside. Powhatan was dead, and his younger brother Opechancanough [op-e-kan-ka-no] had succeeded to his power. The new chief was far from sharing his brother's friendly feelings towards the whites; and, jealous of their increasing strength, he planned a general rising among the Red Men. The various settlements were attacked at the same time, and 347 of the colonists were massacred within a single hour. The rest were saved by the warning of a friendly native.

War followed. The Indians were driven back from the river, and killed in great numbers. Yet the colony suffered much from the unexpected blow. Sickness set in; many of the settlers returned to Europe; and in 1624 there were only 1,800 souls in the colony of Virginia.

152. Meanwhile, King James, offended by some plainspoken members of the London company, sent over commissioners, who tried to frighten the colonists into surrendering their charter. In this they did not succeed; whereupon, with the aid of corrupt judges, the king dissolved the company.

153. In 1625, James I. was succeeded by his son Charles I. This king confirmed the privileges already granted, and recognized the authority of the Assembly, in the hope that they would consign to him all the tobacco raised in the colony, and thus give him a monopoly of the article. But the Assembly, while it was glad to have its rights confirmed, declined the king's proposals. Various salutary laws were passed about this time. Profanity and drunkenness were prohibited; military exercises were required; emigration without the governor's permission was forbidden; and a cer

in New Amsterdam ? 151. What was the population of Virginia in 1622? How far had the English settlements extended ? Who was now chief of the Pow. hatans ? How did he feel towards the whites ? What was done by his direction? How many of the colonists were massacred ? What was the result of the war that followed ? In 1624, how many colonists did Virginia contain ? 152. What was the fate of the London company, and what led to it? 153. In 1625,





tain portion of the soil was set apart for the cultivation of

The Puritans were invited from the less genial climate of the North, and some accepted the invitation.

154. Sir William Berkeley became governor in 1641, and the colony continued to flourish. During the struggle between the Parliament and Charles I., which resulted in the execution of the latter, Virginia adhered to the king, and, to show its loyalty, banished those who would not use the liturgy of the English Church.

In 1644, another Indian war ravaged the frontier. At last Opechancanough, the untiring enemy of the colonists, was made prisoner, and the power of the Powhatans was destroyed. The old chief died from a wound cruelly inflicted after his capture. The Indians obtained peace only by the surrender of large tracts of land.

155. The Parliament and Cromwell, everywhere triumphant, sent over a strong force to Virginia in 1652, to establish their authority. The colonists agreed to recognize it on condition of not being disturbed. Still they sympathized with the royal party, and, on the restoration of Charles II. to his father's throne, gladly acknowledged him as their king. Gratitude, however, had no place in the nature of Charles; and, when he was firmly seated on the throne, he rewarded his faithful subjects in Virginia by encroaching on their rights, and giving his profligate favorites large tracts of their choicest land.

who became king of England ? What led him at first to favor the Assembly? How did the Assembly meet his advances ? What laws were passed about this time? What invitation was given and accepted ? 154. Who became governor in 1641? What side did Virginia take in the struggle between Charles I. and his Parliament? What took place in 1644? How was this war terminated? What became of the Powhatan chief? 155. How were the Virginians compelled to recognize the authority of Cromwell? What were their feelings on the subject? On Charles Second's restoration, what did they do? How did Charles reward the Virginians for their fidelity?




156. A DESIRE to convert the Indians to Christianity attracted many good men to America during the seventeenth century. Among those who engaged most zealously in the work was John Eliot. He was born in England in 1604, and, emigrating to Massachusetts at the age of twenty-seven, became warmly interested in the natives. After some efforts to enlighten them, he collected as many as he could at Na'tick (see Map, p. 84], and there established an Indian school. Becoming acquainted with their language, he wrote an Algonquin grammar and translated the Scriptures into that tongue. This translation was printed at Cambridge in 1663, and was the first Bible ever published in America.

When he spoke to the Red Men of God, he found that they already believed in a Supreme Being; his other dootrines they were not so ready to receive. They asked a thousand perplexing questions; but, though his teachings were not always understood or believed, yet his simplicity and kindness won their hearts. In the children he found his most attentive listeners. One Indian youth, we are told, having seen the ceremony of baptism performed by the missionary, persuaded his parents to unite with the church, and then joined it himself, declaring that he was ready to die. Shortly after he was attacked by consumption, and died the death of a Christian.

Money was raised in England, to aid Eliot in his benevolent scheme. He was of service to the Indians in various ways, not only instructing them in their religious duties, but teaching the men to dig and the women to spin. His heart

156. What led many to America in the seventeenth century? Who engaged zealously in this work ? Give some account of his early efforts. When and where was the first Bible printed in America ? In what language? [See Map, p. 84.—Where is Natick? In what direction from Boston'] How did the Indians receive Eliot's teachings ? Who were his most attentive listeners ? What story




overflowed with kindness; he would never see his fellowcreatures suffer when he had the means of relieving them. On one occasion carrying home part of his salary, tied up

in his handkerchief, he called by the way on a destitute family. Moved by their distress, he tried to untie his handkerchief, that he might give them some money; but the knot resisted his efforts, and he handed the whole to the mother of the family, saying, “Take it, for I believe the Lord designs it all

for you.”

Eliot wrote several books, in one of which he expressed sentiments so liberal that he was censured by the Boston court and required to take them back. He died at a good old age, loved by all who knew him.

Others besides Eliot took up the good work, and many of the Indians learned to read and write. One of their number even took a college degree. But these advances towards civilization were confined to the tribes on the eastern coast of Massachusetts. The Narragansetts, as well as the more distant nations, refused all instruction and proudly adhered to the faith of their fathers.

157. Charles I., whose tyrannical conduct was at last the cause of his dethronement and execution, strove to oppress the New England colonies equally with the Puritans at home. In 1634, he empowered a commission, consisting of Archbishop Laud and others, to revoke charters, inflict penalties, and establish a new government in the American plantations. This news soon reached Boston, and with it the rumor that a governor appointed by the crown on his way to Massachusetts. A council was called, and it was resolved that the colony should resist as far as it was able. In 1635, the Plymouth company surrendered their patent to the king; and soon afterwards the Massa


is told of an Indian boy? What besides religious truths did Eliot teach the Indians ? What instance of his generosity is related? What kind of sentiments did Eliot express in one of his works? Under Eliot and his companions, what did many of the Indians learn to do? To whom were these advances confined ? How was it with the Narragansetts ? 157. How did Charles I. treat the New England Puritans ? What power did he give to Laud ? What rumor soon reached Boston? On what course did the colonists determine! In 1635, what did the Plymouth company do? What soon after happened to the Massachusetts

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