Слике страница

in full swing. The calm before the storm begins to become uncanny.

It is as if again and again the new armor is tested before the swords are once more drawn, this time for the final decision.

Retirement in France The retirement of the German troops in the Ancre and Somme regions on the west front had begun in the beginning of February with the evacuation of Grandcourt, south of the Ancre. Through the events of March 16, 17, and 18 not only the Gommecourt-Transloy front but also the lines north and south of the Somme were pushed ahead by the British for a considerable distance.

In a British advance on a width of sixty-seven kilometers from north to south, Bapaume and Péronne were taken and north and south of the Ancre more than sixty villages were occupied. During the twenty-four hours preceding this writing the British pushed their extreme southern front forward an additional fifteen kilometers by occupying the triangle Péronne-Chaulnes-Nesle.

Simultaneously, a German retirement has set in on the line Roye-Noyon, which adjoins the Somme front. The French advanced on a front of thirty kilometers between the Avre and the Oise, and have occupied both Roye and Noyon as well as the roads connecting these two points. North of the Ancre front the Germans are withdrawing as far north as Arras.

Along the whole front of retirement only German rearguards were in fighting contact with the Franco-British forces. Berlin reports that these troops inflicted heavy losses upon the advancing foe.

Even the English military experts describe the German withdrawal as a longprepared strategic chess move. It is to be expected that the Germans will fall back upon the line Soissons-Lille. The entire systematically executed movement points to the strong probability that the Germans will remain on the defensive in the west.

The Mystery at Petrograd The military outlook on the east front, where the great decision also is expected

to be fought for, is veiled by the historic event of the Russian revolution.

Who was it that in the night of March 11 to 12 gave orders to the garrison of Petrograd to fraternize with the revolutionists? What happened in the great Russian Army Headquarters during the absence of Czar Nicholas immediately after the outbreak of the revolution?

These two questions comprise the military considerations. They cast significant light upon the question as to what influence the upheaval in Russia will have upon the development of the war situation. Efforts are made today to make the world believe that the soldiery, out of softness of heart, sympathized with the starving populace. The streets of Petrograd have seen many curious things, but such sympathy-from that quarter-never.

Who led the garrison on the side of the rebels? In addition to the political revolution against Czardom there must have been a military conspiracy against the person of the Czar, and this conspiracy must have decisive influence upon the outcome of the war.

The Czar was at the front, about to consult with his Generals at army headquarters. There, at headquarters, and not in the streets of Petrograd, was the die cast, and the only question is whether the military conspiracy included the army in the field. If this is the case, th the future outlook as viewed in connection with the garrisons at home offers the following main points:

1. The war party takes over full control of the conduct of military operations.

2. It is forced to appeal once more to the fortunes of arms.

3. In this event a new great offensive on the east front is to be expected in the near future.

The military revolution must bring victory, and the political revolution must still the hunger of the masses. The development of the situation at home and at the front will depend upon the question whether the new power will be able to sharpen the weapons and satisfy the stomachs.

Recording Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events From February 18, Up to and Including March 18, 1917

GERMAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS Germany released the Yarrowdale prisoners

and five American Consuls that were detained after Ambassador Gerard left the

country. A note from the German Foreign Secretary,

Dr. Zimmermann, to the German Minister in Mexico, dated Jan. 19, contained a proposal for an alliance between Germany, Mexico, and Japan to make war on the United States if the United States should not remain neutral. The Governments of Japan and Mexico formally denied ever having received the note. Its authenticity

nations were reported as " indefinite." This list included the French troopship Athos, Belgian relief ships Storstad and Lars Fostenes, and the Cunard liner Laconia. The American ship Algonquin was sunk March 14 and three other American

ships were reported sunk March 18. Holland's indignation at the sinking of seven

Dutch food ships that had sailed under partial guarantee of safety led Germany to offer to replace them with German freighters on condition that Holland purchase the German vessels at the close of the war. Later Germany withdrew this offer, fearing that England would

seize the ships. The Allies presented a memorandum to the

Chinese Government expressing sympathy with the attitude that China had taken in regard to Germany's blockade and promising favorable consideration of the question of suspension during the war of Boxer indemnity payments and the revision of the tariffin the event of China's effectively severing relations with Germany and Austria. On March 4 the Chinese Cabinet voted to break relations, but President Li Yuan-Hung refused to approve the action, saying that the sole

power rested with him, and Premier Chi-Jui and several members of the Cabinet resigned. On March 7 the President asked the Premier to return and offered to ratify the Cabinet's proposal. The Senate, on March 12, approved the severance of relations, and on March 14 the break was announced, the German Ambassador and Consuls were handed their passports, and German-owned ships

in the Harbor of Shanghai were seized. CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE Feb. 20-Russians check German raid in the

region of Slaventine, northwest of Pod

gaste. Feb. 27—Germans make gas attacks on the

Russians in the Smorgon region. March 3-Germans penetrate Russian lines

west of Lutsk on a wide front. March 12-Russians repel gas attacks south

west of Lakparotch in the ZanarotchStahootsy sector and in the region of Velitzk, southeast of Kovel.

BALKAN CAMPAIGN Feb. 22-Allies establish contact between

was admitted by Dr. Zimmermann. President Wilson addressed Congress on Feb.

26, and asked for authority to supply armament to American merchant ships and to employ any other instrumentality that might be needed to protect American ships and people in their legitimate pursuit on the sea. He also asked for a sufficient credit to enable him to provide adequate means of protection. The armed neutrality bill was introduced at once. It was passed by the House, but the Senate, through the filibustering of eleven Senators, failed to reach a vote before the Congress expired March 4. President Wilson on March 9 announced his decision to arm American ships, and called Con

gress in extra session for April 16. Several American lives were lost during the

month as a result of Germany's submarine
campaign. Robert Allen Haden, a Presby-
terian missionary, was drowned when the
French steamer Athos, used as a troop-
ship, was sunk. Two Americans were re-
ported lost on the British bark Galgorm
Castle. The Cunard liner Laconia was
sunk Feb. 25, and two American women,
Mrs. Mary Hoy and her daughter, perished
in an open boat. On March 14 the Amer-
ican steamship Algonquin with Americans
in her crew was attacked and sunk with-
out warning. All on board escaped in
lifeboats. The sinking of three American
ships, the City of Memphis, the Illinois,
and the Vigilancia, was reported on March
18. Fifteen men perished.

The British Government announced that

summaries of shipping losses from sub-
marines would be published weekly in-
stead of daily. The report of the Board
of Trade issued March 14 announced that
from Feb. 1 to March 11 three American
ships, fifty-one vessels belonging to other
neutral nations, and 156 British ships had
been sunk. The losses of other belligerent

French and Italian troops and clear the enemy forces

from the road between Goritza in Southern Albania and Leskovie : postal communication between Athens and the Central Powers cut; Teutons on the

Rumanian front repulsed near Dorna

Watra. March 2-Germans recapture hill near Rekoza

north of the River Zaval. March 13– Vienna War Office reports skir

mishes northeast of Berat in Albania, rerealing the presence there of Italian

troops. March 17—British occupy the railroad sta

tion at Poroy east of Doiran Lake. CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN EUROPE Feb. 19-Artillery active on both banks of the

Meuse; patrol encounters in Alsace. Feb. 20—British fail in attack on German

lines near Messines, Belgium; Germans capture British point of support near Le

Transloy. Feb. 21–British penetrate German front near

Ypres and Armentières and do great

damage. Feb, 23- British capture German trench north

of Guedecourt and advance near Petit

Miraumont. Feb. 2+British enter Petit Miraumont and

gain on a mile and a half front north of

the river. Feb. 27–British occupy Serre, Miraumont,

Petit Miraumont, and Pys. Feb. 26–British continue advance along the

Ancre on a front of eleven miles; Germans abandon Warlencourt-Eaucourt and

the Butte de Warlencourt. Feb. 27–British occupy Ligny and capture

the village of Le Barque. Feb. 2 British occupy Gommecourt and cap

ture Thilloy and Pulsieux-au-Mont. March 1-British advance 600 yards north of

Miraumont on a front of a mile and a

half. March 2-Germans make a stand on a new line

from Essarts through Achiet-le-Petit to about 1,000 yards southeast of Bapaume; British report further progress north of Warlencourt-Eaucourt and northwest of

Puisieux. March 3, British advance on five-mile front

northwest of Bapaume; General Haig takes over French line as far south as

the Avre River. March British again advance west of Ba

paume and capture German front and

support lines east of Bouchavesnes. March 5-Germans launch big attack at

Verdun, gaining at some points. March 6-French hold recaptured trenches

north of Caurières Wood and Douaumont

in the face of strong German attacks. March 7-French in Champagne capture

salient between Butte de Mesnil and

Maison de Champagne. March 10_British advance more than three

miles in the Ancre region and capture Irles; French repulse violent German as

saults in the Champagne. March 12-French in Champagne recapture

all trenches of Hill 185 west of Maison de Champagne Farm; British gain slightly north of Bouchavesnes.


13 Germans abandon their main defensive system west of Bapaume on a front of three and a half miles; British

occupy Grevillers and Loupart Wood. March 14—British advance on the Ancre and reach


defenses before Bapaume; French capture Romainville Farm, close

to St. Mihiel. March 15—British capture two and a half

miles of German trenches between Bapaume and Péronne; French gain near Roye; Germans capture a position south

of Cumières. March 16—British occupy almost all of St.

Pierre Vaast. Wood; French advance on both sides of the Avre from Andechy

to south of Lassigny. March 17—British take Bapaume; French

capture Roye and Lassigny and advance five miles, occupying fortified line be

tween the Avre and the Oise Rivers. March 18—Germans retire on Sj-mile line in

France, abandoning Péronne, Chaulnes, Nesle, and Noyon; line of Allies' advance extends from Arras to Soissons, to a depth of twelve miles; sixty villages recaptured; Germans on the Meuse fail in attack on Chambrettes Farm.

ITALIAN CAMPAIGN Feb. 27- Italians enter Austrian trenches on

the northern slopes of San Marco. March 5-Italians successfully storm Au

strian positions in the upper part of the

Spellegrino Valley in the Avisio district. March 12-Italians repulse Austrian attacks

northeast of Lenzumo in the Trentino and against the southern slopes of Cima di Bocche in the Travignolo Valley.

ASIA MINOR Feb. 23--British in the Tigris region capture

two lines of trenches near Sannaiyat. Feb. 25–British cross the Tigris at the Shum

ran bend in the rear of Kut-el-Amara. Feb. 26–British take Kut-el-Amara. Feb. 28–British engage Turks on three sides

at a point on the left bank of the Tigris

over thirty miles northwest of Kut. March 3-Russians recapture Hamadan in

Persia and advance toward Bagdad as

British approach the city from the south. darch 4-Russians advance in the Bijar region

in Persia and occupy Khanikali. March 7- Advance guards of the British Army

approach Jerusalem; Russians in Persia

seize Asadabad summit. March & British advance to within eight

miles of Bagdad, find Ctesiphon evacu

ated ; Russians in Persia occupy Kangaver. March 9—'Two Bedouin tribes join the British,

who reach the outskirts of Bagdad; Russians reach Sakkiz, twenty-five miles

from the Mesopotamian border. March 10-British troops engage the Turks on

the Diala River line, six miles below Bagdad; Russians capture the town of Senne

in Western Persia. March 11-British occupy Bagdad; Russians

take Sahna in Northwestern Persia and

pursue Turks toward Bisitun. March 13—British occupy Kazimain, five

miles above Bagdad. March 14-British advance thirty miles

beyond Bagdad; Russians capture Ker

manshah. March 16-British occupy part of the town of

Bakubah; Russians dislodge Turks from fortified positions on the summit of Nar

leshkian. March 18-Russians capture Van, and sweep

on in Persia over a wide front, occupying Baneh.

AERIAL RECORD German aviators bombarded a Serbian hos

pital at Vertekop, causing heavy loss of life. Two English nurses were among

those killed. Air duels have been frequent on the western

front, as many as eleven and thirteen machines being brought down on some

days. Broadstairs was bombarded by a German

airplane and one woman killed. Zeppelins raided the southeastern counties

of England on the night of March 16. One machine was brought down by the French near Compiègne on its return flight, and the crew of thirty were killed.

NAVAL RECORD German destroyers bombarded Broadstairs

and Margate on the British coast Feb. 26. The Russian cruiser Rurik was damaged by

a mine in the Gulf of Finland. On Feb, 28 the French torpedo boat destroyer

Cassini was destroyed by a submarine in the Mediterranean.

As result of a popular revolution the

Romanoff dynasty was overthrown. On
March 8 strikes were declared in several





munitions factories and riots occurred in
the streets of Petrograd because of a
shortage of food. These disturbances
were quelled, but only temporarily. On
March 12 the Czar issued imperial ukases
suspending the sittings of the Duma and
the Council of the Empire. The Duma
opposed the order and continued its sit-
tings. A three days' revolt followed,
which resulted in the abdication of the
Czar on March 15 and the establishment
of a Liberal Ministry headed by Prince
Lvoff. The Czar's younger brother, the
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch,
was named as regent. He also abdicated,
and plans have been made for the con-
vocation of a constituent assembly and
full political amnesty. The new Foreign
Minister, Paul Milukoff, in a message to
Russian diplomats abroad, announced
that Russia would fight with the Allies
until the end of the war.

The United States Government received from

Austria-Hungary a reply to a note inquir-
ing concerning Austria's attitude toward
the renewal of ruthless submarine war-
fare. Austria defended the barred zone
and said that safety could not be guar-
anteed to neutrals in enemy vessels.
Austria also sent a message to the United
States denying that the schooner Lyman
M. Law was torpedoed by an Austrian

submarine. The entire Briand Ministry resigned in

France, following the resignation of General Lyautey as Minister of War after a stormy debate in the Chamber of Deputies on the desirability of discussing the aviation service. President Poincaré asked M. Ribot to form a new Cabinet, after M. Deschanel had refused to undertake the task.

took the oath of office for his second term at the National Capitol at noon March 5, 1917, in the presence of 50,000 people. He had previously gone through the formality of taking the oath at noon on Sunday, March 4. The parade was not as long as usual, consisting of about 20,000 soldiers and sailors.

There was no inauguration ball, and a general air of solemnity marked the whole occasion on account of the critical international situation. The President was very care

fully guarded, but no untoward incident marred the occasion. The inaugural address was short and referred chiefly to international affairs. Striking portions of the address follow:

We stand firm in armed neutrality, since it seems that in no other way we can demonstrate what it is we insist upon and cannot forego. We may even be drawn on, by circumstances, not by our own purpose or desire, to a more active assertion of our rights as we see them and a more immediate asso. ciation with the great struggle itself.

We are provincials no longer. The tragical events of the thirty months of vital turmoil through which we have just passed


have made us citizens of the world. There can be no turning back. Our own fortunes as a nation are involved, whether we would have it so or not.

And yet we are not the less Americans on that account. We shall be the American if we but remain true to the principles in which we have been bred. They are not the principles of a province or of a single continent. We have known and boasted all along that they were the principles of a liberated mankind. These, therefore, are the things we shall stand for, whether in far or in peace :

That all nations are equally interested in the peace of the world and in the political stability of free peoples, and equally responsible for their maintenance.

That the essential principle of peace is the actual equality of nations in all matters of right or privilege.

That peace cannot securely or justly rest upon an armed balance of power.

That Governments derive all their just powers from the consent of the governed and that no other powers should be supported by the common thought, purpose, or power of the family of nations.

That the seas should be equally free and safe for the use of all peoples, under rules set up by common agreement and consent, and that, far as practicable, they should be accessible to all upon equal terms.

That national armaments should be limited to the necessities of national order and domestic safety.

That the community of interest and of power upon which peace must henceforth depend imposes upon each nation the duty of seeing to it that all influences proceeding from its own citizens meant to encourage or assist revolution in other States should be sternly and effectually suppressed and prevented.

[ocr errors]


[blocks in formation]

German ships in Chinese ports, following the precedent of Portugal.

The history of the break is as follows: On March 4 the Chinese Cabinet definitely voted to sever relations, but President Li Yuan-Hung refused to act, on the ground that the power to break relations was his alone. The Cabinet resigned and withdrew to Tien-tsin, returning only when the President yielded. On March 10 the President and his Cabinet appeared before the House of Parliament and asked approval of a severance of relations, which was granted by a vote of 431 to 87. The Chinese Senate later concurred. Definite invita-, tions to China to join the Entente have been made but have not yet been acted on.

The immediate effect of China's severence of relations will probably be a greatly increased output of munitions for Russia. China is Japan's source of iron and has provided most of the raw material for Russian munitions made in Japan. China has further sent over 100,000 workmen to Russia and France, to work in munition factories, and the torpedoing of liners carrying these is the immediate cause of the break.

N episode full of profound signif-

icance occurred in the Prussian Diet on March 14, when the German Chancellor, von Bethmann Hollweg, announced in the course of debate his firm adherence to a progressive political faith and his firm faith in a broader democracy after the war. His words were as follows:

After the war we shall be confronted with the most gigantic tasks that ever confronted a nation. They will be so gigantic that the entire people will have to work to solve them. A strong foreign policy will be necessary, for we shall be surrounded by enemies whom we shall not meet with loud words, but with the internal strength of the nation. We can only pursue such a policy if the patriotism which during the war has developed to such a marvelous reality is maintained and strengthened.

Woe to the statesman who does not recogrize the signs of the times and who, after this catastrophe, the like of which the world has never seen, believes that he can take up

« ПретходнаНастави »