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Labor Leader as Minister
their shoulders through cheering
throng of soldiers and civilians. The Minister of Justice, Deputy Keren
Kerenski won a victory in a speech ski, is the leader of the workingmen and
that will be historic. Appearing in a a conspicuous Russian journalist. His
stormy labor assembly, mounting selection and acceptance of a post in the
table, with flashing eyes and passionate new Government welded together the
utterance, he announced that he had aclabor leaders and Moderate Democrats and prevented what at first threatened
cepted the post of Minister of Justice.
'The announcement turned the tide, and to prove a serious split in the revolu
amid cheering Kerenski continued: tionary ranks. The first act of the new Government, M. Kerenski stated, was the
“ Comrades, in entering the Provis
ional Government I remain a republican. immediate publication of a decree of full
In my work I must lean for help on the amnesty. Continuing, the Minister said: “ Our comrades of the Second and
will of the people. I must have in the Fourth Dumas, who were banished illegal- people my powerful support. May I trust ly to the tundras of Siberia, will be re
you as I trust myself ? [Tremendous leased forthwith. In my jurisdiction are
cheers and cries of “We believe you, all the Premiers and Ministers of the old
comrade!”] I cannot live without the régime. They will answer before the law
people, and if ever you begin to doubt for all crimes against the people."
me, kill me! I declare to the Provisional “ Show them no mercy,” many voices
Government that I am a representative in the crowd exclaimed.
of democracy, and that the Government “ Comrades," M. Kerenski replied,
must especially take into account the "regenerated Russia will not have re
views I shall uphold as a representative course to the shameful methods utilized
of the people, by whose efforts the old
Government was overthrown. Comrades, by the old régime. Without trial none
time does not wait. I call you to crganwill be condemned. All prisoners will be tried in open court.
ization and discipline. I ask you to sup“Comrades, soldiers, citizens, all meas
port us, your representatives, who are ures taken by the new Government will
prepared to die for the people and have be published. Soldiers, I ask you to co
given the people their whole life.” operate. Free Russia is now born, and
Appeal to the People none will succeed in wresting liberty The first act of the new Government from the hands of the people. Do not was the issuance of the following appeal, listen to the promptings of the agents of dated March 18, 1917: the old régime. Listen to your officers.
Citizens: The Executive Committee of the Long live free Russia !”
Duma, with the aid and support of the garriThe speech was greeted by a storm of son of the capital and its inhabitants, has cheering.
succeeded in triumphing over the obnoxious
furces of the old régime in such a manner The labor leader, Chkueidse, address
that we are able to proceed to a more stable ing the officers and soldiers, paid a organization of the executive power, with glowing tribute to the soldiers and work
whose past political activity ingmen who had participated in accom
them the country's confidence.
[The names of the members of the new plishing the revolution. He recounted
Government are then given and the appeal the recent provocative efforts by the continues :) secret police in publishing proclamations The new Cabinet will base its policy on the regarding the murders of officers by
following principles : soldiers. He exhorted the soldiers to
First-An immediate general amnesty for
all political and religious offenses, includregard their officers as citizens who had
ing terrorist acts and military and agrahelped raise the revolutionary flag and rian offenses. as brothers in the great cause of Russian
Second-Liberty of speech and of the
press; freedom for alliances, unions, and liberty.
strikes, with the extension of these liberSubsequently officers, soldiers, and
ties to military officials within the limits workingmen carried M. Chkueidse on admitted by military requirements.
Third-Abolition of all social, religious, and national restrictions. Fourth-To proceed forthwith to
the preparation and convocation of a constitutional Assembly, based on universal suffrage, which will establish a governmental régime. Fifth--The substitution of the police by
national militia, with chiefs to be elected and responsible to the Government..
Sixth-Communal elections to be based on universal suffrage.
Seventh-The troops which participated in the revolutionary movement will not be disarmed, but will remain in Petrograd.
Eighth-While maintaining strict military discipline for troops on active service, it is desirable to abrogate for soldiers all restrictions in the enjoyment of social rights accorded other citizens. The Provisional Government desires to add that it has no intention to profit by the circumstances of the war to delay the realization of the measures of reform above mentioned.
Abdication of the Czar Czar Nicholas's abdication was announced on March 16. The document was signed at the town of Pskoff, where the train on which he was traveling toward Petrograd was halted early in the week. From Pskoff, according to accounts now available, the Emperor communicated with members of the Executive Committee of the Duma, who informed him that they were sending emissaries to meet him there. Accordingly, a member of the Duma committee and one of the Ministers of the new Cabinet proceeded to Pskoff and had an interview with the Emperor in the presence of General Nicholas V. Russky, a member of the Council of the Empire and of the Supreme Military Council; Baron W. Federicks, Minister of the Court; Count Narishkin, and others.
After relating to the Emperor the latest developments in the revolution, the emissaries advised him not to send any troops from the front to Petrograd, since all the troops were going over to the revolutionists as fast as they arrived.
“ What is desired that I should do?” the Emperor inquired.
“ Abdicate the throne," was the reply.
After devoting some time to deliberation Emperor Nicholas said:
“ It would be very hard to be separated from my son. Therefore I will
abdicate in favor of my brother, in behalf of myself and my son.”
The document, which had been prepared in advance, was handed to the Emperor, and he signed it at once.
The text of the abdication is as follows:
We, Nicholas II., by the Grace of God Emperor of all the Russias, Czar of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland, &c., make known to all our faithful subjects:
In the day of the great struggle against a foreign foe, who has been striving for three years to enslave our country, God has wished to send to Russia a new and painful trial. Interior troubles threaten to have a fatal repercussion on the final outcome of the war. The destinies of Russia and the honor of our heroic army, the happiness of the people, and all the future of our dear fatherland require that the war be prosecuted at all cost to a victorious end. The cruel enemy is making his last effort, and the moment is near when our valiant army, in concert with those of our glorious allies, will definitely chastise the foe.
In these decisive days in the life of Russia we believe our people should have the closest union and organization of all their forces for the realization of speedy victory. For this reason,
in accord with the Duma of the empire, we have considered it desirable to abdicate the throne of Russia and lay aside our supreme power.
Not wishing to be separated from our loved son, we leave our heritage to our brother the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch, blessing his advent to the throne of Russia. We hand over the Government to our brother in full union with the representatives of the nation who are seated in the legislative chambers, taking this step with an inviolable oath in the name of our well-beloved country.
We call on all faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred patriotic duty in this painful moment of national trial and to aid our brother and the representatives of the nation in bringing Russia into the path of prosperity and glory. May God aid Russia.
Fortunes of the Romanoffs On March 19 it was reported from Petrograd that the former Czar, to be known as Nicholas Romanoff, had left with his staff for his personal estate at Livadia, on the south coast of the Crimea. It was at first believed that his twelve-year-old son and heir, Grand Duke Alexis, who renounced the throne when the father abdicated, had been killed, but later news was to the effect that the Czarina was with her children and that all save
Grand Duchess Marie were very ill with measles. In the case of the little Prince the attack was complicated by the breaking out of the old wound in his foot, dating from the alleged attempt on his life about four years ago. The Grand Duke was attended by his mother and the old sailor, Berevenke, who has been his constant companion. Grand Duchess Tatiana was in a serious condition, and oxygen had been administered.
News of the disaffection of the troops reached the Empress on Feb. 27. The palace guard was mobilized for defense, the riflemen remaining within the palace with machine guns, while outside were armored motors. When the Tsarskoe-Selo garrison revolted a collision with the palace guards appeared inevitable. The Empress went to the commander of the guard and said:
“My desire is that you do not fire."
This was taken as an order to surrender, which he did. Soon revolutionary troops entered the palace, and officers went to the apartment of the imperial family. To these the Empress said:
“Let there be no violence. I am now only a Sister of Charity at the bedside of my afflicted children.”
Grand Duke Michael Declines The Czar in abdicating transferred the supreme power to his younger brother, Grand Duke Michael, but the latter declined to accept the responsibility unless he should be declared the choice of the people by vote. The refusal was signed at his private residence, whither he went with a large part of the Duma committee, headed by Prince Lvoff, Professor Milukoff, and President Rodzianko.
The Grand Duke addressed the committee and declared that the responsibility devolving upon him found him undecided because of the existing differences of opinion. He added that since the happiness of Russia was the only consideration, he believed this would be assured by his abdication, and therefore surrendered his authority. The text of his declaration, dated March 16, is as follows:
This heavy responsibility has come to me at the voluntary request of my brother, who has transferred the imperial throne to me during
a period of warfare which is accompanied with unprecedented popular disturbances.
Moved by the thought, which is in the minds of the entire people, that the good of the country is paramount, I have adopted the firm resolution to accept the supreme power only if this be the will of our great people, who, by a plebiscite organized by their representatives in a constituent assembly, shall establish a form of government and new fundamental laws for the Russian State.
Consequently, invoking the benediction of our Lord, I urge all citizens of Russia to submit to the Provisional Government, established upon the initiative of the Duma and invested with full plenary powers, until such time, which will follow with as little delay as possible, as the constituent assembly, on a basis of universal, direct, equal, and secret suffrage, shall, by its decision as to the new form of government, express the will of the people.
Siberian Exiles Freed The first act of the Provisional Government was one of amnesty for all political offenders, including Terrorists. The series of agreements opens up astonishing possibilities. A main feature of the program is that the form of government, whether republican or otherwise, is 'to be decided by a constituent assembly, to be elected after the war.
The famous prison of St. Peter and St. Paul at Petrograd, which has immured countless political prisoners, was thrown open, as was the Kremlin at Moscow, and exiles in all parts of the world were invited to return. The fleet and the naval commanders accepted the revolution with enthusiastic unanimity. Grand Duke Cyril, commanding the sailors of the guard, came in person with his officers and announced that this historic corps would place itself under the orders of Rodzianko. News from the army of 6,000,000 on the various Russian fronts was entirely favorable.
One of the most important gains in the revolution was its acceptance by the Holy Synod. The final meeting of the Synod since the revolution was held at Petrograd March 18 under the Presidency of the Metropolitan of Kiev. The new Procurator General of the Holy Synod, M. Lvoff, in opening the sitting, said he rejoiced at the advent of freedom of the Orthodox Church. He ordered the removal of the imperial chair from the conference room, symbolizing
termination of interference by the Em Duke Michael Alexandrovitch, by an act peror in the affairs of the Church. The dated Petrograd, March 16, in his turn Metropolitan and other members of the renounced assumption of supreme power Synod said a new era for the Orthodox until the time when a constituent asChurch had come.
sembly, created on the basis of universal Public subscriptions for released polit- suffrage, should have established a form ical prisoners and for the families of of government and new fundamental men killed in the street fighting were
laws of Russia. By this same act Alexopened. The Russo-Asiatic Bank has androvitch invited the citizens of Russubscribed $250,000 for the released po sia, pending a definite manifestation of litical prisoners.
the national will, to submit to the auEverywhere in Petrograd, Moscow, and thority of the Provisional Government other large cities the imperial insignia
constituted on the initiative of the State, of the House of Romanoff were removed
which holds full power.
The composifrom all public buildings.
tion of the Provisional Government and
its political program have been pubForeign Minister's Notice
lished and transmitted to foreign counProfessor Milukoff received the diplo tries. matic representatives of the Allies on
Responsibility Fully Realized Sunday, March 18, and at the same time gave official notice of the revolution to
“This Government, which the world in the following address, which
power at the moment of the greatest exwas transmitted by cable to all Russian
ternal and internal crisis which Russia diplomats abroad:
has known in the course of her history, “ The news transmitted by the Pe
is fully conscious of the immense retrograd Telegraphic Agency (the semi
sponsibility it incurs. It will apply itself official Russian news bureau) already
first to repairing the overwhelming has acquainted you with the events of
errors bequeathed to it by the past, to the last few days and the fall of the old
insuring order and tranquillity in the political régime in Russia, which col
country, and, finally, to preparing the lapsed lamentably in the face of popular
conditions necessary in order that the indignation provoked by its carelessness,
sovereign will of the nation may be its abuses, and its criminal lack of fore
freely pronounced as to its future lot. sight. The unanimity of resentment
“In the domain of foreign policy the which the order of things now at an end
Cabinet, in which I am charged with the had aroused among all healthy elements portfolio of the Ministry of Foreign Afof the nation has considerably facilitated fairs, will remain mindful of the internathe crisis. All these elements having tional engagements entered into by the rallied with enthusiasm to the noble flag fallen régime, and will honor Russia's of revolution, and the army having lent word. We shall carefully cultivate rethem its speedy and effective support, the lations which unite us to other friendly national movement obtained decisive vic
and allied nations, and we are confident tory within eight days.
that these relations will become even This rapidity of realization happily
more intimate, more solid, under the new made it possible to reduce the number
régime established in Russia, which is of victims to a figure unprecedentedly
resolved to be guided by the democratic small in the annals of upheavals of such
principles of respect due to the small and extent and importance.
great nations, to the liberty of their de“ By an act dated from Pskoff March
velopment, and to good understanding 15, Emperor Nicholas renounced the throne for himself and the hereditary
“ But the Government cannot forget Grand Duke Alexis Nikolaievitch in favor of Grand Duke Michael Alexandro
for a single instant the grave external vitch. In reply to a notification which
circumstances in which it assumes power. was made to him of this act, Grand Russia did not will the war which has
been drenching the world with blood for nearly three years. But, victim of premeditated aggression prepared long ago, she will continue, as in the past, to struggle against the spirit of conquest of a predatory race which has aimed at establishing. an intolerable hegemony over its neighbors and subjecting Europe of the twentieth century to the shame of domination by Prussian militarism. Faithful to the pact which unites her indissolubly to her glorious allies, Russia is resolved, like them, to assure the world at all costs an era of peace among the nations, on the basis of stable national organization guaranteeing respect for right and justice. She will fight by their side against the common enemy until the end, without cessation and without faltering.
“ The Government of which I form a part will devote all its energy to preparation of victory and will apply itself to the task of repairing as quickly as possible the errors of the past, which hitherto have paralyzed the aspirations and the self-sacrifice of the Russian people. I am firmly convinced that the marvelous enthusiasm which today animates the whole nation will multiply its strength in time and hasten the hour of the final triumph of a regenerated Russia and her valiant allies.
“I beg you to communicate to the Minister of Foreign Affairs (of the country to which the diplomat addressed is accredited] the contents of the present telegram."
Tons of Food Discovered In vindication of the justice of the cause of the revolutionists after the emeute, thousands of tons of grain and other food were found hidden in remote places in Petrograd, apparently proving that the shortage was part of a treasonable design of the then existing Government.
On March 18 assurances had been received from all the armies in the field that the new Government was enthusiastically accepted. M. Kerenski had rescinded the order banishment against Grand Duke Dmitri and Prince
Youssoupoff, the slayers of Gregory Rasputin, the monk who exercised great influence over the imperial family, and the two men were returning to Petrograd. Members of the former Cabinet had been placed under arrest and would be cited for trial later. It is believed, however, that there will be no prosecution of the nobility, and that amnesty and moderation will be the watchwords of the new Government.
As to the Czar and his family, it is believed they will not be further molested; there seems to be no vindictiveness felt against him, as he was garded as but a weak instrument in the hands of unscrupulous plotters. The explanation of the Camarilla's desire to have Russia meet disaster in the war, so as to force a separate peace, was the fear among the nobility that success with republican France and democratic England over autocratic Russia and Austria would spell the downfall of autocracy and the triumph of the Russian liberals.
Anti-German Sentiment The strongest anti-German feeling animates the population. They are systematically hunting down all highly placed personages suspected of German proclivities or bearing German names or titles. The aged Minister of the imperial household, Count Fredericks, whose home was wrecked, was discovered in hiding and was taken as a prisoner to the Duma. Soldiers and a crowd of people long hunted for Countess Kleinmichael on suspicion of her being German.
She was discovered hiding in the Chinese Legation, whence the soldiers removed her under arrest.
Baron Stackelberg fired on the soldiers from his window. He was dragged out of his home, taken to the quay side, and there summarily executed.
All the factories resumed operations on March 19, paying full wages for time lost during the revolution. Former members of the police force at Petrograd, numbering many thousands, were sent to the front. The Metropolitans of Petrograd, Moscow, Pitrin, and Mulary were sent into compulsory retirement. Pro