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mean a military expedition to be concluded by hostile and unjustifiable utterances of high a speedy occupation. It is also believed that Serbian functionaries at home and abroad such a war could be brought to an end before since the outrage of June 28. Europe could intervene.

10. To notify the Austro-Hungarian GovernThe Austrian Note

ment without delay that the measures enu

merated above have been duly carried out. It was at 6 P. M. on July 23 that the

A reply is expected at the latest on SaturAustro-Hungarian Minister in Belgrade day, July 25, at 6 P. M. handed to the Minister of Foreign Af So secret had the contents of the note fairs the note embodying the demands been kept from the representatives of the of Austria, and insisting on a reply powers-except the German Ambassador within forty-eight hours.

Tschirschky, who was understood to have The Serbian Government was charged co-operated in drafting it—that when its with fomenting a revolutionary propa contents were published on the 24th all ganda having for its object the detach of them were dumfounded. The French ment of part of the territories of Austria and British Ambassadors and the Russian Hungary from the monarchy. It was Chargé d'Affaires held the view that the asserted, though no proof was given, and step taken by Austria-Hungary must be dossier communicated, that the Serajevo considered not as a note but as an ultiassassinations were planned and the matum. They expressed indignation at murderers equipped in Belgrade.

its form, its contents, and the time limit, The following demands were included and they also declared it to be inacceptin the note:

able. The Royal Serbian Government will publish

It was not intended to be accepted, and in the Journal Officiel of July 26, and as an all Vienna went wild with jubilation at army order, a condemnation of the anti the certainty of war, a short war and a Austrian propaganda and of all officers and officials who have taken part in it.

merry one, or rather an “execution,"* to The Royal Serbian Government will under

be rushed to a termination before the take besides :

powers of the Entente had time to decide 1. To suppress all publications inciting to

on a course of action; for Austria-Hunhatred or contempt of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and the tendency of which is di

gary had been assured by Herr von rected against that power's territorial in

Tschirschky that the conflict would be tegrity.

localized, that Germany would keep the 2. To dissolve immediately the Narodna ring and that Russia must remain pasOdbrana and all other societies or affikations

sive. which foster an anti-Austrian propaganda.

3. To eliminate without delay from the It was indeed a fact that neither Serbia Serbian schools any members of the staffs nor Russia wanted war, and before the or vehicles of instruction with anti-Austrian

expiration of the time limit Serbia handed tendencies. 4. To remove from the army and the civil

in a reply to the note, in which she exservice a number of officers and officials ceeded all expectations in the direction guilty of anti-Austrian propaganda, whose of conciliation. The Serbian Government names will be communicated by the Austrian

unreservedly accepted all the demands of Government. 5. To accept the collaboration in Serbia of

Austria-Hungary, except Nos. 5 and 6, agents appointed by the Austro-Hungarian and promised to revise those articles of Government, for the suppression of the sub the Constitution (e. g., Article 22 on the versive movement.

liberty of the press) which stood in the 6. To institute a judicial inquiry with regard to the accomplices to the plot of June

way of these demands. 28, residing in Serbian territory; Austro With regard to Nos. 5 and 6, further Hungarian delegates to take part in this in explanations were requested; the parvestigation.

ticipation in the inquiries and investiga7. To arrest at once Major Tankositch and

tions of Austrian Milan Ciganovitch, both of whom are impli

functionaries could cated in the assassination.

only be accepted in so far as it should 8. To prevent the illicit trade in arms and explosives across the frontier, and to punish *On July 25, in conversation with the those who assisted the murderers to cross the Russian Chargé d'Affaires, Herr von Jagow frontier.

said that what Vienna intended against Serbia 9. To furnish explanations regarding the was not a war, but an execution."

conform with international equity and quently happened that a regiment went with the maintenance of friendly rela into the firing line with one rifle for tions as between State and State.

every two men, those who were unarmed Furthermore, if the manner of carry

taking both the place and the weapons ing out the different clauses enumer

of those who fell. ated above were not entirely satisfactory The declaration of war on the 28th to Austria-Hungary, the Serbian Gov was followed by a desultory bombardernment was ready to refer any point ment of the unfortified Serbian capital either to The Hague Tribunal or the from batteries on the opposite shore and powers who had taken a part in the set monitors on the river. This, however, tlement of March 21, 1909.

was the only action taken during the first Declaration of War

few days, and Austria's failure to strike

while Belgrade lay defenseless and open A conciliatory answer was neither ex to easy occupation is significant testipected nor wanted, however; that very mony to her alarm at the European situaevening the reply was rejected and the tion and anxiety to compromise. Austrian Minister instructed to leave

It was impossible for the Serbian Belgrade; on the 28th Austria declared

armies to line the Austro-Serbian fronwar on Serbia.

tier, which extends to 340 miles, espeWithin the next two days Austria cially as in Summer the Save and the awoke to the startling fact that Russia Drina are easily forded at numerous was beginning to move. In spite of the

points. Voyvoda (Field Marshal) Putnik German Ambassador's assurances that therefore fell back upon the traditional the Czar would not and could not fight, lines of defense, and, while the Governhe had decided to intervene! A bully ment withdrew from Belgrade to Nish, likes a fight best when his opponent is he grouped the main armies in the much smaller than himself; at this ap Shumadija on the line Palanka-Arandpearance of full-grown adversary jelovats-Lazarevts, whence they could Vienna pulled a very long face, and on rapidly move either north west. July 21 the Ballplatz suddenly consented Strong detachments were posted at Valto eliminate from the ultimatum those yevo and Uzhitse, and outposts stationed demands which involved a violation of at every important point on the frontier, the sovereignty of Serbia, to discuss cer after which all the General Staff could tain others, and, in short, to reopen the do was to wait till the enemy's plan of question. It was too late. Germany, invasion materialized. having jockeyed Austria into a position

The First Invasion from which there was no escape, declared

At the beginning of August, Belgrade, war on Russia the next day.

Semendria, and Gradishte were subjected The Punitive Expeditions

to vigorous bombardment, and a number When on the evening of July 25 the of attempts to cross the Danube were Crown Prince Alexander, acting made and repulsed with heavy losses, one Prince Regent, signed the order for Austrian regiment having been practimobilization, Serbia was as entirely un cally wiped out. The Serbian staff knew, prepared for war in every respect, save however, that several army corps were actual experience of warfare, as any stationed in Bosnia, and refused to be country that has ever been summoned to misled by these feints on the Danube. take the field in self-defense. Little or Attempts followed to cross the Drina at none of the recent wastage had as yet Lubovia and Ratsha, and the Save at been made good. The orders placed Shabats, and these were looked upon as abroad for cannon, rifles, ammunition, more significant. Desultory fighting clothing, and stores had not yet been round places as far apart as Obrenovats carried out; heavy guns, automobiles, and Vishegrad continued until Aug. 12, flying machines were lacking. During when the first penetration of Austrian the campaign which followed, it fre troops into Serbia was signaled from

a

or

as

Losnitsa. At that town and at Leshnitsa der, having thrown the Austrians back the Thirteenth Army Corps effected a upon Shabats and brought up reinforcecrossing, while on the same day the ments south of the Tzer, deployed his Fourth Army Corps crossed the Save to army on a front of thirty-five miles, exthe north of Shabats, and other troops tending from Leshnitsa to the neighborthe Drina at Zvornik and Lubovia. By hood of Lubovia. Inspired with memories the 14th, over a front of about one of Kumanovo and Prilip, the Serbians hundred miles, six great columns had gradually forced their way westward, crossed the rivers and were converging along the Tzer and Iverak ranges, and on Valyevo.

down each bank of the Jadar, throwing The great bulk of the invaders had the enemy back upon Leshnitsa and entered by the valley of the Jadar; the Losnitsa. Third Serbian Army and part of the Aug. 19 was the decisive day of the Second Army now advanced with all pos struggle; the Austrians gave way at sible speed to meet them; meanwhile the every point; their retreat along the remainder of the Second Army was or valleys was shelled by the Serbian guns dered to block the advance from Shabats. advancing along the intervening heights, The Austrian plan was obviously to iso and gradually converted into a rout, in late and overwhelm the Second and Third which rifle and bayonet completed the Serbian Armies in the wedge of land be work of the guns.

By the 23d the Sertween the Save, the Drina, and the bian armies, after taking quantities of Jadar; this object once attained, the road prisoners and artillery, had hurled what to Valyevo and Kraguyevats lay open, was left of the Austrians back across the and Serbia was at the mercy of the Drina. Thus ended the five days' eninvader.

gagement which will be known as the On the 14th the Austrians were battle of the Jadar. brought to a temporary halt by the Ser In the meantime strong Serbian forces bian detachments retreating from Los had crossed the Dobrava Valley and adnitsa, who dug themselves in across the vanced on Shabats, round which the Jadar Valley at Jarebitsa, and gave the Austrians had fortified a wide circle. main armies time to hasten westward by Violent fighting took place on the 21st forced marches; but the first real shock and 22d, on which day the Serbian troops of battle came on the 16th when the worked their way round to the western Austrian column of almost 80,000 men, approaches of the town. They tightened advancing from Leshnitsa to the north their cordon on the 23d, and during the of the Tzer Mountains, was heavily de night brought up siege artillery. When feated and routed at Belikamen, two regi the bombardment had begun on the ments having been annihilated. Pursuing morning of the 24th, it was discovered their advantage, the Serbians drove in a that the Austrians had decamped, after wedge between the Austrian forces ad murdering in cold blood fifty-eight vancing from Shabats and those operat. prisoners from the Thirteenth and Fouring south of the Tzer Mountains along teenth Serbian Regiments, whose bodies the Jadar. From this moment the were found piled up in three rows in a Shabats and the Jadar campaign became private house. By 4 P. M. the Serbians distinct operations.

had reached the banks of the Save, and At the same time, south of the Tzer, a the first invasion of Serbia was at an violent and indecisive action had taken end. The Austrians' explanation of their place, and the Serbians were at length retreat, after the “ successful accomcompelled to evacuate Jarebitsa on find- plishment” of their incursion into the ing their left wing threatened by a force enemy's territory, on account of advancing, in hitherto unsuspected important operations at other points," strength, from Krupani. The retirement is still fresh in public memory. was completed by the morning of the As a result of their attempt to 17th.

cute” Serbia, the Austrians had lost On Aug. 18 the Crown Prince Alexan 8,000 dead, 4,000 prisoners, and about

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