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in Poland, the British reverse at the allied forces from the base at Saloniki. Dardanelles, and their own ambition to The Government at Athens announced attain the abortive terms of the Treaty that if the Anglo-French army came of San Stefano, the Bulgars embarked back into Greek territory they would inupon the world war in the belief that it tern it. The protecting powers responded would be a brief one once they threw with an ultimatum threatening to blocktheir weight in the scales. They imme ade Greece, whereupon Athens gave way diately mobilized every available man with a bad grace. down to the youngest class and enrolled In November, 1915, large allied reabout 750,000 men, leaving the women inforcements arrived at Saloniki, but and old men to work the farms. It was were not sent up country, partly owing essential to their success that the war to the threatening attitude of the Greek be brief, because only about 35,000 youths Army and partly because a retreat from mature every year, and they had no the front had already been decided on. other reserves.

They consisted of one French corps, and Their attack on the Serbian rear at two British corps--of which two ditained its object and made possible the visions

veterans from the old Austrian advance under General von regular standing army. Mackensen. So far their losses had not General Sarrail retreated to Ghevgeli been great, because their strength had with small loss and saved his stores, but not been tested out in a pitched battle on Dec. 7, 1915, he was attacked in force with a well-equipped foe. They had, and retired without advising his colleague moreover, proved themselves good fight on the right of his change of position. ing material, and were well-backed up The British on the right still held their by heavy artillery lent by their northern ground in ignorance of the French withallies.

drawal, and were suddenly overwhelmed The Retreat from Serbia

by a Bulgarian army several times their

number. They were only saved from Meanwhile, at Saloniki, the French had

annihilation through the Bulgars not landed a division under General Sarrail,

venturing to follow them into Greek the renowned defender of Verdun, and the territory. The Tenth Irish and a portion British had disembarked the heroic rem

of the Twenty-second British Division in nants of the Tenth Irish Division under

support were lost for days in the mountSir Bryan Mahon, who had led the flying

ain mists, and some of the sentries were column to the relief of Mafeking during frozen to death in the hills. the Boer war. There was no Commander

The Allies fell back on Saloniki with in Chief to co-ordinate the movements

the Greek Army all around them, trucuof the allied forces, who now moved up

lent and obstructive, and with the Greek country, where the French took station

guns trained upon the allied camp. on the left around Krivolak and the British on the right around Doiran. Gen

Fortified Camp at Saloniki eral Sarrail endeavored to extend his General Sarrail was appointed Comleft flank to get in touch with some mander in Chief and instructed to fortify 5,000 Serbians who were retreating from Saloniki, while the guaranteeing powers Uskub, and were at the moment holding compelled the Greek King to withdraw the Babuna Pass, north of Prilip. Owing his main army from Macedonia and reto the weakness of his force he did not tire it to Old Greece, or the kingdom as succeed, although his manoeuvre diverted it existed prior to the Balkan war of the attention of the Bulgars and enabled 1912. General Mahon was given a high the Serbians to escape into Albania. command in Egypt, and afterward suc

The allied commanders themselves now ceeded General Maxwell in command of had to think about retreating, but were the troops in Ireland, he himself being hampered by the Greeks in their rear Irishman. General Milne of the wrecking trains and endeavoring to pre Royal Artillery was appointed to the vent stores and ammunition reaching the vacancy.


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Coastal Railway

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The position at the base was still quarters in France, he was eminently highly unsatisfactory, mainly due to the satisfied with the position at Saloniki. Greek King having appointed pro-German sympathizers to all the chief posts

Extending the Lines throughout Greece. This organization The Royal Engineers and the Génie became a network of spying and report Français were directed to prepare for an ing in the German interest. The inade extension of the lines beyond the inquate transportation service was further trenched camp, as at that time there depleted by Greek officials sending railway cars across

To Nish. Belgrade the frontier to the Bulga

Austro-German Bases

Bulgarian Beres

Strana Vallay rians, until the British blew up the Demir-Hissar bridge

Monastir in February and so stopped it.

In Saloniki itself the Greek


SALONIKA B division stationed there claimed the best landing facilities for themselves, and permitted Fort Kara-Burram to be used as

인 a base of supplies for Gersubmarines. When

INNER DEFENSES OF SALONIKI the position became intolerable, General Sarrail deported the enemy were only two roads available—one to Consuls and ousted the Greek garrison Monastir and the other to Seres. Since from the fort and quay.

then they have constructed over 5,000 The military considerations which dic miles of new roadways, besides building tated the holding of Saloniki were not railways and improving the landing less important than the political. They facilities at the port. are comparable to those which determined The outposts were then advanced about the Duke of Wellington to establish the thirty miles, to just within the Greek succession of impregnable lines at frontier, from Karasuli to Kilindir. The Torres-Vedras to cover the Port of British occupied the right with three Lisbon during his operations in the Pe divisions, the French the left with two ninsula in 1809. These not only provided divisions, and the remaining three dihim with a safe retreat, but kept open visions held Saloniki and the line of comhis entry into the Peninsula until such munications. The Greeks still had 12,000 time as his army could be suitably troops in Saloniki and 38,000 in Eastern augmented, and had the additional merit Macedonia, as well as other troops in of lying across the enemys' line of action. Western Macedonia. So with Sarrail at Saloniki. He found The major portion of the Serbian that nature had provided him with such Army arrived in April and May, 1916, a camp, and that, with little alteration, after leaving a division behind at Corfu. it could be made impregnable against It consisted of 110,000 young hardy assault by the whole Bulgarian Army veterans, the survival of the fittest in of 750,000.

the retreat through Albania; but they Sarrail's garrison now consisted of had still to be armed, equipped, and rethree French and five British divisions, organized. with supplementary detachments—in all The Bulgars held the Midji Mountains about 170,000 troops; but the great camp on the west and the Belashitza Mountin Egypt was only three days distant ains on the east. They had encroached and could be drawn upon for assistance on the Monastir plain to within a short if required. When General de Castelnau distance of Florina, then held by the arrived at Christmas, 1915, from head French, and at the Vardar Pass they

had again come within Greek territory. Otherwise they adhered to their own frontier. This line was held by six Bulgarian divisions of 30,000 men each, under General Teodoroff, to whose command some German gunners and engineers were attached.

In Western Macedonia the Greeks were undisturbed. In Albania the Italians had occupied Valona (or Avlona) as a precautionary measure shortly after Austria entered the Balkan area. Their strong force at Valona, however, was not in touch with Sarrail's army at Saloniki until after the capture of Monastir.

The prompt action of the Italians in seizing Valona defeated one of the political objects Austria had in initiating the war, and the Anglo-French occupation of Saloniki completed the discomfiture of the Dual Kingdom.

The Bulgars Invade Greece Satisfactory assurances having apparently been obtained by the Teutonic powers from the Greek King, the Bulgarian forces crossed the frontier on May 26, 1916. A German officer led the vanguard and demanded the surrender of Fort Rupel, the Hellenic key to the Struma River Pass. When the commander refused he was requested to telephone Athens, and, on doing so, was directed by the War Office to yield up the fort. The same procedure followed with the other forts guarding the passes into Eastern Macedonia.

The Central Powers were now in possession of all the strategic sites of value without Saloniki. The Greek Government had refused to permit the powers who were protectors of their kingdom to occupy these vantage points and so prevent such a dénouement.

General Sarrail immediately proclaimed martial law in Saloniki, seized all the means of communication, and expelled the Greek civil authorities. The British, on the right, left their intrenched lines and advanced to the Struma, while the Bulgars dug themselves in on the further bank.

King Constantine adopted the wellunderstood Levantine attitude of simulating compliance, but was hampered by his

own evanescent Government creations. Early in September, 1916, the whole Greek army corps in Eastern Macedonia declined to accept passage to Old Greece and voluntarily surrendered to the Germans with all their artillery and the stores which Sarrail had sent to them by motor transport from Saloniki.

This placed the seaport of Kavalla, the inland towns of Drama and Seres, and the Oriental railway from Greece to Constantinople in the hands of the Bulgarians. It also enabled them to bring in Turkish troops from Adrianople.

The protecting powers thereupon seized the Island of Thasos, which dominates Kavalla.

The Summer of 1916 Coincident with the arrival of the Serbian Army at Saloniki, the enemy had been reinforced by two Bulgarian divisions, or 60,000 troops. The military position now was that the Anglo-French army had about 120,000 rifles, 500 field guns, and some 200 heavy guns. The Serbians were being rearmed with about 80,000 rifles, and their organization had been taken in hand, as their primitive formations were unsuited for co-ordination with their allies. Their guns and horses had not yet come to hand. Until the Serbians were ready, Sarrail was unable to move, because the Bulgars were possessed of 150,000 rifles and 700 guns, including heavy artillery.

Throughout the Summer the British troops holding the line on the Struma marshes were afflicted with malarial fever, and half their number were on the sick list. The Bulgars were not so affected because, besides being acclimatized, their local knowledge of climatic conditions had warned them to keep to the higher ground which they were already in possession of.

The equipment of the British force, while admirable for defending the intrenched camp at Saloniki, was unsuited for taking the offensive in mountain warfare in a country where there were no cart roads. Pack mules must replace their motor transport and light railways, and mountain guns take the place of their garrison artillery.

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Magilie Vollenali

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The Asquith Government had their was designed to play the leading rôle. eyes on the great battle on the Somme, The only other striking force available and, after their misadventures at the was the Russian strategic reserve, but Dardanelles and Mesopotamia, were not we know now that the Russians were sympathetic to a vigorous prosecution not prepared for a move in this direction of the war in the East. For this they at that time. The inference, therefore, were later turned out of office. Con is that the press correspondents mistrary to press reports, there was no interpreted the situation. serious intention at this time of attempting to cut the Krkling

Räpestas Balkan railway.

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Panovo The political object of foil

Grumses ing Austria had been attained



Suoment Budimirca by occupying Saloniki and


Mistrica.Opticar Negotin
Valona in force.

Viro R.

Rece In August two more divis


Bald ions arrived to reinforce the

doardilor Bulgarian Army, and and the

Kaimakalan latter now attacked

Dabroveni the Serbians, whom Sarrail had A placed on the left wing. The

Westinakwere Setina Serbs yielded Florina at the Wadozinica first onslaught and fell back

ChootouTubeni Muroad

Turbeli behind Lake Ostrova, where


Rosina Zábrdani Gomicero they checked the Bulgar ad

Armensko. Lozand vance. Here they


strengthened on their extreme
left by the arrival of

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Megorani. Astol Artssko division of Russian infantry,



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Eksisu who had been set free from Bab

Novigrad the right wing by the timely


MILES) arrival of Italian troops. The latter

inset in

REGION COVERED IN THE CAPTURE OF MONASTIR the British lines between Lake Doiran and Lake Butkova, or, in The Autumn campaign opened with other words, at the base of the Belashitza Sarrail's army aligned in the following Mountains. The Italians were better disposition: equipped for the hill fighting than the

On the right wing, three British diBritish, and this determined the task

visions held the line of the Struma and assigned to them.

the Italians held the base of the BelaUntil the Bulgars are driven out of

shitza Mountains. In the centre, the the Belashitza Mountains the railway

Vardar front was held by two British to Seres cannot be used. With a view to

divisions on the east side of the river the coming offensive, General Milne took

and by French forces on the west side. over the greater part of the allied centre

On the left wing, the second Serbian in addition to holding the right wing.

army held the line of the Nidji MountAutumn Campaign of 1916 ains, and their first army, supplemented If the Entente General Staff contem

by French and Russian detachments, plated an attack on the Sophia-Adrian

held the country on either side of Lake ople railway at the moment when Ru

Ostrova. The position of the Entente mania entered the war, then it seems army was concentric, with its communiclear from subsequent events that neither

cations arranged accordingly. Sarrail's force nor the Rumanian Army The Bulgarian Army, augmented by




Austrian, German, and Turkish troops, Kenali and stretching from the eastern was strung out along the hills in concave mountains to those on the west. Beformation, and suffered from the absence tween these lines and the Serbian front of lateral communications.

at Lake Ostrova lay a ridge of hills culBoth sides in the early Autumn were

minating in the high peak of Kaymakjockeying for position, with the Bulgars chalan. They were situated astride Saruncertain whether the attack would come

rail's line of advance and were held in from the British on the right or from

by force by the enemy. the French on the left. On Sept. 11,

On Sept. 14 the Serbian outposts were 1916, the British forded the Struma on

heavily reinforced and counterattacked a wide front, and during the next few

the Bulgars opposed to them. Meandays carried several villages. Simulta

time, a Franco-Russian column was outneously, artillery preparation commenced flanking the western end of the ridge, on the Vardar front. Sept. 29 and 30

and next day the Serbian advance the attack was renewed in force on the

captured the main position with thirtyStruma front. These, however, were

two field and heavy guns. The Bulgars only feints while the mass of the French

fought a rear-guard action at the River artillery and troops engaged the enemy's Brod, but failed to hold their pursuers, right.

and on the 18th the French and Serbians

entered Florina. The Capture of Monastir

On the 19th the Serbs carried by asThe real fighting took place on Sar sault the high peak of Kaymakchalan rail's left wing, and this was quite a and repelled successive counterattacks to brilliant affair, in which the Serbians

recover it during the next week. Angained great honor.

other fortnight passed in carrying forThe plain of Monastir is the dry bed ward the railway, bringing up the heavy of an ancient lake and one of the few guns and accumulating a sufficiency of level stretches in this war theatre. It shells. On Oct. 14 and 15 a frontal aslies in a north and south direction and, sault on the Kenali lines failed. therefore, appeared to General Sarrail General Sarrail now changed his an inviting entrance to outflank and turn tactics and directed the artillery against all the Bulgar positions west of the Var the positions on the eastern hills. The dar. The Bulgarian flank was secure on next month was occupied by the French that wing because the terrain was im- artillery and Serbian infantry in clearpossible. The eastern side of the valley ing ridge after ridge from which they is also protected by hills, but of a less enfiladed the Kenali lines, and, in coformidable nature, and round this operation with a Franco-Russian frontal mountain mass the Cerna River bends assault, compelled the Bulgars to evacuback on its own course.

ate them on Nov. 14. The latter were The Bulgars had constructed a series unable to make a further stand in front of intrenchments across the southern en of Monastir, and on Nov. 19 General Sartrance of the valley near the town of rail's troops entered the city.

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