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vincial Governors were replaced by Presi united in view of the national danger, dents of Zemstvos or Mayors of cities in were powerless to lead the Emperor and management of food supplies.
his Government into the path of union All censorship, except on military af with the people. Thus when Russia, by fairs, was abolished, and the department
the illegal and disastrous acts of her itself was discontinued. A committee
Governors, was faced with the greatest headed by Maxim Gorky was appointed
disasters, the people had to take the to safeguard palaces and artistic prop
power into their own hands. erty. Home rule will be given to Fin “ With unanimous revolutionary spirit, land. The former Governor, Zein, who the people, fully realizing the seriouswas an oppressor and reactionary, was ness of the moment and the firm will of sent to prison, and it is understood that the Duma, established a Provisional Baron Roditscheff, who has been a stanch Government, which considers that it is advocate of free Finland, will be ap its sacred duty to realize the national pointed Zein's successor.
desires and lead the country into the Manifesto to the Nation
bright path of free civil organization.
The Government believes that the lofty On March 20 the Russian Provisional
spirit of patriotism which the people Government issued the following mani have shown in the struggle against the festo to the nation:
old régime will also animate our gal“ Citizens: The great work has been lant soldiers on the battlefields. accomplished. By a powerful stroke the “ On its side the Government will do Russian people have overthrown the old its utmost to provide the army with régime. A new Russia is born. This
everything necessary to bring the war coup d'état has set the keystone upon 'to a victorious conclusion. The Governlong years of struggle.
ment will faithfully observe all alliances “ Under pressure of awakened national uniting us to other powers and all agreeforces, the act of Oct. 30, 1905, promised ments made in the past. Russia constitutional liberties, which
“While taking measures indispensable were never put into execution. The First for the defense of the country against a Duma, the mouthpiece of the national
foreign enemy, the Government will wishes, was dissolved. The Second Duma
consider it its first duty to grant to the met the same fate, and the Government, people every facility to express its will being powerless to crush the national
concerning the political administration, will, decided by the act of June 16, 1907, and will convoke as soon as possible a to deprive the people of part of the
constituent assembly on the basis of legislative rights promised them.
universal suffrage, at the same time as“During the ensuing ten years the suring the gallant defenders of the Government successively withdrew from country their share in the Parliamentary the people all the rights they had won. elections. The country was again thrown into the
“ The constituent assembly will issue abyss of absolute ruin and administrative fundamental laws, guaranteeing the arbitrariness. All attempts to make the country the immutable rights of equality voice of reason heard were vain, and and liberty. the great world struggle into which the
“ Conscious of the burden of the politicountry was plunged found it face to
cal oppression weighing on the country face with moral decadence and power not and hindering the free creative forces of united with the people—power indiffer the people during years of painful hardent to the country's destinies and steeped ships, the Provisional Government deems in vices and infamy.
it necessary, before the constituent asThe heroic efforts of the army, sembly, to announce to the country its crushed under the cruel weight of in principles, assuring political liberty and ternal disorganization, the appeals of equality to all citizens, making free use the national representatives, who were of the spiritual forces in creative work
for the benefit of the country. The Government will also take care to elaborate the principles assuring all citizens participation in communal elections, which will be carried out on a basis of universal suffrage.
“ At the moment of national emancipation the whole country recalls with pious gratitude those who, in the struggle for their political and religious ideas, fell victims of the vengeance of the old power, and the Provisional Government will joyfully bring back from exile and prison all those who thus suffered for the good of their country.
“ In realizing these problems the Provisional Government belives it is executing the national will and that the
whole people will support it in its efforts to insure the happiness of Russia."
The news from all parts of the country on March 20 indicated that the revolution had been successfully accomplished everywhere without serious bloodshed, and the people, the army, and the navy were acclaiming the new order with enthusiasm. It was decided, in order to avoid all complications, not to give any commanding position to a member of the Romonoff house; hence the proposal was abandoned to name Grand Duke Nicholas
Generalissimo and Grand Duke Michael as Regent. The full sovereign powers rest with the Provisional ernment until the National Assembly convenes.
Scientific Discoveries Due to the War
Paul Painlevé, a member of the French Institute and recent Minister of Inventions, has cited the following facts by way of reply to Thomas A. Edison's remark that science is playing a rather small part in the war:
The processes of wireless communication and for the registering of sounds at distances, that is, by the ordinary wireless currents and by ground induction, have been marvelously perfected through the requirements of the war. All the armies are rivaling each other in skillful methods for tapping the enemy's lines of telephonic communication from a considerable distance; not tapping as it is generally understood, but by the use of a marvelous instrument that enables the sentinel in his advanced listening post out beyond the front line of trenches to hear the enemy communications by telephone going over wires that are several hundred yards away.
I would mention also a system that we perfected and put into use for locating the enemy's batteries by sound. The principle was known before the war, but it was regarded as impracticable. It has, since the war, been brought to the highest state of perfection and efficiency and for months has been in use over the entire front. It has proved so effective that our adversaries, who captured a motor car with one of the outfits, have equipped themselves with similar appliances but lacking the delicacy and the precision of our instruments. France that had the entire initiative of this brilliant application.
Inventions for following the enemy's sapping and mining operations by sound that were, in all armies, very crude and insufficient before the war, have made the most remarkable progress, and will reflect honor upon French science later on.
Aviation in every respect has been remarkably perfected by the efforts of science and technicians since the war began. Today a pilot goes up in all kinds of weather without fear of being upset by sudden squalls, so well have been perfected the measures for the stability of flying machines. Great progress also has been made in the improvement of motors, particularly in the reduction of their weight in proportion to their effective power, so that they speed up to 150 miles an hour. Finally, in spite of the difficulties, wireless telegraphy has been marvelously adapted to aviation.
This intimate, first-hand study of the Kaiser, duly authenticated, is written by a prominent American correspondent in Berlin. It is the first exclusive pen picture of the Kaiser since the war began.
N the half lights of dawn there eternal vigil over the imperial body. For emerged from the shadows down the German Emperor is never so guarded the road a column of poplar trees; as he is at the front. Twenty miles from
motionless and erect, it seemed they the firing line, this château. Guarded were on sentry duty, too.
against what? green of their uniforms almost invisible All through the night there had come against the fields, soldiers in twos down to the soldiers in the park the faint crossed and recrossed the road, ghostly purring and clattering of the guards they in the quickening spectrum of above, airplanes circling high above the day, helmeted shadows
imperial head, two eyes of the Kaiser's Guard.
of the army peering Further down the road
through the high a light gleamed. That
places, lest an enemy was the château; there
flyer swoop near. And Wilhelm II., "by God's
the gravel drive grace, King of Prus
below, carefully posted sia and German Em
motor trucks, platperor," slept.
forms on wheels, In a nearby field
mounting long-ranged horses whinnied and
anti-aircraft guns, neighed; men moved,
others with monstrous talking in harsh early
glazy eyes that twinmorning voices. Two
kled now in the dawn squadrons of the Dra
-the searchlights, goon Guards were en
that had been ready camped there—should
to sweep the night the Kaiser call. There,
with light, had the too, one glimpsed a
enemy fliers come. thin, lean glimmer of
And in the château KAISER WILHELM II. steel; and, as the sky
room, under which changed from gray to pink, there came slept their Emperor, more of the grayout of the vagueness, taking sinister green men watched the yellowing sky shape, guns of the horse artillery and yawned and felt hungry. Since should the Kaiser call.
midnight they had held the watch there, Guarding him as he slept, files of the their machine guns tilted skyward; all gray-green men paced through the châ about them the layers of sandbags to teau park. An outer circle who tramped swallow the explosion of an enemy bomb. along the spiked iron fence of the Nets, an arbor of wires over their heads, grounds, another circle stalking through every precaution to nullify the effect of the trees, another, another, until, after a bomb that might be cast down upon the circle upon circle of sentries, one came to château where the Kaiser slept. a double guard at the narrow, prim en
came up again, ruthlessly trance to the château. Even there the lighting the scarred face of France. guards over the Kaiser did not end. Up Weird seemed the land in the faint light stairs sentries stole through the high of day. Houses to the east, through ceilinged halls. In the rooms just above, which the golden glow gleams, framed just below, and on either side of the Kai on their gray stone walls by the cavernser chamber Secret Service men spent a ous holes of the shells. There a church sleepless night, watching, listening, the with tumbled rafters, its cross shot
SINKING OF THE PASSENGER STEAMER LACONIA
One of the Tragic Events of the War, Depicted at the Moment when the Submarine Commander
Questioned the Helpless Victims in an Open Boat
(From a Drawing by J. Burns. 1917, N. Y. Times Co.)