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flag of the commission and carrying ties for the commission to continue its passes from the German Ambassadors at work, and it was decided not to withthe neutral capitals. The Captains of draw. The German action in ordering the commission's ships were pledged not Americans to leave the occupied territoto engage in belligerent practices, and ries was so promptly reversed that the the commission not to send anything but continuity of the work was not interfood and clothing for the Belgian popu- rupted. lation.
In regard to immunity from attack by When Great Britain declared food- submarines, it was announced on Feb. 24 stuffs contraband, the commission's that the sailing of the commission's ships ships were exempted from the Order in had been resumed as the result of arCouncil. It was provided that they rangements with the British and German should be specially marked with the let- Governments whereby a route between ters “ C. R. B.” At the beginning of the North American ports and Rotterdam submarine warfare around the British had been agreed upon. Meanwhile, howIsles in February, 1915, the German Gov- ever, many of the commission's vessels ernment agreed that the commission's had accumulated in British ports, and steamers should go through the war zone were held there. Concerning these Sir immune from attack.
Maurice de Bunsen, British Under SecreOn President Wilson's announcement tary of Foreign Affairs, made the folof the diplomatic break, the commission lowing statement on March 5: ordered all its ships in America, Argen- In declaring the war zone, Germany extina, India, and Europe to remain in port
plicitly canceled all her safe conducts, giving
only a few hours for the relief ships then till further notice. But fifteen ships
in United Kingdom ports to clear for Rotterwere either in or approaching the war dam. It was impossible to get them away zone, and could not be reached by wire- in time. It was also impossible to communi
cate with the ships on the high seas, as they less. Two of them were sunk. It was
were not provided with wireless. said that the German Government would
Since then the Germans have alleged that no longer respect the commission's flag
they accorded to these and to other neutral unless the ships took a course entirely to
ships a further period of grace. Nobody ever
heard of this until the Germans announced the north of the newly established war
that the period had expired. All that the zone on their way to Holland. The Ger
commission or the world knew was that the man Government gave assurances that it Germans had opened their submarine camhad no intention of interfering with the paign by sinking two Belgian relief ships.
There has thus been a steady accumulation work of feeding the civil populations of
of relief ships in the United Kingdom ports. Belgium and Northern France.
Their cargoes have been deteriorating, valuaDespite the diplomatic break, the com- ble anchorages have been taken up, and the mission decided at first not to withdraw
whole of this tonnage, which urgently is re
quired to take additional relief cargoes from its representatives from Belgium, but on
American ports, has been held in suspense Feb. 12, after a German order had been
for a month. issued for all Americans to withdraw The commission immediately opened negofrom the occupied territories, leaving in
tiations with the Germans through the Span
ish, Dutch, and Swiss Governments, and the Brussels only a few of their representá
Entente Governments strongly supported their tives, headed by Brand Whitlock, the representations. The only reply which the American Minister to Belgium, the com
Germans vouchsafed regarding the ships in mission notified the German authorities
the ports of the United Kingdom is that they
will reserve any question as to the giving of that the Americans would cease to par
guarantees for such ships until they have ticipate in the relief work in Belgium received a detailed list of their names and and Northern France. However, after a
of the reports where they now are. This re
quest was received virtually simultaneously conference on Feb. 15 between the Ger
with the sinking of Dutch liners in the man Civil Governor of Brussels, the
English Channel. American and Spanish Ministers, and His Majesty's Government have replied representatives of the commission and
that, in view of that occurrence, to give any
such information to the Germans before the the Belgian National Committee, permis
latter have guaranteed absolute immunity to sion was given by the German authori- all these ships, would be to lay them open
to attack and invite treachery. In view of the evident intention of Germany to hold up this tonnage for the longest possible period, and in view of the urgent need of these ships to take further cargoes to the starving populations in Belgium and Northern France, his Majesty's Government have agreed with the commission to discharge these cargoes in the United Kingdom and provide storage for them until the Germans either have given the necessary guarantees to relief ships from the United Kingdom ports passing. Rotterdam or have shown even more clearly than at present that they do not intend to give such guarantees.
Meanwhile a regular supply of foodstuffs for Belgium and Northern France will go on in ships passing under German safe conducts from American ports to Rotterdam. The
position therefore is
follows: His Majesty's Government have respected and will respect property of the commission in these cargoes.
All that they have done is to provide storage room for foodstuffs which the Germans are apparently anxious to hinder reaching Belgium and Northern France.
On the other hand, the Germans already twice have broken their safe conducts and destroyed property of the commission. By this act of faithlessness they have struck one blow at the work of relief. They now invite his Majesty's Government to assist them in destroying more relief ships by informing them where the ships are and consequently how they can best be attacked when the ships set sail. To satisfy the German demands would be to become accomplices in their crimes.
Secret Journalism in Belgium
Story of La Libre Belgique
A LIBRE BELGIQUE, the secret this modern slavery in its most odious
newspaper whose tenacity of life light, concluding with these words:
exasperates the German authorities “ Belgians, do you desire that when in the occupied provinces of Belgium, re our brave soldiers return from the front cently celebrated the second anniversary they shall say to you, "You dug the of its birth. At the end of January, 1915, trenches which we had to fight for '? appeared the first number of this unique Take flight, or, if you cannot do that, organ, which describes itself as
regu resist; if necessary, even die, but die larly irregular," and which states under its title that its office is in an automo Baron von Bissing, the Governor Genbile cellar." Naturally, this indomitable eral, finds the little sheet in his mail organ of patriotic propaganda, which every week, and he will probably be the circulates mysteriously in every Belgian only person after the war, says a writer town under the German yoke, celebrated in the Paris Temps, “to possess a comthe anniversary by coming out yet again plete file of this publication, which mocks and evading the frantic efforts of Baron the German Emperor in the midst of von Bissing's police to suppress it.
Prussian terrorism, and which, in spite La Libre Belgique (Free Belgium) is of all the censors, calls a cat a cat, Bethirrepressible. The Germans have ar mann Hollweg a liar, and William II. a rested numerous persons suspected of
knave." being connected with it, but they have The only result obtained by the opnever succeeded in preventing or even pressor is an extraordinary development retarding its publication. Neither the of clandestine printing in the occupied promise of a large reward for any one districts. The success of La Libre Belwho will betray it, nor the threat of gique has caused other journals to spring heavier punishments, nor yet the implac up, edited by no one knows who, printed able attempt to hunt down all who carry no one knows where, circulated no one or read the paper-nothing has been able knows by what means. There exists in to ruin the audacious enterprise. In its downtrodden Belgium a Weekly Review first issue of last December, when the of the French Press which has passed its forced deportation of civilians was in sixtieth number and which reproduces full swing, La Libre Belgique published for Belgian readers the chief articles in on its front page an article depicting the Paris newspapers and magazines;
there is Le Motus, a satirical sheet, full that involve circumventing the police. of a biting, something cruel, irony; there No letter can enter Belgium or leave is Patrie! which competes with La Libre it without passing under the eyes of the Belgique--for there is competition even German censors, and yet at Brussels, at there and indulges in the perilous Antwerp, at Liége, the people know luxury of reproducing the most striking exactly what the Paris papers of four or cartoons of Louis Raemaekers, notably five days ago contained. La Libre the famous “ En Route to Calais," which Belgique in June, 1916, reproduced in shows the corpses of German soldiers extenso a speech by M. Briand that had floating in the flood of the inundated appeared in Le Temps on May 19. At region along the Yser.
no moment since the beginning of the How do these newspapers live? How German occupation have the leading can they get together their
French papers ceased to circulate in BelHow do they get their type set, or make gium. There is a well-known system the plates for their pictures, or procure which consists in obtaining for two or the necessary paper, or recruit their three francs the regular reading of this salesmen, or deliver the printed copies to or that journal for half an hour. Another their subscribers ? There is a series of form of “subscription" is more curious, complex problems, when one recalls that and more expensive: every day one rethe German authorities have thousands ceives two or three mimeographed sheets of spies at their command, that every summing up the news and reproducing house is watched, and that a man cannot the essential passages from the latest move from one town to another without Paris and London papers.
What sort special permit from the “kom of an organization handles this service ? mandatur.” And yet all this is accom Nobody knows; the Belgians themselves plished regularly; hundreds of patriotic do not know. They read and reread the persons risk prison and deportation every sheets, fixing the details in the memory, week to devote themselves to this task. then carefully burn them. When the It is their way of fighting the Germans Germans afterward wish to impose on on the ground where these pretend to them with a false version of events, they be absolute masters.
have the laugh on their oppressors, for Later, when everything can be told, even in the remotest and smallest towns the story of the adventures of clandestine the people know the truth. newspapers in the occupied regions will “ The rapidity with which the news constitute one of the most curious chap circulates in the invaded regions,” says ters in the history of the war. The Ger a French writer, “has been one of the mans will be astonished at the simplicity essential factors in maintaining the adof the means used to circumvent them. mirable morale of the Belgian people. The Belgian, a protester by nature, with The clandestine press, with its disconrare tenacity in anything he undertakes, certing phenomena, has kept the populaat once bold in conception and prudent tion in touch with the outer world and in execution, was admirably fitted for played an important rôle in the nation's a struggle of this sort. The writer above passive resistance to its oppressors. quoted remarks that the Germans under These little leaves, printed no matter stand nothing of the 'Belgian tempera how, in the chance of the hour, have ment, and do not even suspect the rival demonstrated the fallibility of Prussian ries and complicities which are always terrorism, for they sum up for a whole to be found alike in Flanders and in people its passion of patriotism and its Wallonia, for the most incredible tasks inflexible will not to die."
Serbia and the War's Beginning
By Woislav M. Petrovitch
Former attaché of the Royal Serbian Legation at the Court of St. James's; author of
“ Serbia : Her People, History, and Aspirations."
HE defeat of the Sultan's forces by the Balkan allies in 1912-13 had been a tremendous blow to
Austria-Hungary and especially to Germany, whose officers had reorganized and trained the Ottoman Army, and who, for the success of her schemes of expansion in Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, depended on her ascendency in Constantinople. The utter débâcle of Bulgaria, inflicted upon her by the Serbians in the memorable battle of the Bregalnitsa, in July of 1913, the Greek occupation of Saloniki, and the rise in power and prestige of Serbia, the friend of Russia and the apostle of the Jugoslav,or Southern Slav, emancipation, constituted for the powers north of the Danube still greater catastrophe. The road to Saloniki, by the valleys of the Serbian rivers, Morava and the Vardar, was definitely closed to Austria, and Germany was cut off from Turkey, whose army was to act in conjunction with the Teutonic hosts in the event of a European war.
Only prompt action could retrieve such a miscarrying of the Austro-German plans, and it is not surprising to hear that as early as the Summer of 1913 the Dual Monarchy was bent on declaring war on Serbia, and endeavored to secure the support of Italy. As this help was not forthcoming, action was deferred for the moment, and a huge army bill was promulgated in Germany to redress the balance of power and make ready for any eventuality.
Such was the position when, on June 28, 1914, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Hapsburg throne, and his consort were murdered in the streets of Serajevo, the capital of Bosnia. are many mysterious features about that tragedy. His death certainly did not serve any Southern Slav interests, for, however great and dangerous his ambi
tions, he is known to have been quite out of sympathy with the short-sighted policy of repression which had hitherto found favor in Vienna and in Pesth, where, for various reasons, he had many enemies in extremely influential quarters. The absence of all the most elementary prec a utions for his safety during the visit to Serajevo, though, according to the Austrians themselves, the whole of Bosnia wa honeycombed with sedition, is an awkward
fact which has not hitherto been explained."*
On the morrow of the crime the Austro-Hungarian press started a violent campaign against Serbia, openly putting upon the Serbian Government the responsibility for the outrage. It availed nothing to point out that a country still bleeding from the wounds of two desperate wars, and whose most urgent need was a period of quiet and of internal consolidation, could not have chosen so unfavorable a moment to involve itself in new difficulties with a powerful neighbor; still less was considered the fact that the young miscreants
WOISLAV M. PETROVITCH
date, late at night, the newspapers received the following request:
We beg the editor not to publish the report relating to the Serajevo outrage, which appeared in our evening's bulletin.
From this moment profound silence fell upon the inquiry at Serajevo and upon the proceedings at the Foreign Office. The attempt to trace the crime to any responsible quarters in Serbia was evidently beyond the power of even Count Forgach. Count Berchtold discontinued the usual weekly receptions at the Ballplatz; he refused to discuss the Serajevo outrage with the representatives of foreign countries, or, if discussion did arise, care was taken to dispel all apprehension and suspicion that Austria-Hungary was meditating any serious action against Serbia. Petrograd was assured that the step to be taken at Belgrade would be of a conciliatory character; the French Ambassador was told that only such demands would be put forward as Serbia would be able to accept without difficulty. campaign, nevertheless, continued unabated and took its tone from the utterance of the inspired Neue Freie Presse: “ We have to settle matters with Serbia by war
and if we must come to war later, then it is better to see the matter through now."
On July 20, 1914, Mr. Jovanovitch, then Serbian Minister in Vienna, ciphered to Mr. Pashitch, the Premier:
Ít is very difficult, almost impossible, to discover here anything positive as to the real intentions of Austro-Hungary. The mot d'ordre is to maintain absolute secrecy about everything that is being done. Judging by the articles in our newspapers, Belgrade is taking an optimistic view of the question pending with Austria-Hungary. There is, however, no place for optimism. That which is chiefly to be feared and is highly probable is that Austria is preparing for war against Serbia, The general conviction that prevails here is that it would be nothing less than suicide if Austria-Hungary once more failed to take advantage of the opportunity to act against Serbia. It is believed that the two opportunities previously missed-annexation of Bosnia and the Balkan war-have been extremely harmful to Austria-Hungary. In addition to this, there is the still more deeply rooted opinion that Serbia, after her two wars, is completely exhausted, and that a war against Serbia would in fact merely
Austrian subjects, and that “ Bosnia, Dalmatia, and Croatia are a seething pot which needs no stirring from the outside;* the Viennese press set itself deliberately to spread the idea that the misdeed had been organized in and by official Serbia. Although the Bosnian Serbs, who constitute the bulk of the population of that province, are always referred to in Austria by such
“ die Bosniaken or “ die Orthodoxen aus Bosnian," the assassins were referred to invariably as Serben," and in such a manner as to create the impression that they were Serbs from the Kingdom of Serbia.
On July 3, when the remains of the Archduke and his consort were brought from Serajevo to Vienna, the Serbian flag was very properly half-masted at the Serbian Legation in Vienna; noisy demonstrations took place in front of the legation, and the incident was referred to the next day under the heading: “ Provocation by the Serbian Minister."
The “Case" Against Serbia In the meantime a case against Serbia, resting upon a secret investigation in the prison of Serajevo, was in course of preparation; it had been intrusted to Austria's professional forger, Count Forgach, notorious especially by the Friedjung trial, who now fittingly occupie the post of permanent Under Secretary at the Foreign Office, and who, in the early days of July, provided the Hungarian correspondence bureau with a plentiful supply of falsehoods. On July 3 the following communication was issued to the press:
The inquiries made up to the present prove conclusively that the outrage is the work of a conspiracy. Besides the two perpetrators, a considerable number of persons have been arrested, mostly young men, who are also, like the perpetrators, proved to have been employed by the Belgrade Narodna Odbrana (National Defense) in order to commit the outrage, and who were supplied in Belgrade with bombs and revolvers.
The Foreign Office in Vienna, however, probably realized that zeal was outrunning discretion, for on the same
*R. W. Seaton-Watson, Democracy,” London, 1915.
“ The War and