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nothing of the abandonment of their ex clusively to secure our existence and to
cessive aims of conquest and economic establish firmly the future of the nation.
destruction. Where, then, were the Gov A program of conquest helps as little
ernments who last Winter openly stood as a program of reconciliation to win
up before the world in order to terminate victory and the war.
this insane slaughter of peoples? Were “On the contrary, I should thereby
they in London or in Paris? The most merely play the game of hostile rulers
recent utterances which I have heard and make it easier for them further to
from London declare that the war aims delude their war-weary peoples into pro-
which were announced two years ago re longing the war immeasurably. That,
main unaltered.

too, would be base ingratitude toward our
“ Even Herr Scheidemann will not be warriors near Arras and the Aisne.
lieve that I could meet this declaration “ As regards our eastern neighbor,
with a beau geste. Does any one believe, Russia, I have already recently spoken.
in view of the state of mind of our It appears as if new Russia had declined
western enemies, that they could be in for herself these violent plans of con-
duced to conclude peace by a program of quest. Whether Russia will or can act
renunciation ?

in the same sense on her allies I am un“ It comes to this. Shall I immediately able to estimate. Doubtless England, give our western enemies an assurance with the assistance of her allies, is emwhich will enable them to prolong the ploying all her efforts to keep Russia war indefinitely without danger of losses harnessed to England's war chariot and to themselves? Shall I tell these en to traverse Russian wishes for the emies: 'Come what may, we shall under speedy restoration of the world's peace. all circumstances be people who re

Proffer of Peace to Russia nounce; we shall not touch a hair of your head. But you want our lives—you can,

“If, however, Russia wants to prevent without any risks, continue to try your

further bloodshed and renounces all violuck?'

lent plans of conquest for herself, if she Shall I nail down the German Em wishes to restore durable relations of pire in all directions by a one-sided form peaceful life side by side with us, then ula which only comprises one part of the surely it is a matter of course that we, total peace conditions and which re as we share this wish, will not disturb nounces successes won by the blood of the permanent relationship in the future

sons and brothers and leaves all and will not render its development imother matters in suspense?

possible by demands which, indeed, do “No, I will not pursue such a policy.

not accord with the freedom of nations That would be the basest ingratitude and would deposit in the Russian Nation toward the heroic deeds of our people at the germ of enmity. [Thunderous apthe front and at home. It would per- plause.] manently press down our people, to the “I doubt not that an agreement aimsmallest worker, in their entire con ing exclusively at a mutual understandditions of life. It would be equivalent to ing could be attained which excludes surrendering the future of the Father every thought of oppression and which land.

would leave behind no sting and no dis" Or ought I, conversely, to set forth cord. a program of conquest. I decline to do “ Our military position has never been that. [Cries from the Right:

“ We are

so good since the beginning of the war. not demanding that.”] If it has not The enemy in the west, despite his terbeen demanded, then we are of one rible losses, cannot break through. Our opinion. I also decline to set forth a U-boats are operating with increasing program of conquest. We did not go

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I won't use any fine words forth to war, and we stand in battle about them—the deeds of our U-boat now against almost the whole world, not men speak for themselves. I think even in order to make conquests

but ex

the neutrals will recognize that.


“So far as compatible with our duty Dr. Peter Spahn, leader of the Catholic toward our own people, who come first, Centre Party, spoke in behalf of the we take into account the interests of groups just mentioned, approving the the neutral States. The concessions which Chancellor's attitude and declaring his we have made to them are not empty resolute opposition to all enemy interpromises. That is the case in regard to ference with Germany's domestic affairs. our frontier neighbors. Holland and “If the enemy," he said, “is combating Scandinavia, as well as those States Prussian militarism and the Hohenzolwhich, on account of their geographical lerns in the illustrious person of the position, are especially greatly exposed Emperor, it will only result in bringing to enemy pressure. I am thinking in his Majesty closer to the hearts of the this connection especially of Spain, German people.” which, loyal to her noble traditions, is

A Republic Suggested endeavoring under great difficulties to preserve her independent policy of neu Georg Ledebour, an Independent Sotrality. We thankfully recognize this cialist, created a distinct stir by an alluattitude and have only one wish-that sion to a republic in his address followthe Spanish people reap the reward of ing the Chancellor. He said: their strong, independent policy by fur The Chancellor doubtless desires anther developing their power.

nexations both in the east and west. “ Thus, time is on our side. With full With the exception of extravagant visconfidence we can trust that we are ap

ionaries, nobody believes that Germany proaching a satisfactory end. Then the can win a war of subjugation. The Rustime will come when we can negotiate

sian Socialists have made an offer which with our enemies about our war aims, opens up the possibility of peace. This regarding which I am in full harmony

is what the Chancellor forgets. It is with the supreme army command. Then true that a separate peace with Russia we will attain a peace which will bring cannot be achieved, but the Russian Govus liberty to rebuild what the war has ernment can convert the Entente, and in destroyed in the unhampered develop

this direction we ought to assist it. ment of our strength, so that from all “ Herr Scheidemann must take up the the blood and all the sacrifices an em cudgels against the Government if he pire, a people will rise again strong, in does not want strong words, which do not dependent, and unthreatened by its en shrink even from the announcement of a emies, a bulwark of peace and labor.” revolution, to be followed by deeds. We

A motion to end the debate was lost, are convinced that events must happen in after which the middle-of-the-road Germany as they have happened in Rusparties, made up of the Centrists, Na sia. That is what those in power are tional Liberals, Progressive People's working for. We must soon introduce a Party and German fraction presented a republic in Germany, and we shall projoint declaration approving the Chan pose that the Constitution Committee cellor's attitude.

take preparatory steps in that direction."

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Progress of the War

Recording Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events From April 19 Up to and Including May 18, 1917


UNITED STATES A British Commission headed by Lord Bal

four and a French Commission headed by René Viviani conferred with American officials in Washington on the conduct of

the war. Heavy loans, authorized by the Bond bill,

were made to the Allies. Military censorship was established over ca

bles, telegraph lines, and telephone lines. On May 16 announcement was made that a

squadron of American torpedo boats, under the command of Rear Admiral Sims, had safely crossed the Atlantic and was aiding the British fleet in patrolling the

seas. The first hospital unit authorized by the

United States Government arrived in Eng

land May 18. The Army Conscription bill was passed by

Congress and signed by President Wilson May 18. The President issued a proclamation fixing June 5 as the day for the registration of men between the ages of 21 and 30. Announcement was made that an expeditionary force of regular troops under Major Gen. Pershing would be sent to France at the earliest possible moment.

SUBMARINE BLOCKADE Dr. Karl Helfferich informed the Reichstag

that more than 1,600,000 tons of shipping had been sunk by the Germans in Feb

ruary and March. The British official announcement for the

week ended April 29 showed that thirtyeight merchant ships of over 1,600 tons each had been sunk. The report for the week ended May 9 showed sixty-two vessels lost, but of smaller tonnage than in the three weeks preceding. In the week ended May 16 twenty-six vessels, eighteen of over 1,600 tons, were lost. Seventyfive Norwegian ships were sunk during April and more than 100 sailors lost their lives. Captain Persius estimated that the total tonnage of merchant craft destroyed by the Germans from the beginning of the

war up to April 1 was 6,641,000. The Belgian relief ship Kongsli was sunk,

either by a mine or a torpedo. Two British hospital ships, the Donegal and

the Lanfranc, were sunk without warning
and seventy-five men were killed, includ-
ing some

Germain prisoners. Other British losses included the troopship Ballarat, the freighter Harpagus, and the transport Cameronia, on which 140 lives were lost. Ninety lives were lost

when the African steamer Abosso

torpedoed on April 24. The list of American ships sunk included the

schooners Woodward Abraham and Percy Birdsall, the oil tanker Vacuum, on which seventeen lives were lost; the unarmed steamer Hilonian, on which four persons were lost, and the Rockingham, with two persons killed. Germany disclaimed the

ting of the American tank steamer Healdton. The Dutch fishing fleet was forced to sus

pend operations because of the constant torpedoing of vessels and because of Germany's failure to provide coal as she promised. Germany,

in reprisal, announced that the Relief Commission would not be allowed to import fish for the popu

lation of Belgium and Northern France. Argentina sent an ultimatum to Germany de

manding satisfaction for the sinking of the sailing ship Monte Protegido. Germany apologized and offered an indem

nity. Guatemala severed diplomatic relations with

Germany. The President of Haiti sent a message to

Congress demanding a declaration of war against Germany. The Congress, acting in accordance with the report of a special commission, decided against war, but a strong protest was sent to Germany against the drowning of five Haitian citi. zens on the French steamship Montreal, with the announcement that diploinaiic relations would be severed unless repara

tion was made. Turkey severed diplomatic relations with the

United States. The Chinese House of Representatives re

fused to pass a resolution declaring war

on Germany. Liberia severed diplomatic relations with

Germany. CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE April 28-Increased activity of Russian guns

near Lutsk and the Zlota Lipa, Mara

yuvka, and Putna Rivers. May 5–Russian fire increases from Kovel

to Stanislau. May 6-German offensive beaten back near

Zolotschevsk. May 18-Russians beat back German attacks

in the region of Shelvov. CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN EUROPE April 19-French occupy Aizy, Jouy, Laf

faux, and Fort de Condé, in the Vailly

capture fortified works at Roeux and Cavalry Farm; French in Verdun region penetrate German line north of Bezon

vaux. May 13–British advance their outposts north

of Bullecourt and take part of Roeux

Village. May 11-British capture the whole of Roeux

and advance toward Oppy. May 15—Germans launch four massed at

tacks on new British positions in Bullecourt and penetrate first French line

southwest of Filaine. May 16-British forced back temporarily at

Roeux, but retake all positions; Germans strike hard northeast of Soissons, but are

driven back by French counterattacks. May 17-British complete the capture of

Bullecourt; French win ground east of Craonne and repulse attacks in Laffaux district; many villages near St. Quentin

afire. May 18–Germans repulsed by French with

grenades near Craonne; French penetrate German lines in Lorraine near Petoncourt.

BALKAN CAMPAIGN April 20—French recapture trenches lost

April 18 near Trsvena Stena. April 22–Fighting renewed in the bend of

the Cerna River and near Lake Doiran. April 23—Russians drive Teutons from ad

vanced posts in Rumania and re-establish

first lines. April 26—British take Bulgar trenches west

of Lake Doiran on a 1,000-meter front. May 5-French and Venizelist troops in

Macedonia occupy enemy positions in the

region of Jumnica. May 9-Russian troops on the Rumanian

front northwest of Senne break through Teuton positions and advance upon

Jenawer. May 10—British take two miles of Bulgar

trenches. May 12–Germans and Bulgarians gain a

foothold on Srka di Legen, west of the Vardar heights; Venizelos troops carry

an enemy work near Lymnitsa. May 16—British troops in Macedonia capture

Kjupri, on the Struma front, and advance trenches on a wide front southwest of Ernekeoi.

ITALIAN CAMPAIGN May 13-Italians begin terrific bombardment

to destroy Austrian defenses on the Carso

front. May 15-Italians take the offensive on the

Isonzo front and make progress in the
Plava area, on the slopes of Monte Cucco,
and on the hills east of Gorizia and

May 16-Italians force

passage of the Isonzo River, capturing Bombrez, Zagora,



district, take several heights east of
Moronvillers, and carry trench lines near

April 20-French occupy Sancy and drive

Germans to heights dominated by Mal-
maison Fort; Germans announce aban-
donment of the bank of the River Aisne,

between Condé and Soupir. April 21-French push forward toward ridge

topped by the Chemin des Dames and make progress south of Juvincourt; British capture Gonnelieu, drawing their lines

closer around Havrincourt Wood. April 22-British close in on Havrincourt

Wood and take part of Trescault; Ger-
mans repulsed by French in attack on

Mont Haut.
April 23-French repulse German attacks in

April 24–British advance east of Monchy and

between Monchy and the Sensée River ;
French improve their positions south of

St. Quentin,
April 25–British advance south of the Scarpe

and extend their lines from Trescault to
Bilhemion, south of the Bapaume-Cam-

brai Road. April 26-French beat off German counter

attacks near the Chemin des Dames. April 28—British begin new attack north of

the Scarpe, capture German positions on a two-mile front north and south of Arleux, push forward northeast of Gravelle, and

gain ground north of Monchy. April 29—British capture German trenches

south of Oppy on a front of half a mile. April 30-French make new attack' in Cham

pagne and capture trenches on both sides

of Mont Carnillet. May 2-French in Champagne push forward

south of Beire. May :3-British penetrate the Hindenburg line

west of Queant, take Fresnoy, and part

of Bullecourt. May 4-French capture Craonne and German

first line trenches on a front of two and

a half miles northwest of Rheims. May 5-French carry a salient in the Hin

denburg line on both sides of the Soissons-Laon Road, on a front of nearly four miles, clear Craonne Plateau from east of Cerny-en-Laonnais to a point east of Craonne, and push forward to the hills

dominating the valley of the Aillette River. May 6-French clear all but a small section

of the Chemin des Dames ; British repulse strong German counterattacks on their

new positions near Bullecourt. May 8-Germans retake Fresnoy. May 9- British regain part of the ground lost

at Fresnoy and repel attacks near Gavrelle; French capture first line of German trenches northeast of Chevreux and repulse attacks on the plateau of Chemin

des Dames. May 11-Allies repulse German attacks

against Lens and in the Cerny section. May 12-British troops enter Bullecourt and

and Zagomila.
May 17—Italians cross the Isonzo River and

take Mount Kuk; right wing takes Duino,
on the way to Trieste.



May 18—British War Office announces that

British heavy artillery batteries are COoperating with the Italians against the Austrians on the Julian front.

ASIA MINOR April 20—British force

passage of the Shatt-el-Adhem and rout Turkish forces

covering the Istabulat station. April 23—Turks evacuate Istabulat. April 24–British occupy Samara station. April 30_Turks intrench fifteen miles north

of Samara. May 2-Russians evacuate Mush. May 12—Russians force their way across the

Diala River at two points northwest of

The Germans reported that 362 French and

British airplanes were brought down in
April, but admitted the

loss of only seventy-four of their own. In three days, April 23 to April 25, the Allies reported fifty-five German machines brought down and thirty-nine of their own lost. From May 1 to May 7 seventy-six German airplanes were brought down, according to a French report. A compilation from official sources showed 717 machines lost in April-369 German, 201 French and Belgian, and 147 British. The Germans bombarded Dunkirk, Nancy, and Belfort. In response for the bombardment of Châlons and Epernay by the Germans, French aviators bombarded Treves, on the Saare

River. The British steamer Gena was torpedoed and

sunk by a German seaplane off the coast of Suffolk. German airplanes dropped bombs northeast of London on May 7, killing one person and injuring two. The Zeppelin L-22 was brought down in the

North Sea by a British naval battleplane. British aviators aided the attacking British

monitors in raid off Zeebrugge and photographed the entire Belgian coast, mapping the German defenses.

A Russian destroyer sank ten schooners in

the Black Sea.
The Germans made several raids off the

coast of England. On April 21 two German destroyers were sunk near Dover. Berlin reported a British outpost vessel destroyed and a scouting ship torpedoed. On April 27 German destroyers bombarded Ramsgate, but were driven off by land batteries after an attack in which a man and a woman were killed. British light cruisers and destroyers chased eleven German destroyers between the English and the Dutch coasts. One German tor

pedo boat was damaged. German warships bombarded Calais, killing

and wounding civilians. A French de

stroyer was sunk in a raid on Dunkirk. A British torpedo-boat destroyer hit a mine May 4.

One officer and sixty-one me

were lost.

A British mine sweeper was torpedoed and sunk May 5, with the loss

of two officers and twenty men. British warships, aided by an air fleet, bom

barded Zeebrugge on May 12, destroying two submarine sheds and killing sixty-.

three persons. The armed American steamer Mongolia fired

on a German submarine in British waters

on April 19 and damaged it. American warships began operations in the

North Sea, and Japanese warships arrived at Marseilles to combat submarines oft

the coast of France. Fourteen British mine sweepers were sunk,

the British light cruiser Dartmouth was
torpedoed, and an Italian destroyer was
sunk in a raid by Austrian light cruisers
in the Adriatic Sea.

On May 5 the Council of Workmen's and

Soldiers' Delegates adopted a vote of con-
fidence in the Provisional Government by
a small majority. There followed, how-
ever, a period of bitter conflict between
the council and the Government. Gen-
erals Korniloff, Brusiloff, and Gurko re-
signed from the army, but the last two
withdrew their resignations after partial
harmony was restored. General Guchkoff
resigned as Minister of War. He was
succeeded by A. F. Kerensky. Paul N.
Milukoff resigned as Minister of Foreign
Affairs and was succeeded by Tere-
schenko. On May 16 the Government, the
Executive Committee of the Duma, and
the Council of Workmen's and Soldiers'
Delegates agreed on a basic program, in-
cluding continuance of the war. A Coali-
tion Cabinet, containing five representa-
tives of the Socialist groups, was formed,
with Prince Lvoff retained as Premier.

Labor troubles and riots occurred in several

cities in Germany because of food scarcity.
The Constitution Committee of the Reichs-
tag adopted several proposals to restrict
the authority of the Emperor. Chancellor
von Bethmann Hollweg in a speech to the
Reichstag on May 15 announced Ger-
many's willingness to make easy peace
terms with Russia, but made no offer to

the other Entente Allies.
A new Cabinet was formed in Greece by

Alexander Zaimis.
General Pétain was appointed Commander in

Chief of the French armies operating on

the French front.
A new Cabinet was formed in Spain, with

Marquis Manuel Garcia Prieto as Premier.
Announcement was made that strict neu-

trality would be maintained.
Brazil issued a proclamation of neutrality in

respect to the war between the United States and Germany. Dr. Lauro Muller resigned as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Nilo Pecanha was appointed to succeed him.


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