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places, driving the Germans back

to Clastres and Montescourt; British occupy forty more villages south and southeast of

Péronne. March 22—French cross the Ailette River at

several points. March 23-French force Germans back two

miles between St. Quentin and La Fère; Germans inundate the district around La

Fère. March 24-French take two forts protecting

La Fère on the west and drive Germans

toward St. Quentin; British occupy Roisel. March 25-French drive Germans back to the

outskirts of Folembray and Coucy. March 26–British capture Lagnicourt, west of

Cambrai; French push on in Coucy forest

and capture Folembray and La Feuillée. March 27-French capture the forest of Coucy;

British take Longavesnes, Lieramont, and

Equancourt. March 28-British press on north of Roisel and

capture Villers-Faucon and the heights crowned by Saulcourt; Germans penetrate French first-line trenches west of Maisons

de-Champagne. March 29—British capture Neuville Bour

jonval. March 30—British occupy Ruyalcourt, Fins,

and Sorel-le-Grand; French recapture first-line positions west of Maisons-de

Champagne. March 31–St. Quentin menaced on three sides

as British take Vermand and Marteville; British advance up the Cologne River to within striking distance of the Scheldt, capturing eight villages; French push the

Germans back on the Vregny plateau. April 1-British capture Savy and Epehy. April 2-British drive a wedge into the Ger

man positions on the ridge protecting St. Quentin from the west, capturing Holnon,

Francilly, and Selency. April 3-French storm the heights south and

southwest of St. Quentin and capture Dallon, Giffecourt, and Cerizy, and heights south of Urvillers; British occupy Maissemy on the eastern bank of the Omignon River, Ronssoy Wood, and Henin

on the Cojeol River. April 4-French occupy Grugies, Urvillers,

and Moy, south of St. Quentin; British

take Metz-en-Couture. April 5-Germans attack the French west of

Rheims and force them over the Aisne
Canal at some places; British capture
Ronssoy and Basse-Boulogne east of

April 6–British capture Lempire and advance

toward Le Catelet; French retake part of

positions lost north of Rheims. April 8-British advance on a front of 3,000

yards north of the Bapaume-Cambrai road; Germans shell Rheims and French Government orders the civil population to

evacuate the city. April 9-British launch offensive on twelve

mile front north and south of Arras, pene

trating German positions to a depth of from two to three miles, and capturing many fortified points, including Vimy

Ridge. April 10-British push forward as far as the

outskirts of Monchy-le-Preux and capture Fampoux and its defenses on both sides

of the Scarpe River. April 11–British capture Monchy-le-Preux

and heights dominating the country to

ward Cambrai. April 12–British take Wancourt and Haninel,

some positions north of the Scarpe River and drive the Germans from their last footing in the Vimy Ridge; French ad

vance between Coucy and Quincy-Basse. April 13–British capture Ancres and the town

of Vimy, extending their line of advance from the Scarpe River to Loos, and push on west of Le Catelet; French attack the

Germans south of St. Quentin. April 14British take Fayet, Gricourt, and

Lievin, the western suburb of Lens. April 15–French guns shell St. Quentin; Bel

gians penetrate Dixmude as far as the

second enemy line. April 16-French launch an offensive on

twenty-five-mile front between Soissons and Rheims, capturing the German firstline positions and taking over 10,000 prisoners and reach the second German line at six points in Alsace; Germans de

stroy St. Quentin Canal. April 17-French pierce new German line on

eleven-mile front from Prunay to Auberive, capturing important heights and support positions from Mount Carnillet to

Vaudesincourt. April 18–French again smash the Aisne line

and capture Chavonne, Chivy, Ostel, and Braye-en-Laonnois, press forward north of Ostel, reach the outskirts of Courtecon, and take Vailly and Conde-sur-Aisne ; British take Villers-Guislain, reporting 17,000 prisoners and much booty in three days' fighting, threatening German lines

to make further withdrawals in Rheims region inevitable.

BALKAN CAMPAIGN March 20—French in Macedonia report the

capture of Rashtani, Hill 1248, and the Snegoo monastery north of Monastir; British take prisoners at Brest and Poroy,

east of Lake Doiran. March 21---French driven from heights north

east of Tarnova and Anegovo. March 24-Germans take Rumanian frontier

ridge between the Solyomtar and Czo

banos Valleys from the Russians. April 2—Russians in Rumania repulsed on

four-mile front on both sides of the Oituz

Valley. April 18–Germans burn Braila and Fokshani.

ITALIAN CAMPAIGN March 19--Penewal of activity reported;



Austrian raids repulsed in the Giumella

Valley and Lucati sector. March 21-Austrians repulsed on Costabella

Massif. April 17—Intenso artillery fire reported on

the Julian front; Italians bombard Callano

in the Lagarina Valley. April 18–Italians shell Rovereto Station and trains on the Sugana Valley Railway.

ASIA MINOR March 19–Russians in Persia occupy Harun

abad; British cross the Diala River and

occupy Bahriz and part of Bakubah. March 21—Turkish force near Aden isolated

from headquarters; another Arabian chieftain rises against the Turks; Russians cross the Mesopotamian frontier

into Turkish territory to join the British. March 23-Russians attack the Turks along

the Shirwan River. March 26-Russians pursue the Turks into

Mosul Vilayet. March 29–British rout a Turkish army of

20,000 in battle near Gaza. March 31-British advance north of Bagdad

and occupy Kalaat Felujah, Sheraban, Dely Abbas, and the areas of Deltawah

and Sindirjah. April 2-Russians occupy Miatague Peitaht

and Serpoule and force the Turks toward

the Mesopotamian border. April 5-Russians occupy Khaninkin and Kas

richirin and get into touch with British

patrols. April 7-Russians land on Turkish territory

on the Black Sea coast east of Samsoon. April 12–British capture Turkish territory to

a depth of fifteen miles in the region of

Gaza. April 14–Turks routed in battle north of

Bagdad. April 16–British drive Turks back to their positions on the Jebel Hamrin hills.

AERIAL RECORD Italians bombarded the railway station at

Galliano and brought down two Austrian

airplanes. Russian airplanes set Braila on fire April 1. On April 7 large squadrons of British air.

planes were sent up over the new German lines on the western front to photograph enemy positions. The greatest air battle of the war followed. Forty-eight German airplanes and ten captive balloons were brought down by the British, who lost twenty-eight of their own machines, but

succeeded in taking 1,700 photographs. Allied airplanes raided Freiburg April 14.

Eleven persons were killed and twenty

seven wounded. American Aviator Genet killed in France.

NAVAL RECORD The French warship Danton torpedoed in the

man raider Möwe had returned to her home port from a second cruise in the Atlantic in which she captured twenty

seven vessels. England announced an extension of the boun

daries of the North Sea danger area, cutting safety lanes off Holland and Den

mark. The French bark Cambronne arrived at Rio

Janeiro March 30 carrying the crews of eleven steamers and sailing vessels sunk by the German raider Seeadler in the

South Atlantic. During the night of March 28-29 German

warships cruised in the barred zone off the south coast of England and sank the

British patrol trawler Mascot. One German destroyer was sunk and another

damaged off the Belgian coast April 8. The American Line steamship New York

struck a mine near the coast of England on April 10, but was only slightly damaged

and reached her dock unaided. The British hospital ship Salta was sunk by

a mine in the English Channel. A German submarine made an unsuccessful

attack on the U. S. destroyer Smith on April 17, about 100 miles south of New York.

RUSSIA The former Czar and Czarina were taken to

Tsarskoe Selo. Other high dignitaries of the old régime were imprisoned. The United States extended partial recognition

to the new Government on March 21. The Central Committee and Parliamentary

representatives of the Constitutional Democratic Party at Petrograd voted in favor of a republican form of government. А committee was appointed to settle the affairs of Poland and the Provisional Government announced its wish that Poland decide for itself the form of government it desired. Religious freedom was proclaimed April 4 and many other reforms are under consideration, including woman suffrage.


Austria-Hungary severed diplomatic rela

tions with the United States on April 7. Austrian ships in American ports were

seized. The German Emperor ordered Chancellor von

Bethmann Hollweg to submit to him proposals for the reform of the Prussian electoral law. Strikes in Berlin followed a reduction in bread rations. Thousands

Mediterranean Sea March 19, and 296

sailors were drowned. On March 22 Berlin announced that the Ger

of workers left the munitions plants. Greece presented a note to Italy insisting

upon the withdrawal of Italian troops

from Epirus to Avlona. A new Cabinet was formed in France, headed

by Alexandre Ribot. Chinese troops occupied without opposition

the German concessions at Tien-tsin and Hankow.

Allied Successes in France
Period from March 18 to April 17, 1917

By J. B. W. Gardiner
Formerly Lieutenant Eleventh United States Cavalry



HE past month has seen the most was a perfectly logical conclusion, as it

important developments in the had its basis in the existing railroads European

since the first connecting these places. In fact, but months of its progress.

These little has happened since to give rise to have been principally three, all distinct any doubt that the German intention was ly hurtful to Germany: The retreat on different from that outlined. The disthe western front, which includes the tance from Noyon to the new line was battle of Arras; the operations in the very much greater than that from the Near East, and, finally, the entrance of Bapaume position to Cambrai. Neverthe United States on the side of the theless, it was the Bapaume line which Allies. All theatres other than those

first gave way. mentioned have been extremely, ominous This would indicate that the German ly quiet.

retirement took place ahead of schedule The great German retreat was well time because of the British pressure under way as the review for April was along the Ancre, and the way in which being written, but it had not progressed the Germans have since been handled by to the point where any conclusions were both the British and the French would admitted. The German press at the out seem to increase the probability that this set confused the entire issue. Its state was the case. Nevertheless, the preparaments may then be ignored.

tions for the retreat were thoroughly In the first place the German retreat made and the requisite transport was at was not voluntary, but was forced. The hand. battle of the Somme, biting as it did deep

Rapid French Pursuit into the German lines, produced a wedge which seriously threatened the Noyon The Germans, as they fell back, desalient. Only a little more, and the stroyed all the railroad lines, blew up the troops in this salient would have been roads and roadbeds, and did all else that unable to retire. The Germans saw the could in any way hinder the pursuit of threat to this large body of men, so drew the allied armies. That they went beback from the danger before it had an yond this and, in a blind, ruthless orgy of opportunity actually to strike them. To destruction, razed to the ground every this extent the retreat was a strategical building however unadapted it might be move. That the movement was made to military purposes is beside the point. with a view to shortening the lines and This is merely another interesting phase thereby strengthening them may be en of German psychology. But in spite of tirely possible as a subsidiary thought, the fact that the Germans were able to but it was not the moving factor. The get away with small loss, the French and theory that Hindenburg simply the British were apparently as prepared wished to draw the Allies out of the to follow as the Germans were to fall trenches into the open and then defeat back. The French in particular did them has also been exploded.

brilliant work in this respect. The purThe matter of the withdrawal itself is suit on the southern part of the line, most interesting. It was assumed in which was held by the French, was exmany quarters that the line on which the tremely rapid-much more rapid than Germans would stand was through Laon, any one had anticipated. La Fère, St. Quentin, and Cambrai. This Not for a moment, it seemed, was con


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tact lost. The French engineers fol of Tergnier, within two miles of La Fère. lowed the Germans closely, reconstruct This completely eliminated the latter ing and rebuilding, and the French in town as a point of German vantage. fantry and artillery pressed the situation Further south, along the Aillette River, closely. The pursuit evidently surprised the French came to their first stumbling the Germans, who, before they had an block. This river stands as a guard to opportunity to stop and fight, found their the great patches of wood south of the line interfered with, if not actually cut. La Fère position, and is known as the La Fère seemed to be the point at which lower and upper forests of Coucy and the French advance was directed. With the Woods of St. Gobain. This river out fighting any heavy engagements the was crossed, however, after heavy fightFrench reached and occupied the town ing, and, finally, pushing ahead on the

southern end of the line, the French took entire front from the Vimy Ridge to St. the village of Coucy. The lower forests Quentin, where the British and French of Coucy were occupied, bringing the joined. The result was more than satisFrench to the edge of the forest of St. factory to the British commander. Gobain. Here the French came to a As this review is being written the halt, as it was evident that they had

British have thrown a loop around St. reached the main defenses of the Ger

Quentin on the north and west which man line to which von Hindenburg had brings their lines so near to those of the intended to retreat.

French that it is impossible for the GerFurther north the Germans were not mans to keep control or possession of the so fortunate in checking the French. city much longer. More important still, From just east of Tergnier, the French the British are but a little over a mile fought their way eastward, pivoting from the Scheldt River, with the Gertheir line on the Tergnier position, and mans in between. It seems certain that pressed the Germans back against the before these lines appear the Germans Oise River as far north as the town of will have fallen behind the river, from Moy. This threw the French well to the which the British cannot force them exeast of St. Quentin and in a position to cept by a flanking movement, to be made work their way, without meeting any at some time in the future. natural obstacles, in rear of the town. While the

the fighting west of the This they did, driving due north from Scheldt was at its height the British, Moy until they had reached a point just after a terrific artillery preparation, south of Neuville. Their line then

suddenly launched an attack against the swung westward near the suburbs of St. Vimy Ridge, the pivot of the German reQuentin, along all the high ground south

tirement. Here was the first positive of the city. This was certainly not in

indication that the Germans, in addition accordance with the German plan, as it

to being outgunnued and outmunitioned, brought every means of exit from the

outfed and outmanned, were also outcity directly under the fire even of the

generaled. The Germans gave out offismaller French artillery.

cially that by their retirement they had The British Advance

completely upset the British plan for an The British, on the other hand, had a

attack on the Somme and delayed any much more difficult road to travel. Be- other attack indefinitely because of the cause of the shorter distance which the necessity of reconstructing the transport Germans had to pass over, their retreat, system. The probabilities were, howafter the line first began to give way, ever, that the British never intended to was much slower, and the pursuit was

attack on that section of the front af. conducted with constant fighting, mostly fected by the German retreat. On the of heavy rear-guard character. The contrary, it now seems that the British British object was to prevent the use of commander, undoubtedly acquainted with Cambrai in the same way as the French the fact that a retreat was coming, had had impaired if not destroyed the useful- laid his plans for an attack which would ness of St. Quentin.

produce the same result on the line north The pivot of the German retreat in the of Arras as the Somme had produced in north was a point on the southern tip of

the south. Vimy Ridge, a position before which so In one day's fighting the Canadian many French had lost their lives, and troops, who held the centre of the atwhich was believed to be practically im- tacking line, swept to the crest of Vimy pregnable. No effort was made against Ridge and well over it, forcing the Gerit, the British expending all of their ef- mans down the eastern slope.

It was forts toward reaching the line of the here, too, that for the first time the Scheldt River. Here the British gave Germans gave

indications of going to the best indication of their fighting pieces.

There was

a temporary destrength. Each day recorded a new ad- moralization in their ranks which manivance of greater or less extent on the fested itself in the fighting, for, almost

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