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thy coming under my roof. It is not necessary to render with Fritzsche, "I am not fit, (scil. that thou shouldest do anything,) in order that thou mayest come under my roof.” Luke 7: 6. 1 John 1:9.
(b) denoting a sharing or participation in the action denoted by the verb, whether transitive or intransitive, (dativus objecti remotioris ;) as, Rev. 8: 6 ητοίμασαν εαυτούς, ένα σαλπίσωσι, « they prepared themselves to sound,” i. e. for sounding.
C. Before the accusative clause,
(a) denoting the object after a transitive verb; as, Mat. 4:3 είπε, ίνα οι λίθοι ούτοι άρτου γένωνται, command that these stones be made bread.” It is not necessary to render with Fritzsche, “speak the word, in order that these stones may become bread.” Mat. 20:21. 28: 10. Mark 3: 9. 5: 43. 6: 8. 13: 34. Luke 4: 3. 10: 40.-Μat. 7: 12 όσα αν θέλετε, ίνα ποιώσιν υμϊν οι άνθρωTOV, “whatsoever ye will, that men do to you;" not as Fritzsche, "whatsoever ye will with the design that men may do to you." Mark 6: 25. 9:30. Luke 6: 31. 18: 41. John 17: 24.-John 11: 37 ποιήσαι ένα και ούτος μη αποθάνη, « to have caused, that even this man should not not have died.” Col. 4: 16.
So, the way being prepared by the demonstrative pronoun, ούτος, αύτη, τούτο; as, John 15: 17 ταύτα εντέλλομαι υμίν, ίνα αγαTâte anthous," these things I command you, that ye love one another.” Comp. John 11:57. 13:34. 1 John 4: 21.
(b) denoting the second object after verbs of asking, teaching, etc ; as, Mat. 14:36 και παρεκάλουν αυτόν, ένα μόνον άψωνται TOû xpaonédou tou suatlov avtoở, "and they besought him, that they might only touch the hem of his garment;" not “they besought him in order that," etc. 27:20. Mark 5: 18. 7:32. 8:22. Luke 8:31. John 4: 47.
D. Before the modal clause; as, Mark 11:25 «plete, tra xul ο πατήρ υμών αφή υμίν τα παραπτώματα υμών, “ forgive, so that your father also may forgive you your trespasses.” Luke 14: 10. 16 : 9. 22 : 30. John 1: 27 iva hóoo, “so that I should unloose.” 4:36. 5: 20. 6:7. Acts 2 : 25. 8: 19. Rom. 15: 6, 16, 31, 32. Gal. 5: 17. James 1:4. 1 Pet. 4: 13. Rev. 14: 13. Also in some passages of great importance, on account of their bearing on christian doctrine; as, Luke 9: 45 lv rupaxexahvupérov un' aŭtov, iva un aio futai aŭró, "it was hid from them, so that they might not perceive it.” 11:50. John 9: 2. Rom. 3: 8, 19. 6:1. 11:31.
So, the way being prepared by the demonstrative outus; as, 1 Cor. 9 : 24 oros 19ZETF, 7ve zaruhá 3rte, “so run,
ye may obtain." VOL. X.
This is what is usually termed the ecbatic signification.
(a) denoting the cause; as, John 8: 56 ivaihdoato, iva ion triv vulgav viju durv, “he rejoiced, that he should see my day."
(b) after a comparative, the way being prepared by the demonstrative pronoun oύτoς, αύτη, τούτο ; as, John 15 : 13 μείζονα ταύτης αγάπην ουδείς έχει, ίνα τις την ψυχήν αυτού θη υπέρ των φίλων αυτού, , “greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends." 3 John 4.
F. Before the local clause, the way being prepared by šv toúto ; as, John 15 : 8 εν τούτω εδοξάσθη ο πατήρ μου, ένα καρπόν πολύν qignte, “ herein is my father glorified, that ye bear much fruit ;" not with Fritzsche, “ herein is my father glorified, that ye strive to bear much fruit."
G. Before the terminal clause; as, John 5: 34 raūta héyo), iva duris cutive, “I say these things, that ye may be saved." 16: 1. Mat. 19: 13.
So, the way being prepared by siç toūto ; as, John 18:37 εις τούτο ελήλυθα εις τον κόσμον, ίνα μαρτυρήσω τη αληθεία, « for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth.” Acts 9:21. Rom. 14: 9. 2 Cor. 2: 9. or διά τούτο ; as, 2 Tim. 2: 10.
This is the usual import of the particle in classic Greek, and is generally called the telic sense.
H. Before the instrumental clause. No example, however, occurs, distinct from the modal.
I. Before the genitive clause, i. e. used with a noun; as, John 12 : 33 ελήλυθεν η ώρα, ίνα δοξασθή ο υιός του ανθρώπου, « the hour is come that the son of man should be glorified,” i. e. of his being glorified. Mat. 26: 16. John 2: 25. 13: 1. 16:2, 30, 32. 18:39. Acts 27: 42. 1 John 2: 27.
These various uses of iva, in our view, clearly show, that its leading object is to designate or define the clause with which it is connected, and that, if it has any other meaning, it arises rather from the context than from the natural force of this particle.
4. The use of rú (=ira) in modern Greek, where it is used before the subjunctive in such a way as altogether to supplant the regular infinitive. Hence it is equivalent to Gr. år, Lat. quod, or Eng. that; and if there be occasion to express the more precise shade of thought, then some particle is prefixed, as tò vớe to express the simple demonstrative, date vá to express the ecbatic, and du vú to express the telic. E. g. elrai xahi tepov vi trumpis inki, napů vů uérns idū, “it is better, that you
thither than remain here ;” η τροφή μου είναι το να κάμνω το θέλημα εκείνου όστις μ' έστειλεν, « my meat is to do the will of him who Sent me ;” με τοιούτον τρόπον τρέχετε, ώστε να φθάσητε, so run, that ye may obtain;" und héyos aútů, så vi coire deis, “but I say these things, in order that ye might be saved."
Whatever, then, is the force of iva in classic Greek, it is evident, that in its origin, and in the popular dialect, such as that of the New Testament, it was a demonstrative or article. Nor have we any doubt, that if its use in classic Greek were examined without prepossession, it would be found to come much nearer to what we consider its popular use, than has been commonly supposed.
V. The argument deduced from the subjunctive form of ampo.fi is readily answered by attending to the proper distinction between the usual interpretation and that for which we contend. According to the former, iva is terminal, denoting the final cause, end, or purpose, and the clause is to be rendered thus: in order that it might or should be fulfilled. According to the latter, iva is modal, denoting the manner or mode, and the clause is to be rendered thus : so that it might or should be fulfilled. The force of the subjunctive mode and that of the aorist tense is the same in either interpretation. The subjunctive denotes in both cases something contingent or conditional, i. e. something subjective in the view of the mind. It is the erroneous use of the term ecbatic to denote the modal sense, which has led some to expect the indicative mode, as more appropriate to express what seems to be called an event or matter of fact. Again, the aorist tense denotes in both cases some thing past in reference to the historian.
It is wrong to suppose in either case, that it denotes future time. The English forms might and should, also indicate at the same time the subjunctive mode (i. e. subjectivity,) and the past time.
We have thus far, in order to simplify the subject, confined our attention to a single formula, but that, perhaps, the fullest and strongest. Two remarks will be sufficient to extend our argument to other formulas, which are merely variations of this.
(1.) These other formulas may be used without implying a prediction, as is shown by the following examples from the Rabbins and Syriac writers. The two first are deduced by Prof. Tholuck from the Talmud, as Tract. Berachoth, fol. 10, 2, “He who first eats and drinks, and afterwards prays, of him it is written, 1 K. 14: 9. thou hast cast me behind thy back.”' Tract. Sota, cap. ult. “Since the temple was laid waste, the Shamir (a fabulous animal) has ceased, as it is written, Ps.
12: 2." The next example is from the Chronicle of Barhebraeus, a Syriac writer, where he is speaking of those who inhabited the ruins of Edessa, " They saw the anger whereof the prophet says: I will bear the anger of the Lord, because I have sinned." The remaining examples are adduced by Dr. Wiseman from the Syriac, as from the writings of St. Ephrem, “ Those who are in error have hated the source of assistance ; as it is written: the Lord awoke like one who slept." From the Acts of St. Ephrem, “This (St. Ephrem) is he of whom our Savior said : I came to cast fire upon the earth.”
(2.) The particles os, ortois, &ore, probably have the form of an ancient Greek ablative, (see Quart. Christ. Spect. Vol. ix. p. 129.) and of course their primary force is modal. But whether they are ancient ablative forms, or ancient accusative forms, according to the opinion of Passow noticed above, there is not the least ground in these particles for giving the pre-eminence to the telic sense.
VI. Without undertaking to determine which quotations are employed as predictions and which as mere illustrations, we shall endeavor to show by a few examples, that our interpretation does not rob the passages of their force and beauty.
The point of the quotation, Mat. 1: 23. considered as an illustration or comparison of similar events, is this: In the calamitous times under king Ahaz, a prophet was sent with a promise of speedy deliverance to the Jews from their enemies, the birth of a child, called Emmanuel, to be born of a virgin, being the sign; so in the present calamitous times, an angel is sent with the promise of deliverance to the same nation from much greater misery, the birth of a child, called Jesus, to be born of a virgin, being also the sign.
The force of the implied comparison, Mat. 2 : 15. is as follows: When the infant nation of Israel had fled into Egypt for protection, God shewed his paternal care and love for them by calling them in due time from that country; so now, when the infant Jesus had fled to the same country for protection, God shews a similar paternal care and love to him by calling him thence.
The force of the implied comparison, Mat. 2: 18. is this: As formerly in Rama, the place through which Jewish captives were led on their way to Babylon, Hebrew mothers were seen in deep distress for their children lost in captivity; so now, in the same vicinity, Hebrew mothers were seen in similar distress, on account of their children cruelly slain by Herod.
The force of the comparison, Mat. 3 : 3. is this : John, the Baptist, the forerunner of the Messiah, is like the pioneer represented by the prophet Isaiah, as preparing the way of the Lord, when he was intending great good for his people.
It ought here to be observed, that, in some of these cases, there is not merely a resemblance in the two events, but there is also a sameness of principle, as illustrating the nature of the divine government, as has been ably shown by Dr. Woods of Andover, in his Lectures on Quotations.
VII. In answer to the argument thought to be deduced from combining the various considerations urged by the objector, we might state many inherent improbabilities, that the passages concerned could have been quoted as predictions. But we will confine ourselves to a single remark, Hosea 11: 1. which is quoted Mat. 2: 15. is so clearly a mere statement of a past historical fact, that we cannot suppose for a moment, that St. Matthew either regarded it himself as a prediction, or could expect to make any of his readers so to regard it.
While, therefore, Dr. Woods in this country, Dr. Tittmann in Germany, and Dr. Wiseman at Rome, have, unknown to each other, been laboring successfully on different points of this important subject, comparative philology, and what we esteem a more philosophical mode of criticism, have unconsciously, as it were, thrown in their contributions to this sacred cause.
ART. V.-ON THE CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
The Canon of the Old and New Testaments ascertained, or
the Bible complete without the Apocrypha and unwritten traditions. By ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER, Professor of Theology in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. Princeton : 1833.
We are gratified to see that this work of Dr. Alexander's has already passed to a second, and, we believe, to a third edition. Without the testimonies substantiating the canonical authority of the several books of scripture, the argument for a divine revelation is incomplete. And though there are many able works on the subject, or on parts of it, most of them have hitherto been either too voluminous or too learned for common readers. The works of Chamier, Buddeus, Hottinger, Prideaux, Lardner, Jones, &c., are scarcely known, even by name, to the great body of intelligent christians; and there are doubtless very