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CHRISTIANS. CHRISTIANS, THE: religious denomination called sometimes CHRISTIAN CONNECTION (uistinct from the Disciples of Christ, also sometimes called Christians). They repudiate as a nickname the pronuncia ion with i long, Christ-ians. The body had its origin in three secessions. (1) James O'Kelly and others left the Methodists in N. C., 1793, and at arst were called 'Republican Methodists,' but at a conference in Surry co., Va., 1794, Aug. 4, orgau

Christians.' (2Åbner Jones, of Harkand, Vt., established, 1800, at Lyndon, Vt., & society which disavowed sectarianism and human creeds. He was joined by Elias Smith and other Baptists, and many churches were formed in New England within the next four years. : These two compiled Hymns, Original and Selected, for the . Use of Christians (1805-10), and E Smith conducted the Christian's Magazine, a quarterly, 1805–07, and began, 1808, Sep. 1, The Blerald of Gospel Liberty, which is cluired (though the claim is disputed) to be the earliest religious Dewspaper, preceding by eight years the Boston Recorder, and by use the Philadelphia Remembrancer. (3) Baron W. Stone, David Purviance, and other Presbyterians in Ky, and Tenn., withdrew, 1801, from the synod of Ky., organized the Springteld presbytery, and announced their principles, 1804, June 28. These three bodies, having the same ideas and aims, were soon consolidated under a congregational government, with a general convention, mecting quadrennially.

The views of ihe C. are thus expressed by themselves: “They seek to unite the followers of Christ of every persuasion, by breaking down party walls, party, spirit, and sectarian feeling and practice, and by infusing into the minds and hearts of all lovers of the Redeemer a liberal spirit, thereby inducing liberal practice. They admonish their brethren to beware of atheists, deists, aguostics, bumanitarians, spiritualists, universalists, etc.

Their watchword has always been, "Let the brethren of the Christian Church beware!” They have no rule of faith but the Holy Scriptures, and the only test of fellowship agreed upon is Christian character. They believe that the right of private judyment and liberty of conscience in reference to those points of doctrine and practice not considered essential to salvation should be accorded and enjoyed by all; and that therefore all who believe in and love and serve the Lord Jesus Christ ought to be received into the fellowship and communion of the church. They discard the use of such words as “ Trinity,” “Three Persons in One,” in reference to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as illogical and pris. leading, and prefer to use Bible terms instead. They advocate immersion as the proper mode of baptism, but will not refuse an infusionist membership: They believe in the future reward of the righteous and punishment of the: wicked. They hold that the fall of our tirst parents in. Eden involved not only the actual transgressors, but. their posterity, in that they are born in exile from God, i.e., the children of sinful parents; but the church does not teach total depravity, nor that any are damned on account

CHRISTIANS. of original sin. They do not believe that God elects some, and condemns the rest of mankind; a child m:y bave a sinful heritage, but is not an actual sinner before arriving at the age of accountability. They hold that the Scriptures are inspired and of divine authority; that every man has a right to interpet them for himself; that differences of theological views are not a bar to church fellowship; that there is one God, and that Christ is His divine Son, who pre-existed before he came to earth, and is the Mediaior between God and man, and that His sufferings atone for the sins of all men, who by repentance and faith may be saved; that immersion is the only proper form of baptism, and believers the only proper subjects for that ordinance; that communion at the Lord's table is open to be. lievers of all denominations; that the Holy Ghost is the Spirit of God--that it bears a like relation to God as the spirit of man does to man. Although they have a decided opinion of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, they seek to know no more than what is written in the language of the Holy Scriptures. In their early history they were often misrepresented, bui are now regarded as orthodox. They put much stress on the punishment that awaits those who add unto God's word or take therefrom.'

This definition of their doctrines, though evangelical, does not present a ditinite assertion of a strictly Trinitarian theology. Within the present century the emphasis formerly laid on theological accuracy has indeed been somewhat modified, partiy perhaps by the influence of this body; but, in the general acceptation of the term, Trinitarian doctrine is still a component part of 'orthodoxy. The prefę ce to The Christian Hymn Book (Boston, 1863), signed by T. C. Moulton and others, says, “We have neither been afraid of orthodoxy, nor that “which some call heresy,” while we have attempted no compromise with either.'

The slavery trouble disturbed the connection of the southern with the northern conferences, and the former organized, 1856, a Southern general convention, which still exists, though the whole body is united in an American general convention, which, by its constitution, regnilates financial business, the election of officers, and several departments. A publishing house at Dayton, O., issues books, tracts, and the old Herald of Gospel Liberty, which is the denominational organ, and was long ago united with the Dayton Gospel IIerald. The Christian Sun, published formerly at Suffolk, Va., is now conducted at Raleigh, N. C., by J. P Barrett, D.D. The body controls the following institutions of learning: Starkey College, founded 1842, at Eddytown, Yates co., N. Y.; Antioch College, Yellow Springs, O., 1852; Graham College, N. C., 1852; Union Christian College, Merom, Ind., 1859; Lincolo College, Kan., 1885; Suffolk Collegiate Institute, Va., 1872; Christian Biblical Institute, Eddytown, N. Y., 1869; Weaubleau Institute, Mo., 1872; Literary and Theol. Institute (for persons of color), Franklinton, N. C., 1880; .Le Grand Christian Institute. Iowa, 1865; and Windsor

CHRISTIANSAND-CHRISTIANSFELD. High School, Va., 1885. Camp Christian, Craigville, Mass., is a seaside resort, under a charter; it has a large tabernacle and about 100 cottages.

True to their principles, the C. have made efforts toward organic union with attiliated bodies The Disciples of Christ (q.v.), who also bave claimed the name Christian,' are a much stronger body, with over 500,000 members and some 50 universities, colleges, and seminaries; though agreeing with the C. in most matters they are not so lib. eral, admitting no baptism but by immersion, and this dif. ference prevented a union Several conferences were held, 1886, with the Free Will Baptists, but to no detinite result. A council held 1586, May. with the Union Christian Church was more successful, and a confederation was formed between the two. This body, organized at Columbus, O., 1865, has some 50,000 communicants, two organs (the Christian Witness, edited at Newark, O., by Rev. H. J. Duckworth, and the Sentinel of Truth, "Excelsior Springs, Mo., conducted by J. V. B. Flack, D.D.,), and Humboldt College, Iowa, founded by S. Taft, but now carried on as a seminary.— The C. have made considerable gains in the last ten years. They have now 1,400 preachers, over 1,500 congregations, and over 100,000 coinmunicant members. The value of their church property is estimated at about $3,500,000. Besides home missions and the work of churcb extension, they support a foreign mission in Japan, under the supervision of the Rev. D. F. Jones. Among their most eminent clergy of the past, besides the founders above mentioned, were Wm. Kinkade, Prof. David Millard, Dr. W. B. Wellons, J. N. Manning, F. A. Plummer, Jos. Badger, Jabez Chadwick, S. Clough, Prof. E W. Humphreys, Dr. A. Craig, J. N. Spoor, and J. G. Wilson.

CHRISTIANSAND, kris'te-ûn-end: principal town of the province or stift of that name in Norway; at the mouth of Torridalself, in the bay of Christiansand. C. is the residence of a bishop and high-bailiff or stift-amtmand, and has a branch of the Norwegian Bank, a gymnasium, and Beveral charitable foundations. The manufactures are leather, tobacco, cotton, etc. Ship-building forms also a considerable branch of industry. The town, built 1641, by Christian IV., has an excellent barbor, divided into two parts by the island of Oddern A destructive fire took place liere 1880. C. exports wood, lobsters, and salmon in large quantities. The town and harbor are protected by severai Tortiucations. Pop (1075) 12,137; (1891) 12,831.

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE: see SCIENCE, CHRISTIAN. CHRISTIANSFELD, kris'të-âns.fěld: settlement of Moravian brothers, the n. part of Schleswig; founded 1772. It consists of 64 houses and about 700 inhabitants. The houses, well built, and cheerful in appearance, are arranged in parallel streets, with the church upon a green plot in the middle. The settlement is represented by the inspectors or chiefs appointed by the directors of the fra. ternity; and the representatives elected by the members of


CHRISTIANS OF ST. JOHN-CHRISTIANSTAD. the sect. The manufactures are linen, soap, cotton, leather, etc.

CHRISTIANS OF ST. JOHN, or NAZARE'ANS: strange sect found in Persia, chietly near Bassorah. They are Christian only in name, but claim to follow John the Baptist, to have originated on the Jordan in his time, and to have been driven by the Mohammedans from Palestine to Persia and India. To avoid persecution they joined the Nestorians, but left that sect in the 16th century. Neander interpreted their other names, Mendæans and Sabæans, to mean disciples and baptizers, and supposed them sprung from those followers of St. John Baptist who opposed themselves to Christianity. Their doctrines show abundant traces of Guostic, if not of Manichean, influence. The original Deity, Ferha, lives with a female principle, Ajar, iu remote splendor. Beneath him are kingdoms of light and darkness, between which is continual conflict, mostly to the advantage of darkness. Seven dark angels, inhabit. ing the seven planets, made the world. Jehovah, Jesus, and their respective scriptures, belong to the kingdom of darkness, but John Baptist (who had a wife and children) represents light, and baptism is the only way to light, the door of forgiveness and redemption. This sect has four doctrinal books and one astrological. It prohibits mourning for the dead, allows polygamy to priests and people, but forbids seusual indulgences, and even singing and dancing, by the elect, or by those who have reached the higher life. The C. observe a sort of love-feast, and abhor anything blue. When discovered by the missionaries in Persia, about 1650, they numbered some 100,000.

CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS: an ancient body, still existing along the coast of Malabar in s.w. Hindostan. They claim to have been established by the apostle Thomas, who carried his labors to that region, but are probably a branch of the Syro-Persian Church, founded 499 by Nestorians excommunicated for adhering to the Monophysite heresy. Under the Portuguese rule they submitted, 1599, to the Church of Rome, and their books were burned by order of the synod of Diamper. Later, many of them resumed their independence; these numbered 70,000 in 1859, and claimed, 1869, to have 190,000 members. They retain some primitive customs, as the agapæ or love-feasts; they use brend, salt, and oil in the communion, and anoint infants with oil in baptism; their priests shave the head, and are permitted to marry. They use the Syriac rite, and are subject to the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch. Once the leading class in Malabar, they are said to be now much debased, and are most numerous at Travancore.

CHRISTIANSTAD, kris'të-ân-stad: strongly fortified cap. of a province of the same name in the s. of Sweden. It is on the Helge, about 9 m. from the Baltic, and 265 s. w. of Stockholm. C. is the residence of a governor, and the seat of a court of justice. It is a beautifully-built town, and possesses an arsenal, a school, a magnificent

CHRISTIANSTED-CHRISTINA. church, and a senate-house. The people are employed chiefly in the manufacture of woolen goods, leather, gioves, etc. There is also some trade in wood, pitch, potash, etc. The town, founded by Christian IV., has suffered many sieges. Pop. (1880) 9,203 ; (1890) 10,670.

The province of Christianstad has 2, 507 sq. m. Pop. . (1880) 230,619; (1890) 221,697.

CHRISTIANSTED, kris'te-ûn-stěd: the chief town of the Danish island of St. Croix, in the West Indies. It stands on the n.e. coast of the island, and has an excellent harbor, which is defended by a fort and a battery. Here resides the governor-general of the Danish West Indies. The number of its inhabitants is 5,700.

CHRISTIANSUND, kris'te-än-sónd: seaport on the w. coast of Norway, 85 m. W.s.w. of Trondhjem; lat. 63° 3' n.; long. 7° 40 e. It was founded 1734 by Christian VI. of Denmark, and at first was called Lille-Fosen. It is built on three small islands, which inclose a nearly circular harbor; and exports wood and fish, chiefly salt cod, to Spain, the Mediterranean, and the West Indies. Pop. 7,000.


CHRISTINA, kris-te'ná, Queen of Sweden: 1626, Dec. -1689, Apr. 19, only child of the great Gustavus Adolphus. She succeeded her father 1632, when only six years old. Distinguished equally by beauty and the possession of a lively imagination, a good memory and uncommon intelligence, she received the education rather of a man than of a woman; and to this may in part be attributed the many eccentricities of her life. During her minority, the kingdom was governed by the five highest officers of the state, the principal being Chancellor Oxenstiern. In 1614, she assumed the reins of power, and, 1650, was crowned with the title of king. She had previously declared her cousin, Charles Gustuvus, her successor. For four years thereafter, she ruled the kingdom with vigor, and was remarkable for her patronage of learned and scientific men.

In 1654, however, at the age of 28, weary of the personal restraint which royalty imposed on her, she abdicated in favor of her cousin, reserving to herself sufucient revenues, entire independence, and supreme authority over her suite and household. Leaving Sweden, she proceeded to Brussels, where she embraced the Rom. Cath. faith. She afterward went to Rome, which she entered on horseback, in the costume of an Amazon, with great pomp. Confirmed by Pope Alexander VII., she adopted the surname of Alessandra. In 1656, she visited Paris; and the following year, on a second residence there, she caused her grand equerry, Monaldeschi, who had enjoyed her entire confidence, to be executed in her own household for treason. In 1658 she returned to Rome, and, 1660, the death of the king, her cousin, caused her to basten to Sweden; but, failing in her attımpt to be reinstated on the throne, she again left the country. In 1666, she aspired to the

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