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until they shall be settled, disorders may naturally be apprehended, requiring the constant presence of a naval force in the Pacific ocean, to protect our fisheries and guard our commerce.

The disturbances that took place in the empire of Brazil, previously to and immediately consequent upon the abdication of the late emperor, necessarily suspended any effectual application for the redress of some past injuries suffered by our citizens from that government, while they have been the cause of others, in which all foreigners seem to have participated. Instructions have been given to our minister there, to press for indennity due for losses occasioned by these irregularities: and to take care that our fellow citizens shall enjoy all the privileges stipulated in their favor by the treaty lately made between the two powers, all which the good intelligence that prevails between our minister at Rio Janeiro and the Regency, gives us the best reason to expect.

I should have placed Buenos Ayres in the list of South American powers in respect to which nothing of importance affecting us was to be communicated, but for occurrences which have lately taken place at the Falkland Islands, in which the name of that republic has been used to cover, with a show of authority, acts injurious to our commerce, and to the property and liberty of our fellow citizens. In the course of the present year, one of our vessels engaged in the pursuit of a trade which we have always enjoyed without molestation, has been captured by a band acting, as they pretend, under the authority of the government of Buenos Ayres. I have, therefore, given orders for the despatch of an armed vessel to join our squadron in those seas, and aid in affording all lawful protection to our trade which shall be necessary; and shall without delay send a minister to inquire into the nature of the circumstances, and also of the claim, if any, that is set up by that government to those islands. In the mean time, I submit the case to the consideration of Congress, to the end that they may clothe the executive with such authority and means as they may deem necessary, for providing a force adequate to the complete protection of our fellow citizens fishing and trading in those seas.

This rapid sketch of our foreign relations, it is hoped, fellow citizens, may be of some use in so much of your legislation as may bear on that important subject; while it affords to the country at large a source of high gratification in the contemplation of our political and commercial connexion with the rest of the world. At peace with all-having subjects of future difference with few, and those susceptible of easy adjustment—extending our commerce gradually on all sides, and on none by any but the most liberal and mutually beneficial means—we may, by the blessing of Provi. dence, hope for ail ihat national prosperity which can be derived from an intercourse with foreign nations, guided by those eternal principles of jus:ice and reciprocal good will, which are binding as well upon states, as the individuals of whom they are composed.

I have great satisfaction in making this statement of our affairs, because the course of our national policy enables me to do it without any indiscreet exposure of what in other governments is usually concealed froin the people. Having none but a straightforward open course to pursue-guided by a single principle that will bear the strongest light--we have happily no political combinations to form, no alliances to entangle us, no complicated interests 10 consult; and in subjecting all we have done to the consideration of our citizens, and to the inspection of the world, we give no advantage to other nations, and lay ourselves open to no injury.

It may not be improper to add, that to preserve this state of things and give confidence to the world in the integrity of our designs, all our consular and diplomatic agents are strictly enjoined to examine well every cause of complaint preferred by our citizens; and while they urge with proper earnestness those that are well founded, to countenance none that are unreasonable or unjust, and to enjoin on our merchants and navigators the strictest obedience to the laws of the countries to which they resort, and a course of conduct in their dealings that may support the character of our nation, and render us respected abroad.

Connected with this subject, I must recommend a revisal of our consular laws. Defects and omissions have been discovered in their operation that ought to be remedied and supplied. For your farther information on this subject I have directed a report to be made by the secretary of state, which I shall hereafter submit to your consideration.

The internal peace and security of our confederated states is the next principal object of the general government. Time and experience have proved that the abode of the native Indian within their limits is dangerous to their peace and injurious to himself. In accordance with my recommendation at a former session of Congress, an appropriation of half a million of dollars was made to aid the voluntary removal of the various tribes beyond the limits of the states. At the last session, I had the happiness to announce that the Chic kasaws and Choctaws had accepted the generous offer of the government, and agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi river, by which the whole of the state of Mississippi and the western part of Alabama will be freed from Indian occupancy, and opened 10 a civilized population. The treaties with these tribes are in course of execution, and their removal, it is hoped, will be completed in the course of 1832.

At the request of the authorities of Georgia, the registration of Cherokee Indians for emigration has been resumed, and it is confidently expected that one half, if not two thirds of that tribe, will follow the wise example of their more westerly brethren. Those who prefer remaining at their present homes, will hereafter be governed by the laws of Georgia, as all her citizens are, and cease to be the objects of peculiar care on the part of the general government.

During the present year the attention of the government has been particularly directed to those tribes in the powerful and growing state of Ohio

, where considerable tracts of the finest lands were still occupied by the aboriginal proprietors. Treaties, either absolute or conditional, have been made, extinguishing the whole Indian title to the reservations in that state; and the time is not distant, it is hoped, when Ohio" will be no longer em barrassed by the Indian population. The same measure will be extended to Indiana, as soon as there is reason to anticipate success. It is confidently believed that perseverance for a few years in ihe present policy of the government will extinguish the Indian title to all lands lying within the states composing our federal Union, and remove beyond their limits every Indian who is not willing to submit 10 their laws. Thus will all conflicting claims to jurisdiction between the states and the Indian tribes be put to rest. It is pleasing to reflect that results so beneficial, not only to the states immediately concerned, but to the harmony of the Union, will have been accomplished by measures equally advantageous to the Indians



What the native savages become when surrounded by a dense population and by mixing with the whites, may be seen in the miserable remnants of a few eastern tribes, deprived of political and civil rights, forbidden to make contracts, and subjected to guardians, dragging out a wretched existence, without excitement, without hope, and almost without thought.

But the removal of the Indians beyond the limits and jurisdiction of the states, does not place them beyond the reach of philanthropic aid and Christian instruction. On the contrary, those whom philanthropy or religion may induce to live among them in their new abode, will be more free in the exercise of their benevolent functions than if they had remained within the limits of the states, embarrassed by their internal regulations. Now subject to no control but the superintending agency of the general government, exercised with the sole view of preserving peace, they may proceed uninolested in the interesting experiment of gradually advancing a community of American Indians from barbarism to the habits and enjoy ments of civilized life.

Among the happiest effects of the improved relations of our republic, has been an increase of trade, producing a corresponding increase of revenue, beyond the most sanguine anticipations of the treasury department.

The state of the public finances will be fully shown by the secretary the treasury, in the report which he will presently lay before you. I will here, however, congratulate you upon their prosperous condition. The revenue received in the present year will not fall short of twenty-seven millions seven hundred thousand dollars, and the expenditures for all objects other than the public debt, will not exceed fourteen millions seven hundred thousand dollars. The payment on account of the principal and interest of the debt during the year, will exceed sixteen millions five hundred thousand dollars; a greater sum than has been applied to that object out of the revenue in any year since the enlargement of the sinking fund, except the two years following immediately thereafter. The amount which will have been applied to the public debt from the fourth of March, 1829, to the first of January next, which is less than three years since the administration has been placed in my hands, will exceed forty millions of dollars.

From the large importations of the present year, it may be safely estimated that the revenue which will be received into the treasury from tha: source during the next year, with the aid of that received from the public lands, will considerably exceed the amount of the receipts of the present year; and it is believed that, with the means which the government will have at its disposal from various sources, which will be fully stated by the proper department, the whole of the public debt may be extinguished, either by redemption or purchase, within the four years of my administration. We shall then exhibit the rare example of a great nation, abounding in all the means of happiness and security, altogether free from debt.

The confidence with which the extinguishment of the public debt may be anticipated, presents an opportunity for carrying into effect more fully the policy in relation to import duties, which has been recommended in my former messages.

A modification of the tariff, which shall produce a reduction of our revenue to the wants of the government, and an adjustment of the duties on imports with a view to equal justice in relation to all our national interests, and to the counteraction of foreign policy, so far as it may be injurious to those interests, is deemed to be one of the principal

objects which demand the consideration of the present Congress. Justice to the interests of the merchant as well as the manufacturer, requires that material reductions in the import duties be prospective; and unless the present Congress shall dispose of the subject, the proposed reductions cannot properly be made to take effect at the period when the necessity for the revenue arising from present rates shall cease. It is, therefore, desira. ble that arrangements be adopted at your present session to reliere the people from unnecessary taxation, after the extinguishment of the public debt. In the exercise of that spirit of concession and conciliation which has distinguished the friends of our union in all great emergencies, it is believed that this object may be effected without injury to any national interest.

In my annual message of December, 1829, I had the honor to recommend the adoption of a more liberal policy than that which then prevailed toward unfortunate debtors to the government, and I deem it my duty again to invite your attention to this subject.

Actuated by similar views, Congress, at their last session, passed an act for the relief of certain insolvent debtors of the United States; but the provisions of that law have not been deemed such as were adequate to that relief to this unfortunate class of our fellow citizens, which may be safely extended to them. The points in which the law appears to be defective will be particularly coinmunicated by the secretary of the treasury; and I take pleasure in recommending such an extension of its provisions as will unfetter the enterprise of a valuable portion of our citizens, and restore to them the means of usefulness to themselves and the community. While deliberating upon this subject, I would also recommend to your consideration the propriety of so modifying the laws for enforcing the payment of debts due either to the public or to individuals suing in the courts of the United States, as to restrict the imprisonment of the person to cases of fraudulent concealment of property. The personal liberty of the citizen seems too sacred to be held, as in many cases it now is, at the will of a creditor to whom he is willing to surrender all the means he has of discharg. ing his debt.

The reports from the secretaries of the war and navy departments, and from the postmaster-general, which accompany this message, present satisfactory views of the operations of the departments respectively under their charge; and suggest improvements which are worthy of, and to which I invite, the serious attention of Congress. Certain defects and omissions having been discovered in the operation of the laws respecting patents, they are pointed out in the accompanying report from the secretary of state.

I have heretofore recommended amendments of the federal constitution giving the election of president and vice-president to the people, and limiting the service of the former to a single term. So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law, that I cannot, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress. For my views more at large, as well in relation to these points as to the disqualification of members of Congress to receive an office from a president in whose election they have had an official agency, which I proposed as a substitute, I refer


former messages. Our system of public accounts is extremely complicated, and, it is believed, may be much improved. Much of the present machinery, and a

you to

considerable portion of the expenditure of public money may be dispensed with, while greater facilities can be afforded to the liquidation of claims upon the government, and an examination into their justice and legality, quite as efficient as the present, secured. With a view to a general reform in the system, I recommend the subject to the attention of Congress.

I deem it my duty again to call your attention to the condition of the District of Columbia. It was doubtless wise in the framers of our constitution to place the people of this district under the jurisdiction of the general government; but, to accomplish the objects they had in view, it is not necessary that this people should be deprived of all the privileges of selfgovernment. Independently of the difficulty of inducing the representalives of distant states to turn their attention to projects of laws which are not of the highest interest to their constituents, they are not individually nor in Congress collectively, well qualified to legislate over the local concerns of this district. Consequently, its interests are much neglected, and the people are almost afraid to present their grievances, lest a body in which they are not represented, and which feels little sympathy in iheir local relations, should, in its attempt to make laws for them, do more harm than goud. Governed by the laws of the states whence they were severed, the two shores of the Potomac, within the ten miles square, have different penal codes: not the present codes of Virginia and Maryland, but such as existed in those states at the time of the cession to the United States. As Congress will not form a new code, and as the people of the district cannot make one for themselves, they are virtually under two governments. Is it not just to allow them at least a delegate in Congress, if not a local

legislature to make laws for the district, subject to the approval or rejection : of Congress ? I earnestly recommend the extension to them of every

political right which their interests require, and which may be compatible with the constitution.

The extension of the judiciary system of the United States, is deemed to be one of the duties of goverument. One fourth of the states in the Union do not participate in the benefits of a circuit court. To the states of Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, admitted into the Union since the present judicial system was organised, only a district court has been allowed. If this be sufficient, then the circuit courts, already existing in eighteen states, ought to be abolished: if it be not sufficient, the defect ought to be remedied, and these states placed on the same fooling with the other members of the Union. It was on this condition, and on this footing, that they entered the Union; and they may demand circuit courts as a matter, not of concession, but of right. I trust that Congress will not adjourn, leaving this anomaly in our system.

Entertaining the opinions heretofore expressed in relation to the bank of the United States, as at present organised, I felt it my duty, in my former messages, frankly to disclose them, in order that the attention of the legis.. lature and the people should be seasonably directed to that important subject, and that it might be considered and finally disposed of in a manner best calculated to promote the ends of the constitution, and subserve the public interests. Having thus conscientiously discharged a constitutional duty, 1 deem it proper, on this occasion, without a more particular reference to the views of the subject then expressed, to leave it for the present to the investigation of an enlightened people and their representatives.

In conclusion, permit me to invoke that Power which superintends all

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