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expressly stated therein, or otherwise plainly to be inferred from its contents, that a copy of the paper was delivered to the person signing the admission.
SUBSTITUTES FOR PERSONAL SERVICE IN SPECIAL CASES.
SECTION 435. Order for service of summons from supreme court, when defendant not found, etc.
436. How service must be made.
437. Papers to be filet; proof of service.
438. Cases in which service of summons by publication, etc., may be ordered.
439. Papers upon which order for publication may be made.
440. By whom order may be made; contents of order.
441. When publication must be commenced; when service deemed complete. 442. Papers to be filed; notice to defendant.
443. Id.; when service is made without the State.
414. Proof of service.
445. Defendant when allowed to defend.
§ 435. Order for service of summons from supreme court, when defendant not found, etc. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877 and Ch. 535 of 1880.] Where a summons is issued in any court of record, an order for the service thereof, upon a defendant residing within the State, may be made by the court, or a judge thereof, or the county judge of the county where the action is triable, upon satisfactory proof, by the affidavit of a person, not a party to the action, or by the return of the sheriff of the county where the defendant resides, that proper and diligent effort has been made to serve the summons upon the defendant, and that the place of his sojourn cannot be ascertained, or, if he is within the State, that he avoids service, so that personal service cannot be made.
§ 436. How service must be made. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877.] The order must direct that the service of the summons be made, by leaving a copy thereof, and of the order, at the residence of the defendant, with a person of proper age, if upon reasonable application, admittance can be obtained, and such a person found who will receive it; or, if admittance cannot be so obtained, nor such a person found, by affixing the same to the outer or other door of the defendant's residence, and by depositing another copy thereof, properly inclosed in a post-paid wrapper, addressed to him, at his place of residence, in the post-office at the place where he resides.
§ 437. Papers to be filed; proof of service. The order, and the papers upon which it was granted, must be filed, and the service must be made, within ten days after the order is granted; otherwise the order becomes inoperative. On filing an affidavit, showing service according to the order, the summons is deemed served, and the same proceedings may be taken thereupon, as if it had been served by publication, pursuant to an order for that purpose, made as prescribed in the next section.
§ 438. Cases in which service of summons by publication, etc., may be ordered. [AMENDED BY CH. 542 OF 1879.] An order, directing the service of a summons upon a defendant, without the State, or by publication, may be made in either of the following cases:
1. Where the defendant to be served is a foreign corporation; or being a natural person, is not a resident of the State; or where, after diligent inquiry, the defendant remains unknown to the plaintiff, or the plaintiff is unable to ascertain whether the defendant is or is not a resident of the State. 2. Where the defendant, being a resident of the State, has departed therefrom with intent to defraud his creditors, or to avoid the service of a summons; or keeps himself concealed therein, with like intent.
3. Where the defendant, being an adult, and a resident of the State, has been continuously without the United States more than six months next before the granting of the order, and has not made a designation of a person upon whom to serve a summons in his behalf, as prescribed in section four hundred and thirty of this act; or a designation so made no longer remains in force; or service upon the person so designated cannot be made within the State, after dilligent effort.
4. Where the complaint demands judgment annulling a marriage, or for a divorce, or a separation.
5. Where the complaint demands judgment, that the defendant be excluded from a vested or contingent interest in, or lien upon, specific real or personal property within the State; or that such an interest or lien in favor of either party be enforced, regulated, defined or limited; or otherwise affecting the title to such property.
6. Where the defendant is a resident of the State, or a domestic corporation; and an attempt was made to commence the action against the defendant, as required in chapter fourth of this act, before the expiration of the limitation applicable thereto, as fixed in that chapter; and the limitation would have expired within sixty days next preceding the application, if the time had not been extended by the attempt to commence the action.
7. Where the action is against the stockholders of a corporation, or jointstock company, and is authorized by a law of the State, and the defendant is a stockholder thereof.
When a copy of the summons is required by subdivision first or subdivision second of section four hundred and twenty-six of this act, or by section four hundred and twenty-nine of this act, to be delivered to a person other than the defendant, an order, directing the service of a copy of the summons upon such person without the state, or by publication, may be made as prescribed in this section, as if such person was the defendant in the action, and upon a verified complaint and the same proof with respect to such person, as is required in the next succeeding section with respect to a defendant. And sections four hundred and forty to four hundred and fortyfour, both inclusive, apply to the proceedings in like manner as if such person was a defendant. [AM'D CH. 399 OF 1884.]
$439. Papers upon which order for publication may be made. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877 AND BY CH. 542 OF 1879.] The order must be founded upon a verified complaint, showing a sufficient cause of action against the defendant to be served, and proof by affidavit of the additional facts required by the last section; and also, where the application is made upon the ground that the defendant is a foreign corporation, or not a resident of the State, or in a case specified in subdivision fourth, fifth or seventh of the last section, that the plaintiff has been or will be unable, with due diligence, to make personal service of the summons.
§ 440. Order, by whom made, and contents. The order may be made by a judge of the court or the county judge of the county where the action is triable. It must direct that service of the summons, upon the defendant named or described in the order, be made by publication thereof in two newspapers, designated in the order as most likely to give notice to the defendant for a specified time, which the judge deems reasonable, not less than once a week for six successive weeks; or, at the option of the plaintiff, by service of the summons, and of a copy of the complaint and order, without the State, upon the defendant personally, and if he is an infant under the age of fourteen years, also upon the person with whom he is sojourning; or, if the defendant is a corporation, upon an officer thereof, specified in section four hundred and thirty-one or four hundred and thirty-two of this act It must also contain, either a direction that, on or before the day of the first publication, the plaintiff deposit in a specified post-office, one or more sets of copies of the summons, complaint and order, each contained in a securely closed post-paid wrapper, directed to
the defendant, at a place specified in the order; or a statement that the judge being satisfied by the affidavits upon which the order was granted, that the plaintiff cannot, with reasonable diligence, ascertain a place or places where the defendant would probably receive matter transmitted through the post-office, dispenses with the deposit of any papers therein. [A'MD CHS. 542 OF 1879 AND 195 of 1889.]
§ 441. When publication must be commenced; when servica deemed complete. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 or 1877.] The first publication in each newspaper designated in the order, or the service upon the defendant, without the State, must be made within three months after the order is granted. For the purpose of reckoning the time, within which the defendant must appear or answer, service by publication is complete, upon the day of the last publication pursuant to the order; and service made without the State is complete, upon the expiration thereafter of a time equal to that prescribed for publication.
§ 442. Papers to be filed; notice to defendant. [AMENDED BY. CH. 416 OF 1871.] Where service is made by publication the summons, complaint, and order, and the papers upon which the order was made, must be filed with the clerk, on or before the day of the first publication; and a notice, subscribed by the plaintiff's attorney, and directed only to the defendant or defendants to be thus served, substantially in the following form, the blanks being properly filled up, must be subjoined to, and published with the summons:
"To The foregoing summons is served upon you, by publication, pursuant to an order of official title), "dated the
(naming the judge and his 18 and filed with the
complaint in the office of the clerk of
§ 443. Id.; when service is made without the State. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877.] Where service is made without the State, the papers specified in the last section must be previously filed; and a notice must be served with the summons, in all respects like the notice required by the last section, except that the words, "without the State of New York," must be substituted for the words, "by publication."
§ 444. Proof of service. Proof of the publication of the summons and notice must be made by the affidavit of the printer or publisher, or his foreman or principal clerk. Proof of deposit in the post-office, or of delivery, of a paper required to be deposited or delivered by the provisions of this article, must be made by the affidavit of the person, who deposited or delivered it.
§ 445. Defendant when allowed to defend. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877.] Where the summons is served, pursuant to an order made as prescribed in this article, and the defendant so served does not appear, he, or his representative, on application and sufficient cause shown, at any time before final judgment, must be allowed to defend the action; and, except in an action for divorce, or wherein the contrary is expressly prescribed by law, the defendant, or his representative, must, in like manner, upon good cause shown, and upon just terms, be allowed to defend, after final judgment, at any time within one year after personal service of written notice thereof; or, if such a notice has not been served, within seven years after the filing of the judgment-roll. If the defence is successful, and the judgment, or any part thereof, has been collected or otherwise enforced, such restitution may thereupon be compelled, as the court directs; but the title to property sold to a purchaser in good faith, pursuant to a direction contained in the judg ment, or by virtue of an execution issued upon the same, shall not be affected
SECTION 446. Who may be joined as plaintiffs.
447. Id.; as defendants.
448. Parties united in interest, when to be joined; when one or more may sue or defend for the whole.
449. Party in interest to sue.
Trustee, etc., may sue alone.
450. When married woman is a party.
451. When defendant or his name is unknown.
452. When court to decide controversy, or to order other parties to be brought in. 453, Supplemental summons.
§ 446. Who may be joined as plaintiffs. All persons having an interest in the subject of the action, and in obtaining the judgment demanded, may be joined as plaintiffs, except as otherwise expressly prescribed in this
§ 447. Id.; as defendants. Any person may be made a defendant who has or claims an interest in the controversy, adverse to the plaintiff, or who is a necessary party defendant, for the complete determination or settlement of a question involved therein; except as otherwise expressly prescribed in this act.
§ 448. Parties united in interest, when to be joined; when one or more may sue or defend for the whole. Of the parties to the action, those who are united in interest must be joined as plaintiffs or defendants, except as otherwise expressly prescribed in this act." But if the consent of any one, who ought to be joined as a plaintiff, cannot be obtained, he may be made a defendant, the reason therefor being stated in the complaint. And where the question is one of a common or general interest of many persons; or where the persons, who might be made parties, are very numerous, and it may be impracticable to bring them all before the court, one or more may sue or defend for the benefit of ail.
§ 449. Party in interest to sue, trustee, etc., may sue alone. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877]. Every action must be prosecuted in the name of the real party in interest, except that an executor or administrator, a trustee of an express trust, or a person expressly authorized by statute, may sue, without joining with him the person for whose benefit the action is prosecuted. A person, with whom or in whose name, a contract is made for the benefit of another, is a trustee of an express trust, within the meaning of this section.
§ 450. Actions and proceedings by and against married women. action or special proceeding a married woman appears, prosecutes or defends alone or joined with other parties as if she was single. It is not necessary or proper to join her husband with her as a party in any action or special proceeding affecting her separate property. The husband is not a necessary or proper party to an action or special proceeding to recover damages to the person, estate or character of his wife, and all sums that may be recovered in such actions or special proceedings shall be the separate property of the wife. The husband is not a necessary or proper party to an action or special proceeding to recover damages to the
person, estate or character of another on account of the wrongful acts of his wife committed without his instigation.
(§ 2. This act shall not apply to any action or special proceeding now pending.) [AM'D CHS. 416 OF 1877, 542 or 1879 AND 248 OF 1890, in effect Sept. 1, 1890.]
$451. When defendant or his name is unknown. [AMENDED BY CH. 542 or 1879.] Where the plaintiff is ignorant of the name or part of the name of a defendant, he may designate that defendant, in the summons, and in other process or proceeding in the action, by a fictitious name, or by as much of his name as is known, adding a description, identifying the person intended. Where the plaintiff demands judgment against an unknown person, he may designate that person as unknown, adding a description, tending to identify him. In either case, the person intended is thereupon regarded as a defendant in the action, and as sufficiently described therein, for all purposes, including service of the summons, as prescribed in article second of the last title. When the name, or the remainder of the name, or the person, becomes known, an order must be made by the court, upon such notice and such terms as it prescribes, that the proceedings already taken be deemed amended, by the insertion of the true name, in place of the fictitious name or part of a name, or the designation as an unknown person; and that all subsequent proceedings be taken under the true name.
§ 452. When court to decide controversy, or to order other parties to be brought in. The court may determine the controversy, as between the parties before it, where it can do so without prejudice to the rights of others, or by saving their rights; but where a complete determination of the controversy cannot be had without the presence of other parties, the court must direct them to be brought in. And where a person, not a party to the action, has an interest in the subject thereof, or in real property, the title to which may in any manner be affected by the judgment, and makes application to the court to be made a party, it must direct him to be brought in by the proper amendment.
§ 453. Supplemental summons. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877.] Where the court directs a new defendant to be brought in and the order is not made upon his own application, a supplemental summons must be issued, directed to him, and in the same form as an original summons; except that, in the body thereof, it must require the defendant to answer the original or the amended complaint, and the supplemental complaint, or either of them, as the case requires. And each provision of this chapter, relating to personal service, or a substitute for personal service of an original summons, applies to such a supplemental summons.
PARTIES SEVERALLY LIABLE.
SECTION 454. Persons liable for the same demand may be sued together.
456. Proceedings in actions against defendants severally liable.
§ 454. When persons liable for the same demand may be sued together. [AMENDED BY CH. 416 OF 1877.] Two or more persons, severally liable upon the same written instrument, including the parties to a bill of exchange or a promissory note, whether the action is brought upon the instrument, or by a narty thereto to recover against other parties liable over