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trenches, fighting like wild beasts. Hor bags!” The sandbags fly from hand to ror makes them crazy. Help is coming hand. A wall rises in the midst of the to us from the left. The second company trench. The other half was overrun long has fallen upon their flank. The French ago and is a knot of struggling men. A run like hunted animals. A shell bursts piece of wood hits me on the shoulderin their midst, catches twenty or thirty crack-I cry out! A shot lands in the of them and throws them in the air like

midst of our ammunition-it was our toys. They run still further, through the last. This way with the hand grenades ! air, bowling along on their heads, grue We have got to smoke them out! somely-and fall in heaps to the ground. A roaring hurrah! Heaven help us, Heads, legs, twitching bodies! The

aid is at hand! The Fourth, and the French run until back of the bodies. The

Fifth-I know the men—and some of the rest of them are cut to pieces, or made

First, too_all mixed up—dispersed prisoners. But now our men must come

troops rallied again. Now, up and at back.

them! The French defend themselves

furiously. We struggle for breath. Wounded men

They hold the trench. The writhe around and moan and groan heav

dead are heaped up before their ram

parts—but keep it up! A wild passion ily. The trench is bathed in blood. Far

takes possession of me. My revolver and more than half of the company has been slain. We are only a handful. I assem

my dagger have been lost in the fighting.

I seize a bottle. Hell sends it to me at ble the valiant men and distribute them

the right moment! Like an animal mad among the trenches. They stand reso

with hate I rush forward. My bottle lutely, breathing hard and gasping.

lands, crashing and splintering, on a A furious rattling and buzzing and woolly skull, with a distorted grimace. hissing calls us again to our posts. They A hot shock rushes through my shoulder are charging anew. Now the whites -a shock—a wrench-I grasp at the air again, in front, on the side. They are on -grasp something convulsively—throw our flank! Back of them the blacks in myself in the air-and fall in a heap. A frightful clusters. “ Bring the sand confused mist dances before my eyes.



Colossal War Expenses of Great Britain,

Germany, and France T"6

JHE request of the British Chancellor

of the Exchequer, Bonar Law. for a

supplementary credit of $250,000,000 on March 14 disclosed the fact that the total amount voted for the war by Great Britain for the year ending March 31, 1917, reached $10,000,000,000. A total of $3,000,000,000 was voted between Feb. 12, 1917, and the end of March.

Great Britain's “victory” popular loan exceeded all estimates; the total subscribed was $5,001,564,750; the total number of applicants was 5,289,000.

Germany's New War Credit The German Reichstag voted a new credit of $3,750,000,000 early in March. In submitting the new budget the Minister of Finance, Count von Roedern, uttered some significant phrases. He said:

Germany's sincere proposal of peace has met with a refusal. Mediation from the side of the neutrals failed in consequence of the decision of our enemies. The British blockade of the German and neutral coasts, which neither as regards the means by which it is put into effect nor its extension to different classes of goods and neutral countries corresponds to the hitherto existing usages of international law, has been answered by an actual blockade by means of a weapon created by this war. For this reason there could not yet be any written regulations in international law governing this weapon. This weapon is the submarine.

He affirmed that Germany was forced into the war. In discussing the new budget he said:

New taxation proposals are submitted to you which amount for the next year to 1,250,000,000 marks and hold out the prospect of additional taxation on war profits later on. Moreover, a further war credit of an



precedented amount-namely, 15,000,000,000 marks-is asked for. The payment of interest on previous credits is fully provided for. The safety law which became necessary last year provides for an increase of the legal reserve from 50 to 60 per cent., but the budget brings in during the financial year no new money; therefore, an additional tax of 20 per cent. on the existing war taxation is necessary.

Count von Roedern then pointed out the great value of the coal produced in Germany and imported into Germany, which he had estimated before the war at 2,500,000,000 marks. The idea of taking over the coal mines by the State had been rejected as impossible. Germany could safely rely on her own production of coal and even on having coal for export during normal times. Coal could be taxed the more readily, since the prices at home during the war, as compared with those in foreign countries, were comparatively low. The average price in Germany, he said, was 15 to 18 marks, while Great Britain paid 20s. to 30s. per ton; Italy over 300 lire; France, in November, 125 francs to 150 francs for house coal; and North America $6 to $7; so that average tax of 212 marks on coal and 80 pfennigs on lignite was not too high.” Count von Roedern then dwelt on the proposed taxation of railway tickets and bills of lading. He pointed out that similar measures had already been taken in other belligerent countries. A tax of 7 per cent. would be placed on all freights and a tax of from 10 to 16 per cent. on railway tickets. He proceeded:

World's Total $75,000,000,000 The war credit voted last October is nearly exhausted. As in all belligerent countries,

war expenditure during the last few months has experienced a certain tension. Our average extraordinary expenditure during October to January amounted in all to 2,775,000,000 marks. I have reason to suppose that, as between both groups of belligerents, the proportion today is still two to one; the war expenditure of the whole world exceeds 300,000,000,000 marks, ($75,000,000,000,) and therefore not more than 100,000,000,000 marks ($25,000,000,000) fall on us and our allies, while over 200,000,000,000 marks ($50,000,000,000) fall on the Entente. The tension will not relax in the war expenditure during the next few months. The war credit of 15,000,000,000 marks is therefore asked for. Next month we must issue another loan. This exact picture, as shown by the budget,

is certainly «serious, but our economic life gives no reason to look into the future with less confidence than hitherto. If the German people firmly believe in a happy issue of the final struggle which, in consequence of the plan of our enemies, has become inevitable, the German people may also expect that for this reason financial consequences are also to be deduced. Against the demand of our enemies for reparation we shall be able to put the word “indemnity." I have confidence in our economic future, in the unbroken financial strength of our people, and am convinced that, in view of our rapid technical development during the war and the firm determination of all circles of productive industry, everything which the war has destroyed will be rebuilt by our common labor.

Our strength is not founded on paper, as our enemies suppose, but on the unexhausted income of the people and on the fact that we did not fall into the slavery of debt to foreign countries, as our European enemies had to do in so high a degree. Our financial strength has been proved by the increase of the deposits in the savings banks, which in 1916 again exceeded 3,000,000,000 marks, by the extraordinary increase in the deposits of the banking institutes, and by reports of 400 limited companies, which show not only increasing profits 'but also wise reserves. The war has proved that we are united in the will to hold out to victory. I know that after the war we shall not be united on all economic questions, but there is one thing we shall carry over into peace time-the convic. tion that the development and increase of our production are of equal importance to all classes of the population, and that we must work together toward reconstruction. The Federal Governments count on co-operation on these lines, especially from the Reichstag, which will prove its determination to do its share by maintaining sound financial policy, by the impartial examination of the proposed taxes, by providing the means for the continuance of the war, and by ready support of the coming loan.

War Expenditures of France At the end of June France will have spent during the war in round figures 83,000,000,000 francs, or more than $16,000,000,000. The amount of the shortterm national bonds in circulation at the end of February was 14,500,000,000 francs.

In addition to her expenditures, France has advanced to her allies 3,875,000,000, making a total outlay since Aug. 1, 1914, of 87,000,000,000 francs. Loans made in the United States amount to 2,188,860,000 francs. The bonds placed in England will yield 5,927,128,000.



and Munitions

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nounced to the House of Commons

Feb. 23, 1917, that orders would be issued at once for a drastic restriction of non-essential imports, so that the full cargo space of shipping would be employed for food and munitions. He announced that minimum prices for farm products would be guaranteed over a term of years to encourage the farmer to plant every available foot of land, and that this would be supplemented later by an announcement that land owners would be forced to cultivate their land.

The Premier announced that a million tons of food luxuries and several million tons of paper, ore, and lumber would be lopped off the nation's imports. He said that the stocks of food were lower than ever before, not because of the enemy's submarine activities so much as because of the bad harvests. In the course of his address he stated that shipbuilding was increasing by special efforts, at some yards as much as 40 per cent.

The following is the royal proclamation, dated Feb. 23, 1917, relating to this announcement:

(1) As from and after the date hereof, subject as hereinafter provided, the importation into the United Kingdom of the following goods is hereby prohibited, viz. : Aerated, mineral, and table waters; agricultural machinery; antimony ware; apparel, not waterproofed ; (except boots and shoes ;) art, works of; baskets and basketware of bamboo ; books, printed, and other printed matter, including printed posters and daily, weekly, and other periodical publications, imported otherwise than in single copies through the post; boots and shoes of leather, and material used for the manufacture thereof, not already prohibited; brandy; clocks and parts thereof; cloisonné wares; cocoa, preparations of; cocoa, raw; coffee; cotton hosiery, cotton lace and articles thereof; curios; diatomite and infusorial earth; embroidery and needlework; fancy goods, known as Paris goods; feathers, ornamental, and down; fire extinguishers; flowers, artificial; flowers, fresh; fruit, raw, of all descriptions, (except lemons and bitter oranges,) and almonds and nuts used as fruit; glass manufactures not alreadly prohibited ; gloves; hats and bonnets; hides, wet and dry; incandescent gas mantles; jute, raw; leather, dressed and undressed; linen,

yarns, and manufactures of ; lobsters, canned ; mats and matting; mops ; painters' colors and pigments; perfumery; photographic apparatus;

pictures, prints, engravings, photographs, and maps; plated and gilt wares; quails, live; quebracho, hemlock, oak, and mangrove extracts; rum; salmon, canned; silk, manufactures of, not including silk yarns; skins and furs, manufactures of ; Soya beans; stereoscopes ; straw envelopes

for bottles; straw plaiting; sugar, articles and preparations containing, used for food ; (except condensed milk;) tea; tomatoes; typewriters; wine; wood and timber of all kinds, hewn, sawn, or split, planed or dressed.

Provided always, and it is hereby declared, that this prohibition shall not apply to any such goods which are imported under license given by or on behalf of the Board of Trade, and subject to the provisions and conditions of such license.

(2) As from and after the date hereof the prohibition imposed by the Prohibition of Import (paper, tobacco, furniture, woods, and stones) Proclamation, 1916, on the importation of the following goods shall be removed, and the said proclamation amended accordingly, viz. : All periodical publications exceeding 16 pages in length, imported otherwise than in single copies through the post.

Of the above articles now barred to Great Britain the exports from the United States in 1915 were $9,220,809, and $67,613,814 in 1916.

The Prime Minister's announcement also contained the following proposals: MINIMUM PRICES TO BE GUARANTEED

TO FARMERS Wheat-60s. per qr. this year, 55s. per qr. in 1918-19, 45s. per qr. in 1919-20, 1920-21, and 1921-22.

Oats-38s. 6d. per 336 lbs. this year, 32s. per 336 lbs. in 1918-19, and 24s. per 336 lbs. in the next three years.

Potatoes-£6 per ton this year.

In case the State commandeers cereals or potatoes, the maximum prices to be fixed in consultation with the Board of Agriculture.

FARM LABORERS' WAGES As a corollary of the guarantee of prices, a minimum wage of 25s. per week to be paid by farmers to every able-bodied man during the period of the guarantee.

The National Service machinery to be used for deciding whether a man is able-bodied.

RENTS Farmers to be guaranteed against the raiging of rents except with the consent of the Board of Agriculture.

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IMPORTS TO BE PROHIBITED Apples, tomatoes, and certain raw foods ; aerated, mineral, and table waters; coffee and cocoa.

Printed posters, paperhangings, and certain kinds of foreign printed matter and period icals. Foreign teas. Certain manufactured articles of luxury.

IMPORTS TO BE REDUCED Imports of paper material to be reduced to 640,000 tons, the reduction to be distributed equally between the printing and packing trades, and the use of paper for posters, catalogues, and for Government publications to be restricted.

Imports of oranges, bananas, grapes, almonds, and nuts to be restricted to 25 per cent. of the supply of 1915.

Canned salmon imports to be cut down by 50 per cent.

Indian tea, (amount of reduction not stated.) (A total saving of 900,000 tons to be effected

on food and feeding stuffs.)

ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS, &c. Output of beer to be reduced from the 18,000,000 barrels now allowed to 10,000,000 barrels, (to effect a saving of 600,000 tons of foodstuffs per annum.)

Imports of spirits and wines to be further reduced by 75 per cent. on the 1913 basis.

Rum to be excluded.

Imports of leather goods, boots, raw hides, and bottles to be restricted.

Timber for British Army in France to be obtained in France.

Timber for home use to be obtained at home. Home production of iron ore to be increased.

A Deserter's Wife and Her Dilemma

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S a woman to blame if she receives There was no proof, it maintained, that

her husband when she knows him the wife had provoked or approved of the

to be a deserter and does not de- desertion of her husband, or concealed nounce him? This was the question dis him. The court could not reproach her cussed in the Paris Appeal Court in a with having remained at home after her recent case. Mme. Marcelle Veryken, a husband's return, for she was only fulcorsetmaker, aged 27 years, was filling a legal obligation. It would be exprised last July by a visit from her hus

cessive, continued the judgment, to blame band, who had deserted from the Sev

Mme. Veryken because she did not deenty-fifth Regiment of infantry.

nounce her husband. To do so would be gave him an asylum, remained with him

to demand of a woman having affection at the conjugal domicile, and did not de

for her husband a sacrifice above her nounce him. Arrested in September, the

power. The court, therefore, annulled soldier's wife wrote to the examining

the previous judgment, and acquitted magistrate requesting to be set at lib

Mme. Veryken. erty. She had, she said, always lived an honorable life; her only fault was that

A like indulgence was, however, denied she had kept her husband at home, and

to Mme. Desmares for a similar act. She, no one expected a wife to do less.

unfortunately, was unable to produce her Mme. Veryken was released, but was

marriage lines, and the case of the debrought up before the Correctional serter, named Goujy, was aggravated by Chamber for complicity in desertion by

the fact that in 1913, when he saw the concealing her husband, and sentenced to war approaching, he hid himself, changed three months' imprisonment. When her

his name and address, and remained in appeal came on for hearing the prose

concealment until discovered in 1916. cution urged that in such circumstances His companion and accomplice was sena wife ought to abandon her home instead tenced to one year's imprisonment with of remaining with a deserter, whose the benefit of the First Offenders' act, crime constituted a grave insult to her. and the deserter Goujy was sent to prison The court, however, took another view.

for five years.

A German Peace League That Failed

By John T. Wheelwright


" Territorial aggression and national abase

the purpose of restraining the disturbers ment will pave the way for fresh war."-Ad

of peace, and will honestly co-operate dress of British Labor Independents, September, 1914.

in the extension of every endeavor to OURRIENNE* reports Napoleon

find a practical solution, and will collabas saying in 1805: “ There is not

orate to make its realization possible. sufficient unanimity among the

This all the more, if the war, as we exnations of Europe. European

pect and trust, shall create political consociety must be regenerated. A superior

ditions which do full justice to the free power must control the other powers and

development of all nations, the small as compel them to live at peace with each

well as the great nations. Then it will other, and France is well situated for this

be possible to realize the principles of purpose ”—and thus of Germany would

justice and free development on land, the German Emperor speak today. The

and of the freedom of the seas." great Corsican battled for ten years

The Chancellor's message is couched in after 1805 to establish that supreme

language none too clear. Can it be bepower of France in Europe, which was to

lieved that the German Empire will coinsure peace on earth, but the nations to operate in this league? As Prussia, Ausbe controlled were too human to enjoy

tria, and the other German States were peace on such terms.

once members of a “league to enforce At Napoleon's downfall tired Europe peace'

» called the German Confederarested on its arms for nearly forty years.

tion, it is conceivable that the Teuton It is now proposed to substitute for the

allies might, after this war, under cerone "superior power” a league of States

tain circumstances, join such a league to enforce peace by mutual agreements,

and abide by the compact.

The “ Bundes act” of the German Conand President Wilson, in an address to our Senate, recently proclaimed his belief

federation provided that in case of a that the United States should be a party

difference between two States the questo this agreement, and that the present 'tions at issue should be submitted to a war should be terminated by a peace that

committee of the Diet for solution. When shall stop short of conquest by either side.

the Diet decided a question, and made a At a dinner given in New York on

decree, it was the duty of the Diet to Nov. 24 last by the League to Enforce

appoint a corps to carry out an execution Peace communications were received ap

against a Federal State. The Federal proving the principle of forming such a army was not intended to be brought into permanent league of nations from Aris

requisition except to repel a foreign foe. tide Briand, Premier of France; Chancel

By the Federal act members of the Conlor von Bethmann Hollweg of Germany,

federation were strictly forbidden to and Viscount Grey, Great Britain's Sec

make war on each other. In case of a retary of State for Foreign Affairs.

State proving refractory, a summons was The German Chancellor in his mes

to be addressed to it to conform with the sage said: “The first condition for

resolution of the Diet. Then, in case evolution of international relations by

of refusal, an execution was ordered, way of 'arbitration and peaceful com

and a State or States charged with carrypromise of conflicting interests should

ing it out; but before the last forcible

means were taken another summons was be that no more aggressive coalitions are formed in the future. Germany will at

to be made, so as to give the State at all times be ready to enter a league for

fault another chance to avoid punish

ment. *Scribner's edition. Vol. II., Page 385.

War between the States was considered

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