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ious today almost to the point of fanati called upon them to make. Impelled by cism. One might almost say that his this religious hysteria, he will continue whole life is held together by his belief the war until he meets an end like that of that God is on the side of Germany in the old German gods, and the whole fabric this war. Without that deep and sincere of his empire is rent asunder. Either that religious conviction-it is almost irsan or the world fighting him will be as ity, what Bergson called a “mental com Christ and try to end humanity's anguish plex ”-it seems incredible that the Kai- by overcoming the thought of punishser could have stood up against the ment" with one of charity. But if the strain, so deeply has he plunged himself world should be merciful the Kaiser into the war, as long as he has.
would believe that “our old German In considering the Kaiser today too
God "-privately tagging the Almighty much stress cannot be laid upon this re
as he so often does—had brought him ligious side of his character. If he were
victory. And on the Linden the imperial acting, if his ranting about God were
fanfares would sound, and from the gray mummery, the task of the world would be stone balcony of the schloss one of those easier. For a hypocrite analyzes and “ with God” speeches would stir the Bercompromises quickly. Not a fanatic.
lin soul. *
* Yet-yet there would be And the Kaiser's belief that he is a being peace. put on this earth by God and anointed by A Colossus today is the Kaiser. A God to rule the German Nation, and to conqueror, lusty and hale. But tomorlead it to its destiny-which destiny the row, what of that? writers of Germany have often assured Before the war a German, Franz von us has no small limits—this belief of the Beyerlin, wrote a novel speculating on Kaiser's that God is the protector of the fate of the German Army, asking the German Kultur, this makes him in this question as to what the future held, and war the strongest ruler in the world. taking that question as his novel's title, For he will not compromise. Believing
“ Jena or Sedan?
defeat or as he does that God is with him, he will
victory? go on fighting on and on, putting all the One can imagine a novel now, around life and treasure of Germany into what the Kaiser—“ Tilsit Versailles? he believes to be the arm of the Al
* humbled or glorified, what will mighty. He will fight on, and he will be
he be? * able to, because his people love him, de Perhaps the graves of Europe's dead spite the appalling sacrifices he has know, but cannot tell.
The Women of the War
By ETHELWYN DITHRIDGE
Afar amid war's darkness, they suffer and grow strong,
Hunger Stalks Through Europe
Food Shortage and Stern Measures to Meet It
LL information during late Febru keener realization of how the organiza
ary and March indicated definite tion and control of her food supplies in ly that all the nations of Europe their production, collection, and distribu
were suffering severely from tion is evidence, not that Germany is food shortage. The crisis began to be starving today, but that she is likely by acute in February, and until the crops these very means to win through to the of 1917 begin to mature, a period of
bitter end without starvation. Hardabout three and a half months, all ship, privation, underfeeding, and for Europe will continue to confront the some of her people insufficient nourishmost serious lack of food that has yet ment, Germany unquestionably endures arisen. No portion of the entire Conti today, with three or four severe months nent is free from privation, though the
yet to sustain before she finds relief from shortage seems more acute in Germany new crops. But if those new crops reand Austria than elsewhere.
spond in fair measure to the efforts GerOscar King Davis, who spent several many is making on them, her food probweeks in Germany before the severance
lem will be postponed, in great measure, of relations, and who accompanied Am
for yet another year. bassador Gerard on his journey home, “ The German officials have not been cabled to THE NEW YORK TIMES from eager to place exact scientific data in the Havana on March 11 a comprehensive hands of foreign observers and investigareview of the food situation in Germany. tors, but there have been a few American
Mr. Davis wrote that Mr. Gerard re scientific men who have made noteworthy garded the condition of Germany as des- studies, especially on food and sanitary perate, especially where the supply of conditions. Mr. Gerard has had the food and general economic conditions, advantage of their work and knows their including finance, are concerned, and information. The results of their obserthat he knew the frame of mind of re vations and their scientific conclusions sponsible German officials to be quite in will undoubtedly be included in what Mr. keeping with their recognition of the des Gerard has to tell the President in the perate situation of their country.
next few days. It will be a report He wrote that one who has lived even tinged with malnutrition, undernourishfor a brief period in the restaurants and ment, anemia, low blood count, and simihotels of Germany stands. aghast in lar scientific terms meaning that those to France, as he does in Switzerland, at the whom they are applied have not had food prodigal and extraordinary waste of in sufficient quantities or of proper qualfood. If you have had a meal in a pub ity. It will be applied especially to cerlic eating place in Berlin, with the lively tain classes of Germans, such as seamand significant clink of forks and spoons stresses, servants, persons working for on plates and dishes, scraping up the last small wages, children, the aged and indrop of sauce or gravy, and then come firm, and that sort." into a public eating place in Berne or A trusted observer of food conditions Paris, to find not only sauce and gravy in Germany reported to the State Departabandoned in unthinkable quantities, but ment at Washington on March 14 that bread, meat, potatoes, and every kind of 20,000,000 people directly connected with thing good to eat sent away from the the German Army or Government, 20,table untouched or hardly more than nib 000,000 in the rural population, and bled at, you are simply overwhelmed by about 8,000,000 wealthy people were well the contrast.
fed, but that the rest, about 20,000,000, “ It is under such circumstances,” con were in a serious plight. tinues Mr. Davis, “ that you come to a Charles H. Grasty, an executive of
The New York Times Company, who man women have been showing a splenjoined Ambassador Gerard's party in did nerve. They are taking men's places Spain and sailed from Corunna to Amer at manual labor. Many assure me if the ica with him, after eleven days in inti women are called they will respond in mate intercourse with the party of tremendous numbers, game to perform diplomats, Military Attachés, doctors, many trench tasks, if not actually do full merchants, and travelers, who had had military duty. unsurpassed opportunities for knowing “ The moral and social conditions are the real state of affairs in Germany, entirely unlike old Germany. In high wrote on March 11:
society spying and intrigue prevail. No“ After discussing the German situa
body trusts anybody, and the conversation for eleven days, my conclusion is
tion is all insincerity and deception. that the food shortage in the Fatherland
While the unwritten law still holds is more serious than has been believed among the nobility, the laws regulating
divorce are a dead letter. outside. The present condition is not one of actual starvation, but there is
Soldiers at the front and wives at much suffering in spots, and Germany
home are freed from marital restraints. faces a crisis between now and harvest. Illegitimate births now reach 25 per cent. Unless the submarine war prospers Ger
in Berlin, and even more in Bavaria, and many can hardly escape an upheaval. the percentage is increasing. “ One doctor aboard the ship tells me
Popular taste on the stage calls for a
murder in every act, and the big theatthat, even with his unusual facilities, he
rical successes reek with morbid details. was much reduced by the lack of fats,
“The tendencies in Germany to rule and when he reached Zurich he was so
womankind with a rod of iron have been ravenous that he made himself ill, de
emphasized by the war. Men use wovouring everything greasy. Lack of fats
men roughly and punish them physically caused an incessant gnawing and nothing
for trifling faults. Women are treated would stick to his ribs. His stomach
as recognized inferiors, and they don't had no food reserve and intestinal diges
resent it. tion was suspended.
“ Such are some of the effects of baf“The misery resulting from the food
fed militarism upon the Germans. They conditions is observable in every face. The Government took all possible pre
went into this war expecting a three
months' picnic. The resistance, followed cautions, but while 60 per cent. turnips
by threatened defeat, has produced a per*could make bulk, it couldn't make nutri
versity that breaks out as described. ment. A thick soup of cabbage and tur
“ This is not to say that Germany is nips, a bit of meat, and a trace of grease could be bought at the community
all bad. I have heard stories of splendid kitchens in the cities for 6 cents, (30
self-sacrifice in all circles. Some of the pfennigs,) and bread at 1 cent a slice, aristocracy voluntarily adopt short combut thirty minutes after eating, one was
mons, and potato rations are passed to hungry again.
the guests by liveried servants." “ The diet gave no power of resistance
Greater Berlin is now issuing weekly to the cold. The Americans who serve
3,600,000 bread cards, and 66,500,000 couas prison inspectors say that even with pons representing daily rations find their huge furs they almost froze this Winter. way back to the Bread Commission, “ Mothers and babies are without milk,
where they are checked off. Soldiers reand the suffering is great. While the ef
turning from the front are met at the fect of the food conditions on the public railway station and receive bread tickets morale is temporarily offset by hysterical
good for their furlough. loyalty, physical causes must prevail over
One recent achievement of the German psychological in the end.
chemists has been the utilizing of tar oil,
extracted from burned coal, for making Unhealthy Social Conditions
process includes the Throughout the trying times the Ger treatment of crude coal oil with potash,
the finished product yielding excellent used to produce covering for the poorer soft, hard, and powdered soaps.
classes of Germany. Nettle wastage Life in Hamburg
and raw nettles are advertised as well as
woven paper for making men's clothes. The German newspaper press reveals
Cheap costumes are made from artificial in advertisements some facts regarding
silk, and moiré material and lining are the situation. The following is given
used for dresses. There are many offers as an example of a war dinner which
in the clothing trade journals to buy may be obtained in Hamburg (Hackepeter
waste paper, from which paper yarn is Restaurant, Reeperbahn 103):
made. A textile firm advertises for Herring with French beans, 1.40 marks.
horse hair of all kinds, ox-tail hair, goat Haddock (boiled) with mustard sauce and
hair, pigs' bristles and hair, which are to sauerkraut, 1.50 marks. Haddock (fried) with
The lack of raw green cabbage,
be used in its factory. marks.
material has caused many textile mills to Hare ragout, with cabbage stewed in wine, close down. Waste of every kind is (free from meat card,) 2.20 marks.
eagerly bought, such as metal, rags, Roast venison with red cabbage, (one-half
bones, rubber, iron, paper, newspapers meat card section,) 2.80 marks. Rum grog, 60 pfennigs; red wine grog, 40
and books, and empty sacks, packing pfennigs.
cases, and bottles. There are numerous Sea mussel meal prepared from living advertisements due to the war which fresh mussels mixed with meat is ap point to the use of all available resources. parently a popular dish in the sense that
Organ Pipes for Munitions it is freely advertised, and there are
Prussian churches are being stripped many advertisements of salted fish and even fresh fish. This, however, is very
of their organ pipes. Thus we find the dear; five tons of plaice, for instance, is
following proclamation from the Police offered at 260 marks a ton, and eighteen
President in Berlin: tons of whiting and haddock at 280
The proclamation of the Ober-Kommando marks a ton. The price of geese is so
in Brandenburg respecting the sequestration,
census, and expropriation of organ“ proshigh that it cannot be reckoned as a food
pekt” pipes made of tin, and voluntary defor the nation at large. Thus goose livery of other tin pipes, sound-conductors, breast costs 11.50 marks per pound, and &c., belonging to organs and other musical in
struments, comes into force on Jan. 10. * * * goose legs 9 marks per pound. Goose fat
The Police President, Berlin. must be a great luxury, for it is sold at 17 marks
An advertisement in the Berliner Tagea pound. Large crammed fowls can, however, be had for 4.50 marks
blatt gives instructions as to how these
orders are to be carried out. a pound, and ducks at 4.95 marks per
In it the pound. Hens for roasting are advertised
“prospekt” pipes are described as all at about $1.25 apiece. Foods of a kind
those visible on the outside of an organ. that are not as a rule eaten are freely
The price fixed for these tin organ pipes advertised, such as salt seal meat and
is 6.30 marks per kilo, in addition to whale meat.
a payment of 35 marks by way of comSoap is very scarce, and toilet soap
pensation for every organ damaged. costs 63 cents a piece, and cannot There is a great search after gold and easily be got. Soap substitutes made of jewelry, a committee having been formed calcium carbonate are common. Fatless for this purpose with the Crown Princess grease wash extracts for soap are freely of Prussia as its patroness, and backed advertised. Many firms find a difficulty by the signatories of Bethmann Hollweg, in feeding their workers, and advertise Wermuth, Oberburgermeister of Berlin, for supplies. Very common is the ad and Dr. Haverstein, President of the divertisement, “ We buy food of all kinds rectorate of the Reichsbank. for workers in large quantities.” One It is stated that the offices of the comfirm announces that it will buy any quan mittee are open every weekday from 10 tity of preserves, jams, and meat wares. A. M. to 2 P. M. in various parts of
The strangest materials are being Berlin. The price of the objects bought
is fixed by valuators. Deliverers of gold to be disposed of during the frosty trinkets receive a written certificate, weather." and those who offer gold chains get an The high prices in Germany naturally iron chain at the cost of 2.50 marks, to
encourage smuggling from Holland. The celebrate their patriotism, or a medal.
Dutch paper, Vaderland, declares that All those who offer gold objects worth the smuggling trade has grown such a at least 5 marks receive a similar medal.
lucrative one in the Coevorden district In analyzing any list of advertise that many workmen are leaving their ments it is necessary to remember that employment to take this trade in hand. most of the necessaries of life cannot be The Algemeen Handelsblad is informed bought without the production of official from Zevenaar that at Didam, Bergh, vouchers. Thus edible fat, eggs, and Wehl, and Zevenaar more than 5,000 sugar can only be bought on production kilos of fat and soap have been seized of a food book which entitles the buyers from smugglers. A number of the smugto certain quantities as per ration. This glers have been caught and warrants applies, of course, to all articles of food have been issued against 200, including on the food ticket. Poultry, however, some Amsterdam people. The Dutch and game are freely sold without cards, require these articles for themselves, which means that the well-to-do can still since prices are very high in Holland. get plenty to eat. A new order forbids
Picture of Berlin Life under heavy fine the bringing of dogs into rooms where food is kept for sale.
The Frankfurter Zeitung publishes an
account of the extraordinary change in Cultivating Town Lots
the appearance and life of Berlin. It is Many advertisements appear in the only lately that Berlin has really altered agricultural papers urging the farmers its character-since the shops shut at 7, to cultivate vegetables in large quantities, the houses at 9, the theatres at 10, and for a shortage of vegetables, on which the restaurants and cafés at 11:30, while the poor in the absence of meat so much practically all the street cars stop at depend, is feared. Building grounds in midnight, and the population, adapting towns are being parceled out for culti itself to circumstances, really goes to vation. Thus we get the following an bed early. The Frankfurter Zeitung nouncement in the Münchener Neueste gives the following picture: Nachrichten:
“Without any exaggeration, Berlin In order to hold out more easily we are has become a different city. For every making available for the cultivation of fruit
town the new restrictions mean much, and vegetables the Maxhof estate within the
but for Berlin they mean everything. In town boundary of Munich, situated between Forstenried, Neuried, &c. Thirty-five min other places people were active, but in utes distant from Waldfriedhof and Solin. Berlin they were creative. Here was the Since work must soon be begun it lies in
new Germany, the new Europe. The the interests of the buyer to choose quickly.
manifold activities, the vitality have Owing to the bad weather during the recent holidays we retain the old price of 712 pfen
gone, and all that remains is war, victory, nigs per square foot for Saturday and Sun
Although the individual day, when the ground can be viewed, &c. artist, merchant, or professor may still One-quarter plot (tagwerk) equals 850 square have his ideas and pursue them in secret, meters, cost 750 marks, &c.
Berlin as a whole is waiting, breathless, Forstenried Garden City Co., Ltd.
silent, tame, but burning for the moment Shortage of labor is a great difficulty
when she can again pursue her innumerin getting the land cultivated, and even
able purposes with the old eagerness and men with artificial limbs are being used
a new impulse. That is the characterisin farm work. Belgian labor is offered
tic of intellectual and scientific Berlinas if it were slave labor, if one may
waiting for the new moment, the new judge from the following advertisement time.
The streets are now in the Magdeburgishe Zeitung:
quieter by day and empty in the evening. “ Thirty Belgian civilian workers are Life is a provisorium. One sees few