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CHRISTOPHER. and solemnly crowned, 1812, June 2. In 1814, he and Petion suspended hostilities, and by bis power and skill, C. was enabled to counteract the attempts made by France to regain authority in the island. His avarice and cruelty led to an insurrection, wbich was aided by Gen. Boyer, wbö had succeeded Petion 1818: and the rebellion having spread to Cape Town, C.'s deposition was proclaimed, at the head of the troops, by the Duke of Marmalade, one of the first dignitaries in the kingdom, and C., deserted by his bodyguard and all bis nobles, shot himself. He left a code of laws, which he called the . Code Henri,' in imitation of the Code Napoleon.


CHRISTOPHER, kris'to-fir, Saint: recognized as saint in the Rom. Cath, and Greek churches. He is supposed to bare suffered martyrdom about the middle of the 3d c. According to vulgar legend, C, whose name was originally Adokimos the Unrighteous), was a native of Palestine, Syria,or Lycia, and a person of prodigious bulk and strength. His height was 12 ft. So proud was he of his gigantic frame, that he would serve only the mightiest princes. Having attached himself to one, considereil the greatest of his day, C. stayed with him for a short time, but soon discovered that his master was terribly afraid of the devil, in consequence of which, C., with fearless consistency, passed into the service of the latter. One day, however, when the devil and he chanced to be walking through a wood, they came across an image of Christ. Ilis new master exbibiteil such perturbation and alarm at the sight, that C. entirely lost contidence in him, and resolved to find out the Savior, and follow him as the mightiest one. For a long while he searched in vain, but finally he met a hermit, who showed him Christ, and baptized bim. C. despised the customary penances as slight and trivial, and in consequence, it was imposed on bim to carry Christian pilgrims on his shoulders over a stream which had no bridge. One day, a little child came to the stream; C. took it on bis shonlders, but soon began to sink under the weight of bis burden. The child was Christ bimself, and, to prove it, he commanded C. to stick his staff into the ground. He did so, and next morning

L it had blossomed into a palm tree bearing fruit. This miracle converted thousands to Christianity. C.'s success excited the enmity of Daypus, the prefect of that region, who put him in prison, scourged him with red-hot rods, put a burning helmet on his head, and clapped him on a burning stool. C. still remained uninjured. Multitudes of poisoned arrows were now discharged against him, but they rebounded from his charmed body, and one even wounded the prefect himself in the eye. c. pitier his tormentor, anıl freely offered his head to the executioner, that the prefect might be healed by the blood which shouldl flow from it. This was done, and, as a matter of course, Dagnus and his family became Christians. The Greek Church celebrates his festival May 9; the Rom. Cath., July 25.

CHRISTOPHER'S. St. C. was greatly invoked in times of pestilence, or when people were digging for treasures, to frighten away the spirits who watched over them. The formula used was called a Christopher's Prayer. He was also the patron of an order of moderation, founded in Austria 1517, for the purpose of checking excessive drinking and swearing, and which was called the order of St. Christopher

CHRISTOPHER'S, kris'to-fërz, St., or, pularly, St. Kitts: island near the n.e. bend of the great arch of the Antilles, 46 m. w. of Antigua, 2 m. n. of Nevis. With very unequal breadth, it is 20 m. long from s.e. to n.w., containing about 44,000 acres. Pop. (1891) 30,100. It belongs to Great Britain, and has a legislature of its own, with an executive immediately, subordinate to the gov.-in chief of the Leeward group, residing in Antigua. In 1880, the revenue of the colony was £32,000, Laving been only £3,638 in 1834; so that, under the system of free labor, it had increased nearly nine-fold in 46 years. During the same interval, the imports had risen in value from £63,018 to £168,000, and the exports from £105,267 to £186,000. The staple exports are sugar, rum, and molasses. The debt of the island in 1880 was £3,700. Education is in a promising condition. In 1876 the average attendance at school was 1,525; two schools obtained a first-class, four schools a second-class, and 14 schools a third-class certificate. The total class and capitation grants which were earned amounted to £577.

The chief towns, both seaports with open roadsteads, are Basse Terre defended by Fort Smith, and Sandy Point, protected by Fort Charles and Brimstone Hill. Of Fort Smith, the exact lat. and long. are 17° 17' 7'' n., and 62° 48' w. The mean annual temperature of tbese places, and of the coast generally, is about 80 F.; but the mornings and evenings, even of the hottest days. are agreeably cool. The length of the island is traversed by a well-wooded ridge of volcanic origin, which has in its centre a crater; and toward the w. extremity of the range, rises the nearly perpendicular crag of Mount Misery, 3,711 ft. above the sea. Over the adjacent slopes, which gradually descend to the water's edge, this central range sends down several streams-almost every plantation, in fact, receiving its rivulet in the rainy season. The springs, though numerous, are yet mostly brackish; and the s. extremity of the island presents a number of salt ponds.

St. Kitts, appropriately named by the natives · The Fertile Isle,' was discovered by Columbus 1493, and colonized by the English 1623, who were almost immediately joined by some French adventurers. After treacherously exterminating the Caribs, the French and English, often quarrelling, occupied the island till, 1713, the treaty of Utrecht gave the whole to England. In 1782, during the war of Averi can independence, St. Kitts was captured by the French, but restored. 1865, July 31, a terrific fire took place at Basse-Terre.

CHRIST'S COLLEGE-CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. CHRIST'S COLLEGE, Cambridge: founded by Henry VI., under the name of God's House, and intended by him to consist of a master, 12 fellows, and 47 scholars. In 1505, however, there were only three fellows besides the master, when Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII., 'counting her. self as of the Lancaster line, heir to all Henry VI.'s godly intentions,' made up the full number, and endowed the college liberally, changing its name to Christ's College. Edward VI. added one fellow, and three scholars; and Sir John Finch and Sir Thomas Baines increased the number of fellows to 15. C. C. possesses many rich benefactions for the encouragement of students, among which are four studentships founded by Christopher Tancred, worth £107 per annum, and tenable for three years after taking the degree of B.A. A student is elected annually before coming into residence. Among the illustrious men connected with this college may be noted Bp. Latimer, John Milton, and Ralph Cudworth, author of the Intellectual System.

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, Newgate Street, London: clas sical school, organized as a hospital; founded on the site of the Greyfriars' monastery, by Edward VI., 1553, June 26, as a hospital for orphans and foundlings. It is called usually the ‘Blue-coat School,'on account of the dress worn by the boys. This consists of a blue woolen gown or coat with a narrow red-leather girdle round the waist, yellow breeches and yellow stockings, a clergyman's bands at the Deck, and a small blue worsted cap, but this last they seldom wear, and are generally seen going about bareheaded; such has been the costume of the boys since the foundation of the school in the reign of Edward VI., the persistency in it through successive generations affording à curious instance of the unchangeableness in some English usages. No boy is admitted before seven years of age, or after ten, and none can remain after fifteen, with the exception of

King's boys' (i.e., those who attend the mathematical school founded by Charles II. 1672) and 'Grecians' (i.e., the highest class of scholars in the hospital), of whom 8 are sent on various scholarships to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Altogether, about 800 boys can be admitted. The right of presentation is vested in the managing governOrs. Those are the lord mayor of London, the aldermen, and 12 common councilmen. Besides these, all noblemer and gentlemen who benefit the hospital to the extent of £400 are governors. The managing governors are the patrons of several churches, chietly in Surrey and Essex. "In 1880 (when changes in the institution were contemplated) the gross annual income was £70,907—mostly from legacies subsequent to the foundation. King Charles II. enriched it by £7,000, with an additional annuity of £370 108., for the purpose of educating yearly ten boys for the sea-service. Most of the building perished in the great fire of 1666; but, through the generosity of the corporation of London and of wealthy Englishmen, it was soon rebuilt, under the superintendence of Sir Christopher Wren. In the course of time the new hospital fell into decay, and in 1825 a CHRIST'S THORN-CHROMATIC. third structure was erected by Mr. Shaw. The great hall of the hospital is a magniticent room, second only to that of Westminster. C. H. is essentially a classical institution, Latin and Greek being the basis of education; but, to meei wanis arising from the changed condition of society, the modern languages, drawing, etc., also are taught. In 1683, the governors built a preparatory school at Hertford, where the children are trained till they are old enough to enter the hospital. The girls, however, remain permanently here. It can receive about 400 of both sexes. Dependent schools in Newgate street accommodate 1,200 children. Several eminent persons have been educated at C. H., such as Camden. Stillingtleet, Coleridge, and Lamb.

CHRIST'S THORN, n: a prickly shrub, a native oi Palestine, and common in the hedges of Judæa-so named from the supposition that from it Christ's crown of thoros was made; the Paliūrès aculěūtus, ord. Rhamnuicéa: see JUJUPE: PALIURUS.

CHROMATIC, n. krõ-măt'ik [Gr. chromatikos, suited for color—from chrūma, color; chrõmătos, of color]: relating to colors: see ACHROMATIC. CHROMATIC SCALE [from the intermediate notes formerly printed in colors]: term applied (improperly) to the scale in music that proceeds by semitones. "CHROMAT’ICALLY, ad. - kůl-i. CHROMAT'IOS, n. plu. -1ks, that part of the science of optics (q.v.) which ex. plains the properties of the colors of light and of natura bodies. Before 1666, when Sir Isaac Newton began to in vestigate this subject, the notions which prevailed respect. ing the nature of colors were merely fanciful. Till Des. cartes' time, indeed, it seems not to have been conceived that color had anything to do with light. As examples of the notions prevalent at very early times, may be cited those propounded by Pythagoras and Zeno. According to the former, color was the superficies of bodies; according to the latter, it was 'the first contiguration of matter' -whatever that may be. It is now settled that white light is not homogeneous, but consists of rays of different colors, endued with different degrees of refrangibility, and that the different colors of bodies arise from their reflecting this or that kind of rays most copiously. According to this, a body that appears red reflects red rays in greater abundance than the others; and one that appears black reflects none of the rays-in other words, absorbs all the light that falls upon it. The analysis of a beam of the sun's light by a prism was the experiment by which Newton demonstrated his great optical discovery of the unequal refrangibility of the variously colored rays, and laid the foundations for the above theory of color. For an account of this experiment, and of the most interesting phenomena presented by the spectrum, see SPECTRUM. Newton concluded from his experiments that white light is composed of seven colors, which he called the primary colors--viz., red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet; and that all other shades of color arise from the admixture of these in different proportions. Sir David Brewster, on the other hand,

CHROMATIC-CHROMATROPE. conceives that he has established that the primary colors are only three in number-red, yellow, and blue. This result he obtained by examining the rays of the spectrum through different absorbing media-a mode of experiment now admitted to be fallacious in principle. Professor Max. well, by direct examiuation of the rays, concludes that the three primary colors are red, green, and blue. Recently a theory has been propounded, that all the colors are the results of the adınixture of white light and of shade, or darkness; but as yet no attempt has been made to support this theory by direct experiment on the sun's rays. It is rested on results obtained by combining by motion certain proportions of white and black pigments on a revolving card. See Light: DISPERSION: NEWTON's Rings.

CHROMATIC, in Music: term applied to a series of notes at the distance of a semitone from each other. Such a series is produced by dividing the whole tones of the diatonic scale into semitones, so that with the two diatonic semitones, already in the natural scale, the octave is divided into 12 semitones. Ascending C. passages are formed by the wbole tones of the diatonic scale being raised or elevated by a sharp or a natural, according to key, and descending passages by their being lowered by a fiat or a natural, thus:

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It is usual to speak of the C. scale, but not with propriety, as it is only a melodious progression of semitones, certain notes of which belong to and form the diatonic scale, showing that the foundation of the system of music does not rest on a C. basis, but on the natural diatonic progression of sounds.

CHROMATOGRAPHY, n. krū'mŭ-tog'ră-fi [Gr. chrīma, color; graphe, writing]: a treatise on colors; the art of printing in colors- also called CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY.

CHROMATOMETER, n. krő' -tõm'ě-tér (Gr. chrūma, color; metron, measure): scale for measuring color.

CHROMATOPHORES, plu. kro-miit v-forz (Gr. chroma, color, chrómitos, of color; phorio, I carryl: little sacs containing pigment-granules, found in the integument of cattle fishes. CHROMATOPHOROUS, a. krūmu-töf o-ris, containing or secre ing coloring matter.

CHROMATROPE, n. kro'mo-trip (Gr. chrūma, color, tropi, turn, rotation]: an optical apparatus for exhibiting a stream of colors.


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