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“pocket money," so to speak, that the workmen's and soldiers' Deputies, adimperial family formerly drew from the dressed to the laborers of all countries, State revenues. This amounted to no but mentioning especially the Central less than $20,000,000 annually. On March Powers, “ to throw off the yoke of auto30 the Provisional Government, in com cratic rule as the Russian people have pliance with a demand made by the Coun overthrown the imperial autocrat and recil of Workmen's and Soldiers' Deputies, fuse to serve longer as an instrument in through the Socialist Cabinet member, the hands of Kings, capitalists, and Chkheidze, confiscated all the imperial
bankers.” lands and monasteries, which yield an A party of Russian radicals who arannual revenue of 25,000,000 rubles.
rived at Stockholm from Switzerland on Three days before the Grand Dukes and
April 13 were said to be planning a peace Royal Princes had, of their own accord,
congress in Stockholm, and to have won given up their crown lands and other
the support of German radicals and some official property to the Government.
French Socialists. Lenin, a prominent Despite the war, the economic organiza Russian Socialist, who had lived in Swittion of the country proceeded apace. The zerland, was their leader. The fact that growth of the trade-union movement took their mission was synchronous with the on tremendous proportions. An eight German Socialist majority leader Scheidehour day was introduced in Petrograd, mann's alleged departure for Stockholm and a central board of arbitration ap to meet envoys of the Russian Governpointed to settle trade disputes. The ment, and that the Russian radicals were eight-hour day was also introduced in
permitted to pass through Germany from other cities and throughout the country. Switzerland, was taken to mean that the The fever of organization spread even plan had the backing of the German to the peasants. They formed a council Government. of peasants' Deputies modeled after the
Poland and Finland Free Council of Workmen and Soldiers.
In its policy toward dependent nationNot to Claim Constantinople
alities the new Government announced That free Russia has no desire to annex that Poland was to receive complete indeConstantinople was the inference drawn pendence with the right to determine its from a statement made by the very in own form of government and its relation, fluential Minister of Justice, Kerensky, if any, to Russia. The Polish Deputies that the Dardanelles should be “ interna thereupon surrendered their seats in the tionalized.” This view
further Duma. On March 29 the Provisional strengthened in the declaration of Government appointed a committee with Premier Lvoff on April 10:
Alexander Lednitsky, a Pole, as Chair“ The new Government considers it its man, to make the necessary arrangements duty to make known to the world that the for the separation of Poland from Rusobject of free Russia is not to dominate sia and to determine the relation of the other nations and forcibly take away
State to the Roman Catholic Church. their territory. The object of indepen In Finland the Governor, Sein, was dent Russia is a permanent peace and removed. On March 21 a manifesto was the rights of all nations to determine issued by the new Government completely their own destiny."
restoring the Finnish Constitution and On April 7 Kerensky declared that if annulling all edicts and administrative the German people would follow the ex rules and regulations. A liberal was ample of Russia and overthrow their appointed Governor, and the Finnish Diet monarch, “we offer the possibility of was convened. On April 13 M. Kerensky, preliminary negotiations.” He added, the Russian Minister of Justice, was however: “We are not going to assist present at the meeting of the Diet, and in in making a separate peace.” Kerensky's a speech greeting the “free Finnish peostatement was in accord with an appeal ple" in the name of the Provisional adopted on March 28, at a meeting of Russian Government declared that Russia
would do everything in its power to make upon to deliver speeches. So great was it certain that Finland should remain their haste to leave that many of them free forever.
dil not even wait to change their prison The Speaker of the Diet, M. Talman, garb or have their chains struck off. requested M. Kerensky to inform the The most celebrated of the ex-exiles Russian people of the Diet's gratitude were two women, Catharine Breshkovsfor the fraternal greeting. He said that kaya and Marie Spiridonova. Catharine henceforth a complete agreement, on the Ereshkovskaya is known as the grandbasis of reciprocal confidence, would pre mother of the revolution. She has grown vail between the two peoples.
old in Siberian prisons and exile. FortyTo the Armenians, Kerensky expressed four years of her life were spent there. himself in favor of an autonomous Gov Escaping once, she braved the Russian ernment for them under Russia's pro authorities again, and, though by that tection. The promised emancipation of the time an old woman, she fought dauntlessJews became an accomplished fact on
ly side by side with the younger genera-March 25, when, according to advices re tion in the new movement that led to the ceived at the Russian Embassy at Wash unsuccessful uprising in 1905. Again she ington, absolute equality of the Jews was thrust into exile. When she reached was proclaimed by the new Government. Petrograd from Siberia the 1st of April, Jews are permitted to reside wherever she was met at the railroad depot by a they please, they have access to all posts military band and representatives of the in the navy and army, and are unre Government and carried through the stricted as to educational advantages
streets. A similar reception was given and the owning of property. A number her in Moscow on April 5. Here the solof Jews were made officers in the army, diers and the reception committee carried says a cable dispatch of April 12, the her out into the street on their shoulders. first city claiming that distinction being Equally popular was Marie SpiridoOdessa, and 250 Jewish students entered nova, who, though still young, suffered a the military officers' school. On March martydom perhaps even greater than 27 it was announced, according to tele Breshkovskaya's. She was tortured with grams to Russian correspondents at
a refinement of cruelty that is unprintCopenhagen, that the Jewish advocates, able. One of the lesser harms done her Grusenberg and Winawer, were appointed was the disfiguring of her face for life. members of the Russian Senate and of The two bureaucratic agents who inthe Supreme Court. They were the first flicted the torture were later assassinated Jews who ever obtained a seat in a Rus by revolutionists. sian tribunal.
Signs of Unrest On April 4 full religious liberty was
The Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' proclaimed and all laws discriminating
Delegates, after a prolonged session at against any creed or religion repealed. Premier Lvoff promised a delegation of
Petrograd, adopted a resolution on April women on April 4 that women would be
16 affirming the necessity of its continu
ing to exercise influence and control over given the right to vote.
the Russian Provisional Government, and Return of Siberian Exiles
appealing to the whole democracy of One of the most dramatic and pictur Russia to rally around the council as the esque events of the revolution was the re only organization capable of counteractturn of the political exiles and prisoners ing any reactionary move. from Siberia. A full hundred thousand The resolution at the same time apof them were released, and their progress pealed to democracy to support the Profrom the prisons, mines, and convict set visional Government so long as it contlements across Siberia to Russia was one tinued to develop the conquests of the grand triumphal march. Everywhere revolution and abstained from any asthey were met by wildly cheering crowds, pirations for territorial expansion. fêted by reception committees, and called On the same day a dispatch from Tash
kent, Asiatic Russia, announced that General Alexei Kuropatkin, Governor General of Turkestan, his assistant, General Yerofeiff, and General Sivers, Chief of Staff, had been arrested by the Council of Soldiers' Delegates. General Buroff, commanding the First Siberian Brigade, and General Tsuomillen, commanding the local brigade, also were placed under arrest and confined to a guardroom. The officers are charged with distributing arms to Russians in various districts for defense against natives in the event of an attack. This action was held to be of a provocatory character. The Cossack guards of General Kuropatkin appeared at the meeting of the Soldiers' Delegates and announced that they would not defend him.
General Kuropatkin was in chief command of the Russian forces in Manchuria in the Russo-Japanese war and was for a while Commander in Chief of the Russian northern armies in the present war.
The news from Petrograd up to April 20, at which date this record closes, indicated a gradual subsidence of unrest and a tendency among the workingmen to recognize the authority of the Provisional Government. Industries which had been closed since the outbreak were being reopened, the soldiers were becoming more amenable to discipline, and there were indications that the moderates would be able to keep the radical revolutionists in check; but the feeling of general unrest had by no means yet disappeared.
Warning of Russia's Revolution
Paul Milukoff's Address
HE following document, read in the
Duma by Professor Milukoff on Feb.
28, a week before the outbreak of the revolution, contained a warning that has become historic in the light of what followed:
We are nearing a point in our conduct of the war when the supreme effort of the nation will be required in order to secure victory. We are at a moment of crisis in the great war. The military resources of the enemy are nearing exhaustion; his morale is getting lower; and just at the moment when we ought to develop the highest power of resistance and endurance, we are beginning to see the consequences of the inactivity of our Government in organizing the nation for the supreme effort.
We might be told that the Government alone is not responsible for the faults of our machinery of war; that our past, our whole history, are the causes of our backwardness. To this I say most emphatically, No. The Government and the Government alone is responsible for it. The Government concentrated all its efforts on the internal war. At a moment when the whole nation is straining to get ahead and demands of the Government a clear road to victory, the Government is drawing it back. The nation is united in its supreme effort against the external foe; but the Government returns to the old internal war in order to insure its own safety.
Every day voices from all parts of the country are reaching us, addressed to the Duma. The people in the provinces tell us : “ Act boldly and act instantly; the country is with you." These voices enable me, even in the present dark state of affairs, to retain my hope, to refrain from any pessimism, and I warn you not to be led into pessimism. In England and France the people have found themselves; the same may already be said about Russia.
When the nation finds that, in spite of all its sacrifices, its destinies are being endangered by a clique of incompetent and corrupt rulers, then the people become a nation of citizens; they become determined to take their case into their own hands. Gentlemen, we are approaching that point. In everything we see around us, we hear the echo of the patriotic anxiety which fills our own hearts. It is in this alarm and not in silence and reconciliation that I see a promise of salvation for the country.
You know well that I can say no more from this tribune. You know that this alarm is well-founded, and you know that the Duma alone is not in a position to remove the causes of this alarm; but I firmly believe in the active patriotism of the nation.
I believe that the people will not allow its forces to be flouted in the present critical struggle, and I believe that when once the popular idea that Russia cannot conquer with the present Government ripens in the mind of the nation, the nation will triumph in spite of the Government.
German Raiders in the Atlantic Twenty-six Merchant Ships Captured by the
Möwe in a Second Expedition
auxiliary cruiser Möwe, (Seagull,) commanded by Count zu Dohna-Schlodien — the
same sea raider that had captured the Appam and fourteen other merchant ships a year before-stole out through the Kiel Canal and the North Sea late in November, 1916, and added a still more destructive chapter to its record. The British Admiralty got the first inkling of the depredator on Dec. 2 and sent out a general warning on Dec. 8, but, though several vessels were known to be missing, the operations of the raider continued to be shrouded in mystery.
The true state of affairs came to the public on Jan. 16, 1917, when the captured Japanese steamer Hudson Maru landed at Pernambuco, Brazil, with 287 men taken from six ships that had been sunk at various points between the Azores and the Brazilian coast. On Dec. 31 the captured British steamer Yarrowdale had arrived at Swinemünde, Germany, with 469 prisoners taken from one Norwegian and seven British ships in the South Atlantic, but the German Government did not announce the fact until Jan. 19. Even then the name of the sea raider remained in doubt. Finally, on March 22 a Berlin dispatch announced the recent return of the Möwe from a second successful raid among enemy shipping. The Möwe herself had brought in 593 prisoners, including fifty-seven Americans from the crew of the British horse transport Esmeraldas.
The total number of ships sunk or taken as prizes by the Möwe on this raid
at least twenty-six, aggregating 125,000 tonnage, and carrying to the bottom many millions of dollars' worth of foodstuffs, munitions, and general cargo. The property loss was estimated at between $15,000,000 and $20,000,000. The total number of prisoners landed by the Möwe and the two prize ships not sunk was 1,389. A few lives were reported
lost. Fifty-nine of the men on the Yarrowdale were American sailors, some of whom had been employed on armed British merchantmen. These the German Government was inclined to hold as war prisoners, on the ground that all armed ships are warships; but this threatened cause of international controversy disappeared when the Americans were released on March 9 and returned by way
of Switzerland. They filed charges to the effect that they had been roughly treated and half starved in Germany.
List of the Victims The vessels reported captured by the Möwe were the following:
Voltaire, British steamer, with crew of 93 men, sunk on Nov. 21.
Pallbjörb, Norwegian steamer, bound from America to France with a cargo of food.
Mount Temple, British steamer with 7.5centimeter gun, 9,792 tons gross, with provisions, parcels, and horses.
Duchess of Cornwall, British sailing ship of 152 tons, with fish.
King George, British steamer of 3,852 tons gross, with explosives, provisions, and parcels.
Cambrian Range, British steamer of 4,200 tons gross, with wheat and parcels.
Georgic, British steamer with 12-centimeter gun, 10,000 tons gross, with wheat, meat, and horses.
Yarrowdale, British steamer of 4,600 tons gross, with ammunition, provisions, and war materials,
St. Theodore, British steamer of 5,000 tons gross, with coal.
Dramatist, British steamer of 5,400 tons gross, with ammunition and fruit.
Nantes, French sailing ship of 2,600 tons gross, with saltpeter.
Ansières, French sailing ship of 3,100 tons gross, with wheat.
Hudson Maru, Japanese steamer of 3,800 tons gross, with parcels.
Radnorshire, British steamer, with 12-centimeter gun, 4,300 tons gross, with coffee and cocoa.
Minieh, British steamer of 3,800 tons gross, (listed at 2,890 tons gross,) with coal.
Netherby Hall, British steamer of 4,400 tons gross, with rice and parcels.
Jean, Canadian sailing ship of 2,115 tons gross, with sugar.
Staut, Norwegian sailing ship of 1,200 tons gross, with whale oil.
Brecknockshire, British steamer, with 12centimeter gun, of 8,400 tons gross, with coal.
French Prince, British steamer of 4,800 tons gross, with coal.
Katherine, British steamer of 2,900 tons gross, with wheat.
Rhodanthe, British steamer of 3,000 tons gross, in ballast.
Esmeraldas, British steamer of 4,680 tons gross, in ballast.
Otaki, British steamer of 7,400 tons gross, (listed at 9,575 tons gross,) with 12-centimeter guns, in ballast.
Demeterton, British steamer with 7.5-centimeter guns, 6,048 tons gross, with food.
Governor, British steamer, with 12-centimeter guns, of 5,500 tons gross, in ballast.
“ The Möwe is a finely masked cruiser of 12,000 tons,” said one of the released neutral sailors. “It is impossible to discover anything unusual about her before the rail drops down and the guns are uncovered. The Möwe is also carrying sails, which prevent any view of the deck. The cruiser is quite new and armed with four big guns and two smaller ones. She has four torpedo tubes.”
German Official Statement The following official statement was issued at Berlin under date of Jan. 19, 1917:
The English steamer Yarrowdale, of 4,600 tons, was brought into harbor on Dec. 31 as a prize by a prize crew of sixteen men. She had aboard 469 prisoners, namely, the crews of one Norwegian and seven English ships which were captured by one of our auxiliary cruisers in the Atlantic Ocean.
- The cargoes of the captured vessels consisted principally of war material for our enemies from America and foodstuffs, including 6,000 tons of wheat, 2,000 tons of flour, and 1,900 horses. The Yarrowdale had on board 117 motor lorries, one motor car, 6,300 cases of rifle cartridges, 30,000 rolls of barbed wire, and 3,300 tons of steel bars, besides a large quantity of meat, bacon, and sausages.
Of the vessels sunk three of the British were armed. Among the crews of the captured vessels 103 subjects of neutral States, who, as well as enemy subjects, have been removed as prisoners of war in so far as they had taken pay on armed enemy vessels. The commander of the prize crew is Deputy Officer Badewitz.
The bringing in of the Yarrowdale has been kept secret up to this time for military reasons, which, in view of the British Admiralty statement of Jan. 17, were no longer operative.
When Lieutenant Badewitz was asked how he succeeded in bringing the Yarrowdale through the North Atlantic and the North Sea with a crew of only sixteen men and with more than 400 prisoners on board, he replied:
“For such an action you need only to exercise coolness and determined, blunt carelessness, especially if you have to deal with Englishmen. In addition you need to have a handful of smart boys like mine who have their hearts in the right place and revolvers in their pockets. Then you can fetch the devil from his own house. The discipline was firstrate. Whenever the order to go below was issued, the whole crowd of prisoners hurried to the lower decks, running like hares."
Lieutenant Badewitz said he and his officers never left the bridge of the Yarrowdale, and all preparations had been made to sink the ship at a moment's notice from the bridge. All on board, he said, knew that the vessel would be sunk in case of a mutiny. Explosive charges had been placed in the hold, with electric connections that would enable the vessel to be sent to the bottom by touching a . button, and this would have been done rathe rthan allow the vessel to be captured by British patrols.
Life on the Moeme The crew of the Norwegian steamer Pallbjörb gave this interesting account of their experiences:
“One day at the end of November the Pallbjörb saw a large steamer approaching. The stranger changed her course and began manoeuvring in such a manner that the Norwegian thought the crew must have gone mad. Suddenly the vessel came toward the Norwegian steamer and when a few yards away let down her bulwarks, disclosing four large guns. At the same time a German flag was hoisted and an order given to the Pallbjörb to stop. Thirty naval officers and sailors then boarded the Pallbjörb, seized 500 boxes of food, and then sank her. The Captain protested, saying his ship did not carry contraband; but the German officers declared that they disregarded the contraband regulations.
“On board the Möwe was the crew of