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his work at the same point at which it was interrupted.

He used the phrase “ Equal rights and participation for all in the work of the State.” This is construed to foreshadow a complete reformation in the German electoral system, and equal suffrage. It has been hinted that the speech was a result of the great events that were occurring in Russia and in anticipation of a possible Social Democratic uprising in Germany. The German Sccialist organ commented on the speech with some skepticism and warned the Chancellor that he must keep faith.

out of the purple East-" The Arabian Nights: The Stories of a Thousand Nights and a Night.” This great period of Bagdad's history began in the year 762, before Charlemagne was crowned, and about the time of Afred the Great of England, when the Western world was just emerging from barbarism. General Maude's campaign has been extraordinarily rapid, evidencing admirable preparation. On Feb. 26, 1917, he captured Kut-el-Amara, with many thousand Turkish prisoners, and within two weeks his patrols pushed forward a hundred miles, to within a few miles of Bagdad. The great city, which lies in an open, sun-burnt plain, was apparently almost undefended, and on March 11 the British and Indian forces were within the walls.

This striking victory gives to Great Britain a practically continuous territory, beginning on the east at the frontier of Siam, including Burma and India, Baluchistan and Southern Persia, which has been recognized as under British influence since the Anglo-Russian pact of 1907, and now the whole of the southern section of Asiatic Turkey, with a protectorate over the new kingdom of Arabia, behind Aden, thus bringing the effective influence of England to Egypt and as far as the border of Italian Tripoli. All Southern Asia is thus dominated by Britain.

NEW CABINET IN FRANCE THE Briand Cabinet resigned March

17 on account of criticisms in the Chamber, Minister of War Lyautey having previously resigned because he was heckled while addressing the Chamber. Alexandre Ribot, the former Finance Minister, formed the new Cabinet, of which he becomes Premier and Foreign Minister; Rene Viviani, former Premier, Minister of Justice; Paul Painlevé, former Minister of Public Instruction, is the new Minister of War; Albert Thomas remains Minister of Munitions; Admiral Lacaze, Minister of Marine; Joseph Thierry is Minister of Finance; Etienne Clementhal, former Minister of Agriculture, is Minister of Commerce. This is the fourth Cabinet since the outbreak of the war.

THE

B

*

BAGDAD

THE BRITISH IN BAGDAD AGDAD the great is fallen," cap

tured by the advance guard of General Maude on March 11; the British power is now dominant up the whole of the hot Mesopotamian Valley from the Persian Gulf, and General Townshend's disastrous surrender at Kut-el-Amara on April 13, 1916, after a siege lasting from Dec. 5, 1915, is wiped out by victory.

Bagdad dates back far beyond the days of Nebuchadnezzar and the captivity of the Jews; as the capital of the Caliphs, it was the most splendid city in the world, giving to universal literature one of the greatest books that ever came

PRACTICAL FAILURE OF THE SUBMARINE Y the first week in March it was evi

dent that there was a marked falling off in the amount of tonnage sunk by submarines operating in the “ forbidden" zones about the British Isles and in the Mediterranean, and a probable explanation of this was furnished by reports from England that large numbers of German submarines had been captured or sunk. It was said that of 100 U-boats which began the campaign of ruthlessness on Feb. 1 no less than 48 had been sunk or taken by Feb. 25; and while this is probably in excess of the real figures, nevertheless all evidence tends in the same direction: that, as means of bringing famine to England, and thus “forcing England to her knees,” the submarine has small chance of success.

a

It is now said in Germany that the to remain only long enough to make real object of the submarine warfare was themselves seaworthy. not to reduce England to submission by American neutrality was violated in famine, but to compel her to withdraw bringing the Appam into Hampton tonnage she had lent to Russia and Italy, Roads, the court said, and neither the thus isolating these two countries, as a ancient treaties relied upon by Lieutenstep toward compelling them to make a ant Berg, the German prize commander, separate peace. But this explanation is The Hague Conventions, nor the Declarareally an admission of failure, so far as tion of London entitled any belligerents England is concerned. It was so widely to make American ports a place for deannounced in Germany that unrestricted posit of prizes as spoils of war under submarining was Germany's last weapon, such circumstances. which was to bring her rapid victory, “ The principles of international law," that it is difficult to see how the new the opinion adds, “leaving the treaty aspect of the situation can long be with aside, will not permit the ports of the held from the German people.

United States to be thus used by the

belligerents. If such use were permitted APPAM CASE DECIDED

it would constitute the ports of a neutral THE United States Supreme Court on nation harbors of safety into which prizes

THE

March 6 in a unanimous decision de- might be safely brought and indefinitely creed restoration to her English owners kept. of the liner Appam and cargo, brought “ From the beginning of its history into Hampton Roads more than a year this country has been careful to maintain ago by a prize crew from the German a neutral position between warring Govraider Möwe. The ship and cargo, valued ernments, and not to allow use of its at between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000, ports in violation of the obligations of must be delivered by April 6, 1917. neutrality, nor to permit such use beyond

The decision upholds the original rul the necessities arising from perils of the ing by Secretary Lansing that prizes seas or the necessities of such vessels as coming into American ports unaccom to seaworthiness, provisions, and suppanied by captor warships have the right plies.”

FIFTEEN BILLIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE THE THE foreign trade of the United States, imports and exports combined, since the

outbreak of the war in Europe at the end of July, 1914, to Feb. 11, 1917, amounted to the sum of $15,622,785,853. Exports during this period were a little more than double the imports, and the balance of trade in favor of this country resulting from these thirty months of trade was $5,501,568,835. This table shows how this trade has accumulated and the huge movement of gold which resulted from it: MERCHANDISE

Credit Trade

Balance (Excess Exports.

Imports.

of Exports.) January, 1917.

$613, 111,020 $241,674.851 $371,766,109 Year, 1916.

5,431,423,599 2,391,654,335 3,089,709,254

3,154,070,947 1,778,5996,695 1,776,074,152 Aug. 1 to Dec. 31, 1914..

912,611,883

648,682,028 263,939,260

1915.

Total since outbreak of war..

$5,060,608,509

$5,501,508,835

.$10,362,177,314
GOLD

January, 1917..
Year, 1916.
Year, 1915.
Aug. 1 to Dec, 31, 1914.

Exports.
$20,719,898
133,792.927

31,125,918
104,972,197

Imports.
$58,926,258
685,990,234
451,951.390
23,232,604

Excess of

Imports. $38,206,360 530,197,307 420,528,672 *81,719,393

$312,910,910

$1,220,123,6S6

$907,212,746

Total since outbreak of war.

*Excess of exports.

COLOMBIAN TREATY DEFEATED

THE treaty with Colombia was debated

on

in the United States Senate March 13 and 14, having been reported for passage by the Foreign Relations Committee; but it was withdrawn on the 16th, it being clear that it would fail to receive the necessary two-thirds vote. The objections to the treaty are: (1) That $25,000,000 is an excessive amount to pay Colombia for the Panama strip, being $15,000,000 more than Panama received; (2) that there is a clause in the treaty giving Colombia preference in the canal, which is deemed perilous; (3) that the urgency for its passage at this time savors of a threat by Colombia that it is her price for refusing an alliance with Germany; (4) that the treaty implies that President Roosevelt committed a wrong with respect to the Panama revolution, which resulted in the loss of the canal strip by Colombia. It is reported that the treaty when reintroduced will be reconstructed. Senator Knox, Republican from Pennsylvania, who was Secretary of State in the Roosevelt Adminstration, surprised his Republican colleagues by strongly advocating the treaty as presented.

cause he did not voice his known dislike of the proposed operation. When, because of this dislike, he threatened to resign, a minority report says, Lord Kitchener took Lord Fisher aside and prevailed upon him to return to his seat in the Council. The report makes it clear that the Dardanelles attack was made in part in response to an appeal from Russia on Jan. 2, 1915, Russia being then hard pressed by the threatened Turkish invasion of the Caucasus. It is evident, from this report, that Britain's naval advisers were convinced at the outset that the purely naval attack must fail, but failed to press their view. As a defense of Egypt and of the Russian Caucasus, however, the Gallipoli attack was completely successful.

IN

*

*

IN GERMAN EAST AFRICA N the last four or five months very

THE GALLIPOLI REPORT

CARLY

the British Failure at Gallipoli reported that the question of attacking the Dardanelles was, on the initiative of Winston Churchill, brought under the consideration of the War Council on Nov. 25, 1914, as the ideal method of defending Egypt. The Commissioners hold that the possibility of making a surprise land and water attack offered such great military and political advantages that it was mistaken and ill-advised to sacrifice this possibility by deciding to undertake a purely naval attack, which, from its nature, could not obtain completely the objects set out in the terms of the decision. A part of the blame is laid upon Lord Kitchener, who, says the report, was the sole mouthpiece of War Office opinion in the War Council. He was never overruled by the Cabinet in any matter, great or small. Lord Fisher is criticised be

decided progress has been made by the British in German East Africa, the last of Germany's colonial possessions. In September last the struggle there entered a new phase; the Germans, driven from the northern part of their protectorate, and divided into three isolated bodies, were fighting only to detain in Africa troops which the Allies might otherwise employ in the European war theatres or in Mesopotamia.

On Sept. 11 the Belgian field force drove out of Tabora the contingent of the Prussian General, Wahle, of at least 4,000 seasoned native troops and over 500 Europeans. The Belgians found in Tabora over a hundred British subjects, men and women, who had been subjected to many indignities, with the deliberate intention of degrading them in the eyes of the natives. General Wahle at first retreated along the railroad in the direction of Kilima-tinde, with the Belgians in pursuit and an English force under General Crewe on his flank. On Oct. 22 there began a series of encounters between General Wahle and General Northey, which lasted until the end of November. On Nov. 26 one division of Wahle's force, numbering 500, and including fifty-four Europeans, was compelled to surrender. By Jan. 6 Wahle's

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force, reduced by one-half, had retreated to Mahange, on which, at the end of January, General Northey was converging three columns.

On Jan. 1 General Smuts began a new offensive against Colonel von LettowVorbeck's German force in the Rufiji Valley; hard pressed, these troops endeavored to reach Mahange, to form a junction with the remnants of General Wahle's force. British and Belgian forces, from all sides, are now converging on Mahange, where the struggle is likely to come to an end.

a few miles from the Panama Canal
Zone, likewise owned and operated by
Germans, and in communication with
the stations in Mexico and, through
these, with Berlin. This wireless net-
work over Central and South America
rivals the great system of radio stations
in Africa, by means of which German
Southwest Africa could communicate
with Berlin through a single link in the
Cameroons. There were equally power-
ful radio stations in Germany's Pacific
possessions.

COUNT ZEPPELIN IS DEAD

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COUNT ZEPPELIN shares with the

GERMAN INFLUENCE IN MEXICO

late General Shrapnel the distinction IT. T was announced on March 14 that

of having given his name to a new inconfidential diplomatic reports from

strument of war; but, while the English Mexico indicated that the German Bank

officer died long before the shells called in Mexico City and the German Legation

after him had reached the height of their there are guiding virtually the entire

fame, Count Zeppelin lived long enough financial and diplomatic activities of

to see his very vulnerable airships tested Mexico. According to these reports the

in a great war-and pretty well disrecent Mexican peace note was inspired

credited as weapons of offense. Born by the German Legation, while the Ger

nearly eighty years ago, he came to the man Bank is said to have come into full

United States as a military observer durcontrol of the Mexican financial situation, ing the civil war, serving on the staff of having accepted quantities of the paper

General Carl Schurz and narrowly esmoney issued by the Mexican Govern

caping capture at Fredericksburg. He ment. A very large influx of German

was decorated in the Franco-Prussian money from the United States is also re

war and later represented the Kingdom corded.

of Württemberg at Berlin in the Federal Two further facts point in the same Council of the Empire. direction—the exodus of German reserv In 1891 he devoted all his time and a ists, who have crossed the Rio Grande in

great part of his large fortune to the large numbers since the diplomatic break construction of lighter-than-air flying with Germany, bearing passes issued by machines. Seven years later, after much the Mexican Consulate here, and who are ridicule and many hairbreadth escapes, reported to be drilling Mexican soldiers

he gained his first great triumph by asand initiating them into the methods of

cending from Friedrichshafen on Lake modern warfare; and the announcement

Constance, and remaining aloft for thirthat there are several large German

ty-seven hours, in the fifth of his airowned radio stations on Mexican soil,

ships, and sailing in a straight course for one being in Southern California, capa more than eight hundred miles. The ble of communicating directly with Ger

Kaiser and all Germany hailed him az many. These stations can easily make

the conqueror of the air. But this ship connections with the internal telegraph also was soon wrecked, representing a systems of the United States, and could

loss of $500,000. It is interesting to rethus with practical impunity gather all member that it was in the United States details of military preparations and that Count Zeppelin made his first movements throughout the United States

ascent, going up in a captive balloon beand send them the same day to Berlin. longing to the Union Army.

There are similar reports of the exist While his great airships have proved a ence of strong radio stations in Colombia, failure as a means of “bringing England

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to her knees" by terrorism from the were relieved at the German frontier; clouds, and while admittedly the Zep they were practically in rags and compelins proved to be England's best re plain that they had insufficient food. cruiting sergeant, it is only fair to say They were cared for by Americans in that Count Zeppelin did in fact com Switzerland and will be sent home via pletely succeed in his main purposeto Spain. make a dirigible balloon with great speed and carrying power and with an immense

CCORDING to English official lists, flying radius, a really fine achievement. A

German casualties in January were Count Zeppelin died on March 8.

77,534, and for February 60,471; of the

latter 21,105 were killed or missing, 12,GERMANS IN AMERICA

451 severely wounded. It is computed THE THE number of native-born Germans from unofficial reports that the total

and Austro-Hungarians in the United German casualties up to March 1, 1917, States at the time of the census of 1910 are 4,148,163, exclusive of those in the was 4,181,615, divided as follows:

navy and colonies. Native Austrians..

.1,174,973 Native Germans...

.2,501,333 Native Hungarians.

495,609 Of native-born Americans with one or

London, March 16 and 17, which the both parents born in

Germany or

British authorities assert was fruitless. Austro-Hungary there were 6,811,699 in

A Zeppelin, evidently bound for Paris, the United States in 1910, divided as

was brought down by the French near follows:

Campiègne when at an altitude of 10,Native born, with one or

000 feet, and the entire crew was killed. two parents born in Austria

826,635

The airship was completely consumed. Germany

..5,781,437 Hungary

204,627

(NDER

totally disabled privates will receive Hungarians and Americans of first gen a minimum of $6.87 weekly; the alloweration in the United States in 1910, ance for children is $1.25 and a 10,993,314.

slightly less for each subsequent child.

GERMAN Zeppelins after a long period

*

Total native-born Germans and Austro- UNDER the new British pension plan

sum

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FIFTY-NINE Americans taken from

THE United States Congress passed

and the President signed on March 2 the bill granting full citizenship to the inhabitants of Porto Rico. The law provides that any resident of Porto Rico may renounce his American citizenship within a year. Prohibition is imposed in the bill, but is accompanied by a referendum provision. The first election under the new law will take place in July.

vessels sunk by the German raider in the South Atlantic and borne to Swinemünde, Germany, on Jan. 1, on board the captured British steamer Yarrowdale, were released from quarantine March 9, and left at 4 P. M. for the Swiss frontier. The route over which they departed was the one chosen for their return by the United States Government.

Much irritation was felt over the delay in the release of the men, and the explanation of the German authorities that they were held on account of quarantine was questioned, but later it was officially confirmed by the Spanish Embassy doctor that typhus fever had appeared at the camp on Feb. 20, and the quarantine was not lifted until March 7. The men

IT

T is estimated that the German U-boat

blockade reduced the foreign trade of the United States in the month of February $190,000,000. At one time 300,000 tons of cargoes on ships of neutral registry were tied up in New York Harbor alone, fifty-three steamships being of American, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Dutch registry.

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