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treh, or tsreh, with the Hebrew tsirah, or reading without points, tsreh, which is precisely the Coptic name. It is not improbable, therefore, that the name by which this king was generally known abroad, was an appellative descriptive of his name and character. History abounds with examples of this kind, as for example Charlemagne contains both a name and title. Nor is it singular, that a title in one language, should be used as a name in another. It was no uncommon thing for the Greek historians to use titles for proper names, as Diodorus has done in Sesoosis, which is not a name, but a title. Indeed, we may have a pertinent example nearer our subject. Everyone knows, that Pharaoh was not a proper name, but a title given by the Hebrews to the Egyptian monarchs. This title, according to Sir W. Drummond,* is nothing more than the Coptic Noxpo, poxpo, i. e. the king, compounded of the article zı or qe the, and ovpo, the king. Oupo is also a compound, made up of the indefinite article ov a, and goo or po king. In writing this in Hebrew Moses wrote 7990 Ph'ra'hh, which is literally the king, but which may also signify the shepherd. It would seem, therefore, that Moses in using the word tsreh intended to point out Sesostris by the appellation under which he was generally known. That he has correctly described his character there can be no doubt.
There is another fact corroborative of this conclusion, which must not be omitted in this place. Herodotus relates,t that Sesostris erected pillars in the places he had conquered, on which he inscribed his name and conquest; that he [Herodotus) saw some of them in Palestine, in Syria and Ionia, and that they were figures of men five palms in heighth, the right hand holding a javelin, the left a bow, and having by them other ar
A few years since, when Maundrell was traveling in Palestine, he noticed "some strange figures of men carved in the natural rock, in mezzo-relievo, in bigness equal to life; on the mountain which overhangs the ford across the river Lycus, not far from Beiroot."I These monuments have since been examined by Messrs. Banks, Wyse, Gell, Leninge, Lajard, and Callier, who inform us, that one of the figures is a piece of Egyptian sculpture, belonging to the era of the 18th dynasty, having on it an hieroglyphic inscription, of Ramses the Second, a name by
Essay on Punic Inscription, quoted in Class. Jour. iii. 374, Ges. Heb. Lex. on .
I L. 2. c. 102, 106. # Wiseman. Sci. and Rev. Rel. p. 269.
which Sethos was also known.* With all this evidence before us, we cannot hesitate to conclude, that Sethos and Sesostris denote the same person, and that he was the scourge, or the conqueror which drove out the two kings of the Amorites from before the children of Israel.
ART. VI.-NEW ORDER OF MISSIONARIES.
Thoughts on the Importance of raising up a New Order of
Missionaries. New York: Gould & Newman. 1838.
THE cause of Foreign Missions has recently been thrown, by the providence of God, into a most interesting attitude. The embarrassments occasioned to commercial enterprise in this country, have pressed upon what were thought the mainsprings of the missionary work, and have seemingly crippled it in what was deemed the point of its greatest strength. Who, two years since, could have dreamed, that the work of evangelizing the world, in this land, would be impeded by the impossibility of obtaining a sufficiency of pecuniary support from the churches of Christ? The time has been when the only seeming difficulties worthy of account were the inaccessibleness of heathen nations; the want of suitable individuals to devote themselves to the work of missions; the need of earnest, believing prayer on the part of christians. Money and means were in plenty. It was with no injudicious, unfounded confidence, that the directors of our missionary enterprises assured to all who were willing to visit heathen lands to proclaim the gospel of salvation, an adequate and plentiful support from the churches. Yet now what is the heart-rending aspect of the case ? Numbers, who have submitted to the painsul sacrifice of abandoning home, friends and kindred, ease, comfort, and rich spiritual privileges, now stand on our shores with their anxious eyes turned to the dark regions of heathenism, longing to carry them the blessings of the gospel, yet compelled to remain from want of the means of temporal support. And abroad, the machinery, devised and constructed amid so many tears, so many prayers, with so much toil, just put into operation and producing the first cheering earnests of a glorious harvest, is all at once stop
* Wiseman, pp. 269---271, and authorities there quoted.
ped. Schools are disbanded, and thousands of children, gathered with much labor and at great expense within the pale of christian influence, just as the first buds of promise are beginning to appear, are sent adrift again on the dark, destructive waters of heathenism. Presses have ceased their operations, and the little messengers of salvation which they were sending out, far and wide, over nearly the whole region of pagan darkness, no longer go forth to gratify the eager curiosity which prayer and toil had so happily succeeded in awakening. Living heralds of salvation, too, trained with great care and at vast expense, just entering on the field with such bright promise of success, and to prove the sagacity and christian wisdom which had devised the expedient, are recalled, and bidden to restrain their efforts to save their own brethen in the flesh who are dying in sin. In short, the whole system of means employed abroad for the more rapid diffusion of christianity, has suffered a severe revulsion.
Wherefore, it is pertinent to ask, wherefore has God wrought this? Doubtless, such a providence was adapted to try the attachment of christians to the cause of missions. It has tried it; and what christian heart has not leaped with joy and gratitude to God at the proof which has been given of the strength of attachment existing in the breasts of christians in this land to the cause of missions? Under all the depression which recent events have caused, the christian spirit has proved its energy, its elasticity, in raising the amount of missionary beneficence almost one half beyond that of any former year. But this was not the only kind design of God in his providence. He, beyond all doubt, intended by it to direct the christian mind to new efforts of sagacity and invention; to turn it to the discovery of new resources, new plans, new modes of conducting and supporting missionary operations. We have no hesitation in declaring our full belief, that unless new expedients be devised for the better conduct of missions, in regard to the provision of means, the more economical use of powers and instrumentalities, the great design of God in the events spoken of, will fail of accomplishment.
Entertaining these views, we cannot but receive the work, the title of which we have placed at the head of this article, with a hearty welcome.
We hail it as a submissive response to the plain call of God's providence. We welcome it, too, as the product of a heart penetrated with sincere love to the cause of missions; of a mind, to some degree, practically acquainted with the nature of the missionary work. We receive
it as a work peculiarly demanded by the times, as containing much interesting information, and many most important and valuable hints and suggestions. We shall not, we are assured, better gratify the mind of the author, or further the benevolent object of the work, than by spreading the substance of the work on our pages, and by freely and frankly discussing its principles and suggestions.
The two opening chapters of the work are taken up with some considerations tending to show the necessity of new modifications of missionary effort. This necessity is exhibited as arising from the difficulty of influencing many minds not wanting in christian spirit and enterprise, but who are not reached by any motive presented in the existing mode of conducting missionary operations. The general principle laid down, that different minds are differently constituted, and need to be addressed by different specific motives, distinct from, though under subjugation to the grand motive of love to the cause of Christ, and obedience to his commands, cannot be controverted. It is, indeed, a principle of great practical importance. Yet, we confess, the author has not made it clear to our minds how this principle is to have greater sway under the new scheme proposed of conducting missions, than at present. We see not why precisely the same considerations which seem to have influenced the individuals, whose cases are given as illustrative of the application of this principle, might not have been urged, in all their power, under the present system of missionary organization, if we leave out of view, at least, the effect of the apparently “unique character,"-in other words, of the novelty of the plan proposed. If love of danger, a spirit of lofty, daring enterprise, desire of independent, unshackled effort, be the spirit which this plan peculiarly addresses, we think there is enough in the present missionary organization to call it forth, to incite it to action, and to foster it in all reasonable, wholesome degrees.
Another ground of necessity for new modifications in the mode of conducting missions, is discovered in the difficulties of the missionary work ;— difficulties that are but imperfectly known and realized by the great body of christians. Heathenism has been but too faintly delineated in its dreadful, revolting debasement, pollution, and depravity. Hope predominates in the christian bosom, and this leads to the partial covering up of real difficulties. The eye dwells on the glad result,—the universal triumph of the religion of the cross. The mountains of obstacles to be surmounted,—the barriers of opposition, the
slow, painful, toilsome march over rivers and valleys, across crag and desert, are leaped over in the ardor of expectation. Hence, the true difficulties that beset and oppose the missionary work, have been but very imperfectly studied and known. But sober experience will discover one after another of these obstacles, and practical wisdom will be summoned to form new expedients, and to frame new devices for pushing on the work. New modifications of effort, therefore, may be reasonably expected in the onward progress of the missionary enterprise.
After preparing the minds of his readers thus to expect some modification in the mode of conducting missions, he proceeds to state, develop, and support his plan for raising up a new order of missionaries.
The plan is stated to be "simply that of QUALIFYING AND SENDING ABROAD MEN TO HEAL THE SICK AND PREACH THE GOS
In other words, to combine the qualifications for healing and preaching in the same missionary." No one would suppose, that the substance of the plan could be set forth intelligibly in a single sentence. It is necessary; carefully, to follow out its entire development in its practical details, in order to obtain a correct apprehension of the scheme as it lies in the author's mind. So far as we are able to do this from the work under consideration, we are led to suppose the following to be the main characteristics of the plan :
The basis of the scheme is the combination of the healing and the teaching offices in the same individual missionary.
Essential to it, also, is the feature of itinerancy. The missionary to be raised up under this scheme, is not to be “ attached to missionary stations," as are most of this class now sustained by missionary associations. They are to go about from place to place, healing the sick and preaching the gospel, as the providence of God may lead the way.
Celibacy is another characteristic of the scheme. This is expressly and unqualifiedly insisted upon in one part of the book, (p. 35,) although, in another part, (p. 166,) we find, that the author would rather leave the decision of this matter to the individual himself.
Independency seems to be another important feature of this plan. We have labored hard to obtain correct views of the author's ideas on this point. It may be, that this was a point which did not directly attract his attention. Yet it seems to have greatly influenced his mind in the development of the plan. Indeed, to us it appears the grand distinguishing feature of the whole work. If this be not an essential characteristic,