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Whatever may happen, this is not going to change all at once. We are not going to fall on each other's neck and swear eternal friendship. Nevertheless, a great new fact has come into existence. In the most momentous crisis in the history of the world the whole Englishspeaking race is at last standing shoulder to shoulder. Nothing but criminal unwisdom or malignant ill-fortune can cancel or turn to evil the beneficent results that ought to flow from this wonderful and almost unhoped-for achievement of German political genius. Never again can it be said that “ all active political relations between Great Britain and America have been hostile relations." That remark is expunged from the page of history.

And now it is up to us—why should we not talk American?—to make the best of this new situation. Hithertotake us all around—we have been culpably and stupidly inappreciative of America. The time has been, no doubt, when there was a great deal of rawness in American life, which lent itself to caricature, and when, on the other hand, many Americans displayed at once great self-assertiveness and morbid resentfulness of criticism. But the civil war may fairly be said to have made an end to all that—or at least the beginning of an end. Since then half a century has passed, and now we have not the smallest rational excuse for carelessness or captiousness in our judgments of America.

To any one with a spark of imagination the United States is the most fascinating country in the world. Its past is romantic, its present marvelous, its future inconceivable.

Let me give one instance of the romance of the past that clings to so many places in America. I will not speak of Lexington or Concord; I will not speak of Mount Vernon or Charleston; I will speak of the place in all America which most people in England, perhaps, think of as the very antithesis of romance-I mean Pittsburgh. It is called "hell with the lid off," and I don't say it does not merit that term of endearment; but to stand on the big bluff over against the city, and look down upon the confluence

name.

of the Allegheny and the Monongahela (most beautiful of words!) is to experi

a strange and complex emotion. For the two rivers (each as great as the Rhine or the Rhone) unite to form the magnificent Ohio. And the Ohio rolls on into the still mightier Mississippi; and down these gigantic waterways the first French adventurers paddled thousands of leagues through the boundless, sinister wilderness; and Martin Chuzzlewit and Mark Tapley sought the city of Eden; and Huckleberry Finn and Jim went drifting through an Odyssey which I, for one, believe to be as surely immortal as any story in this world. A few miles up the Monongahela is the spot where General Braddock, with George Washington and George Warrington in his train, fell into the fatal ambush. And there, at the very tip of the tongue of land between the two rivers, nestling in the shadow of the skyscrapers like a beehive under St. Peter's, is the little octagonal blockhouse, pierced for musketry, which was once Fort Duquesne, and after that Fort Pitt, and from which the city takes its

Of the titanic, lurid picturesqueness of the scene I shall not attempt to speak. I have merely tried to suggest a few of the historic and literary associations which cluster around the spot itself, and the vast river system to which it is, as it were, the northeastern gateway. How any one can find America prosaic or uninteresting passes my comprehension.

As for its present, as summed up and typified in New York, what is there in the world to compare with it? The view of the mountainous city, towering between its noble estuaries, is by far the most impressive testimony that can anywhere be found to the genius and daring of man.

Beautiful? I don't know. There is an immense amount of beautiful architecture to be

in New York and all through the Eastern States; but the whole impression of New York is more

than beautiful-it is exciting, thrilling, inspiring. To land in New York on a cloudless day (and they are many) of Spring or Autumn is to realize why America is bound to lead the world. It is because there is some as yet un

seen

identified element in the pure, keen air, throw the first stone. Of course Amerwhich, passing into the blood, tingles ica, like all the rest of the world, has through the whole system in the form of great social struggles, and possibly conenergy and capacity.

vulsions, to go through, before she can Yet there is no greater error than to

attain something like a just and stable think that New York is a city of unrest

social order. New York, Boston, Chiing rush, clatter, and whirl. It is a city

cago, St. Louis—there is much that is where not only women but men have

terrible as well as much that is admirplenty of leisure and know how to enjoy

able in the life of these swarming, seethit. Above all, it is a city where they ing cities. But nowhere is there a more have always time to be helpful and hos

alert social idealism at work, or a more pitable to the stranger within their ardent spirit of social service. gates. Nowhere are the amenities of My point, then, is this: Let us realize life carried to higher perfection. I never what an enormous advantage we possess return to England without feeling that I in our community of language, of hishave come back some five-and-twenty torical and intellectual traditions, and of years in the art of living, at any rate on political and moral ideals, with this nathe material side. Indeed, one might say tion of marvelous achievements and still fifty years, were it not that we have of more marvelous potentialities. If these late had the sense to learn a good deal ideals are to survive and flourish, it is of from America.

the utmost importance that America and And think, now, of the future! Amer Great Britain should grow together, inica has been, and still is, largely occupied stead of growing apart. The community in the development of her material re of speech, while it is a priceless bond, is sources; yet think what strides she has also a source of danger. Careless, carpalso made on the intellectual side! The ing, supercilious talk, narrow-minded splendid universities which stud the land comment, uncivil jesting, whether with may not rival those of Europe in pure pen or pencil, rankles doubly when it is scholarship; but they are humming hives brought home to us in our own language. of all sorts of eager intellectual activity. This is an admonition to both sides, but It will not, perhaps, be to their disad mainly to England. We are the older vantage if intimate relations with Ger people, and ought to show the finer conmany are severed for a time. Their lead

sideration. In this respect our sins are ing scholars confess that the German in many-sins, mainly, of ignorance and fluence has not been wholly beneficial. thoughtlessness. But, in spite of everyBut everywhere they have magnificent thing, we are, and have been any time apparatus for research, and everywhere this century, drawing together in a rethey make full use of it. Who does not markable way. Note how half the most know that the cultivated American is one successful pieces on the London stage of the finest products of civilization? are of American origin, and are often And civilization of the best sort is most acceptable when played by Amerspreading with enormous rapidity. ican actors. Note how the bookstalls are

I am aware that in some ways my vis- piled with the writings of an author so ion of America is unduly roseate, for the redolent of the soil as 0. Henry. Think simple reason that it has been my good how the cinema is familiarizing even the fortune, wherever I went, to move almost street arab and the factory girl with the exclusively in the circles that were most surface aspects of American life. We congenial to me. Of course there are have now a unique opportunity to draw many less desirable sides of American closer all the countless ties which unite life with which I have scarcely come in us with our “gigantic daughter of the contact, or not at all. There are, for in West." Let us have done with carelessstance, the vulgarities and crudities in ness, ignorance, supercilious patronage, separable from every great half-edu flippant criticism, and make the best of cated democracy—that is a matter in this great boon which the Germans have which we certainly have no right to so kindly forced upon us.

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By Major Edwin W. Dayton
Inspector General, National Guard, State of New York;

Secretary, New York Army and Navy Club
Major Dayton has personally studied the military methods of the European armies in six
of the countries now at war, and has been officially recognized by the United States War
Department as an authority on strategy and tactics. He is one of the experts who have
chronicled the present war for The Army and Navy Journal. The subjoined article is the
second in a series which Major Dayton is writing for CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE, covering in
a rapid and authoritative narrative all the military events of importance since the beginning
of the great European conflict.

II.-Battles of the Marne, the Aisne, and Tannenberg
EDAN DAY—Sept. 5—in 1914 was

banks of the Seine. Conscious of a posonly superficially an echo of Sedan sible menace to his right rear from the Day in 1870. The armies of west, he left a rear guard of considerable

France had suffered defeat, but strength in the valley of the Ourcq nowhere had allowed themselves to be cut facing the suspected menace. The cruoff. The defenses of Paris were in poor cial battle of the Marne, recognized by shape and would not

all the commanders as have withstood a Ger

the supreme crisis of man attack much bet

the war, began at ter than had those of

dawn on Sunday, Antwerp or Namur

Sept. 6.
The necessity of the

The

French situation was for a

Army, the Sixth, encounterattack in the

gaged in hand-to-hand open.

fighting among the Von Kluck, flushed

villages above Meaux, with continuous vic

and turned von Kluck's tories, thought the

flank. The British, French and British in

covered by the Forest his front entirely de

of Crecy, moved northmoralized, and he con

east toward a line betinued his headlong

tween Dagny and Coudrive. He made

lommières. tactical blunder by

[graphic]

a

The Fifth French marching his right

Army on the British flank across the ene

right struck north on mies' front in an effort to separate the a route which, as they progressed, led British from the supporting French them on the 7th across the Grand Morin, Fifth Army. The British air scouts dis on the 8th over the Petit Morin, and by covered von Kluck's manoeuvre and re the 9th close to the south bank of the ported large detachments south of the Marne below Mezy. Marne with one column on the Grand The British, making a half wheel to Morin. The French airmen, too, report the left, made an alignment with the ed all the German dispositions from the French Fifth Army, and on the 9th arlower Marne to Verdun. General Joffre rived on the Marne with their centre at decided that the time had come to strike La Ferté. The French Sixth Army, atback, and formed a plan which would tacking at right angles, closed in above have been impossible if the reports of the Marne and on the west of the Ourcq, the air scouts had been lacking.

gradually as the victory progressed On the night of Sept. 5 von Kluck's changing front toward the north, so that cavalry patrols got as far south as the by Sept. 10 they were aligned on the left

GENERAL FOCH

abreast of the British and astride the Ourcq.

The battle was continuous and on a scale hitherto unknown. Military students will study its details for generations. Here I can only attempt the merest outline of the great struggle.

Von Kluck was outfought by a superior force, which caught him in a false position into which he had been betrayed by the belief that his opponents, soundly beaten, needed only one more hard blow to complete their collapse. Instead of that they were in excellent morale, and had received powerful fresh reinforcements. I believe that eventually it will be proved that the speed of von Kluck's pursuit had caused his great army to outrun much of its supplies. His change of direction toward the east was not only an attempt to drive a wedge through the allied front, but also was intended to close up his overextended lines of communication.

On Sept. 9, following a whole series of glorious battles, the British crossed the Marne at Château-Thierry, and by evening were some miles north of the river. The French, under d'Esperey, ended a day of terrific fighting by joining the British right at Château-Thierry. Further east one of France's greatest Generals, Foch, found von Bülow's right flank exposed and attacked the Prussian Guard at La Fère Champenoise. In the marshes drained by the Petit Morin, Foch took forty guns and many prisoners, and about Sept. 9 he had driven a wedge between the armies of von Bülow and von Hausen. As the battle progressed the French General Staff used Langle to help Foch, and the Germans were driven back toward Epernay and Châlons.

By Sept. 10 the Allies had virtually completed the great victory called the battle of the Marne. The German right (von Kluck) had received heavy reinforcements of perhaps 40,000 men, but von Bülow's crushing defeat to the east made it impossible for the German line to re-form for a counterattack.

The German retreat is admitted to have been a military masterpiece, and on Sept. 12 they had reached the line of positions on the Aisne and the Suippes

which they had previously prepared for emergency use. On the east the Crown Prince fell back to preserve the alignment, and this saved Fort Troyon, which, under bombardment, was ready to fall. The Crown Prince held the Argonne and St. Menehould. In the Vosges, after a prolonged struggle, the French, under General de Castlenau, withstood an attempt of the Crown Prince of Bavaria to force a passage through the Gap of Nancy. By Sept. 12 de Castelnau had taken Lunéville, St. Dié, and the line of the Meurthe.

Battle of the Aisne The battlefield of the Aisne is the birthplace of modern trench warfare.

When the Germans were pursuing the French and British toward Paris in the first week of September it might have seemed as though the prospect of quick victory would obscure all other vision. Nothing in the long history of the war proves the value of trained professional staff officers more clearly than the fact that just then, as they crossed the Aisne flushed with victory, parties of sappers were left behind. Their mission was to prepare a defensive position on the plateau north of the river valley and extending to the east across Champagne into the Argonne. Beyond the Argonne the Crown Prince was already closing in to the investment of Verdun with a great circle from the Argonne to the Woevre.

It was nearly the middle of September when the victorious Allies, fresh from the victory of the Marne, began to be puzzled by the stern resistance they met along this line. It was no longer merely the hard fighting of rear guards determined to cover retreating armies, but seemed like the determined stand of an enemy unwilling to retreat further. On Sept. 12 Maunoury's Sixth Army, which had clung to the heels of von Kluck's army all the way from Paris, began to shell the hostile positions beyond the river with a view to covering a crossing by pontoon, as the bridges had been systematically destroyed. The British Army to the east, near Soissons, was similarly engaged. Beyond them the other French armies were delayed under d'Esperey

and Langle along the Vesle and the line of invasion which was destined to upper Suippe.

remain for years. On the 13th Maunoury got several On Oct. 3 the Crown Prince attempted divisions across the Aisne under heavy to turn Sarrail's flank and get through fire, and a good part of the British Army again to St. Menehould, where he would crossed, but with great difficulty. The have cut the railway communications befollowing day these French and British tween Verdun and Paris. In the Forest troops fought their way forward until of Argonne the French won the battle they came in touch with the real German and established touch with the right lines of intrenchment on the high ground Aank of General Langle's Fourth Army of the plateau, where they proceeded to in Champagne, thus establishing a line dig themselves in and try to hold on to which, with slight fluctuations, remains the ground gained. Sir John French to this day. was the British commander, and in com

Joffre's Extension to the Sea mand of the First Corps was Sir Douglas Haig, who was destined to win much

General Joffre had formed two new glory in the heavy fighting of the next

armies meanwhile, and about the time week. England lost many officers in

the lines along the Aisne began to conthis hard-fought battle, including three geal into what we have since learned to Colonels in one brigade, all killed on the

call the stalemate, he brought these new first day.

units up on the left. General de CastelOn the 15th the Germans began a

nau was brought from Lorraine to comseries of violent counterattacks and

mand the Seventh Army, and Joffre forced both French and British to retire

brought out of a professorship in the short distances, which, however, were

military college General Maud'huy to

command the Tenth Army. The Seventh largely regained on the 17th after the arrival of strong reinforcements. On the

Army took its place on a line through 18th the Allies failed, after furious ef

Péronne and Roye about Sept. 20, and at

the end of the month Maud'huy occupied forts, to break the German fortified lines, and so the acute stage of the battle ended.

Arras and Lens after a hard battle in

which the French used every available On the right, meanwhile, the German Crown Prince was delivering a fierce

reserve, including even marines.

This great extension 'was intended to attack upon the fortress of Verdun, held

outflank the Germans in their intrenchby the French under General Sarrail.

ments on the Aisne, and by cutting their First Battle of Verdun

lines of supply compel another retireBefore the German defeat at the

ment. The plan' failed because simulMarne the Crown Prince's right flank

taneously the Germans were extending had held St. Menehould, twenty miles their right flank in an effort to gain west of the fortress, but in maintaining

the coast at Calais. his alignment with the German armies

Early in October large forces of Gerto the west he had fallen back two days'

man cavalry were active about Lille, and march to the north. General Sarrail

General French asked for authority to realized from the experience of the Bel

transfer the British Army from almost gian forts that no fortification could

the centre to the extreme left. General withstand a close bombardment by the

Joffre agreed and filled the gap with a heavy German howitzers. Consequently

new army of reserves under General he threw up earthworks and intrench

d'Urbal. By Oct. 19 the British First ments on every hill and across every val

Corps reached St. Omer just in time to ley for twenty miles or more around.

prevent huge German armies from drivOn Sept. 20 the German heavy shells

ing a wedge between the Allies and the practically demolished Fort Troyon, south

Channel ports. of Verdun, and on the 23d the Crown Prince's forces crossed the Meuse and

Alsace and Lorraine captured St. Mihiel, with the bridgehead, As soon as it became evident that war thus establis a marked salient in the could no longer be avoided, France de

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