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termined to secure the advantage of the French air scouts produced the impres-
Mulhouse, and Saarburg.
railway communications between StrassOn Aug. 7 a brigade from the fortress burg and Metz. This point and date at Belfort crossed the frontier and routed marked the high tide of the French insmall German detachments which en vasion, for by Aug. 20 an overpowering deavored to defend Altkirch, an Alsatian German Army fell upon their left from town in the plain between the southern the direction of Metz. The French atend of the Vosges Mountains and the tempted to retreat, but a division on the Swiss frontier. An invasion of Germany left was overwhelmed and practically demade through this gap between the stroyed in the battle of Metz. By the 22d mountains would, after crossing Alsace, the French armies of Alsace and Lorstrike Southern Württemberg, with Ba raine had lost all the ground gained, and varia beyond and the Austrian Tyrol be the pursuing Germans were threatening low. Certainly it would have been a the whole French sector between Toul brilliant stroke of genius if France could and Nancy. Their victorious advance have transferred to those South German was halted by de Castelnau's splendid dekingdoms the which has since fense of the field works which he erected wrecked Flanders, Artois, Picardy, and on the wooded hills about Nancy. Champagne. But not only would that From the 6th to the 9th of September have required a great force for the at the Bavarians were encouraged in des.tack, but another army would have been perate attacks by the presence of the needful to guard the flank against the Kaiser, but they were unable to gain German strongholds at Strassburg and ground in face of the deadly fire of the . Neu Breisach. To be successful, the French 75-millimeter guns, which made effort launched here should have had great practice at shore ranges. On Sept. something like the weight in men and 9 the Germans lost their positions in the material with which Germany struck Forest of Champenoux, and the French down from the north.
took Amance. Two days later they had On Aug. 8 the French occupied without St. Dié and the line of the Meurthe River. opposition the important town of Mul The fighting in this sector ended on Sept. house and attacked with success a Ger 12, when de Castelnau's men reoccupied man force stationed in the woods beyond. Lunéville, and since then the fortified By the 10th strong German reinforce eastern frontier of France has remained ments arrived, and the French fell back an impassable barrier to the German to Altkirch. Here faulty reports from legions.
Eastern Theatre of War-Rise of He had used every ounce of his influence Hindenburg
at Berlin to block the project of a land One of the earliest surprises of the
improvement company, who had prowar was the prompt mobilization of the
posed to drain the lakes and marshes. Russian Army, which all professional An army of something like 150,000 critics looked upon as a brave, slow army men was given to von Hindenburg, and good for defense, but lacking in initia he brought this force together east of tive. The notion was proved wrong by a
Thorn and Graudenz. Rennenkampf, very speedy mobilization and a quick after his series of early successes, swept and effective attack upon East Prussia on confidently to the investment of Ködesigned to relieve the
nigsberg, a first-class pressure upon Rus
fortress, with a garsia's allies in the west.
rison of 50,000 and Within the first
1,200 guns. Samsonov week of August Gen
pushed on toward the eral Rennenkampf, a
north of the lake rehero of the Manchu
gion, but was quite rian war, crossed the
out of touch with RenPrussian frontier, cut
nenkampf. He turned the railway which
to pierce the lake reskirts the Masurian
gion to his west via Lakes, and drove back
Allenstein, probably the whole line of Prus
with the intention of sian outposts. Gen
striking in between eral von François, the
Thorn and Danzig. Prussian commander,
He had about five made a stand at Gum
army corps, of probbinnen, but after three
ably 200,000 men, and or four days' fighting
certainly outnumbered against greatly
von Hindenburg's perior artillery and GENERAL VON HINDENBURG
force, infantry he was com
On Wednesday, pelled to retreat on Königsberg.
Aug. 26, von Hindenburg struck on a Meanwhile General Samsonov, another wide front, and Samsonov's march was soldier who learned modern war by fight abruptly halted. He discovered that ing Japanese, marched up from Mlawa a strong army was posted behind the through the region west of the Masurian lakes and marshes, which were comLakes. This army drove a strong Ger manded by the German batteries. The man force headlong out of an intrenched strength of von Hindenburg's position position between Orlau and Frankenau consisted not only in a well-defended and took many prisoners as the panic front, but in exceptionally good opporstricken Germans retreated on Königs tunities to develop quickly flank attacks berg. By the last week in August what both right and left. was left of the German armies in East The battle, one of the classics of stratPrussia was shut up in Königsberg. egy, lasted until the end of August, and
Then Germany called out of his retire gave the Germans one of the most comment at Hanover a veteran of 1870, Gen plete victories of the entire war. Von eral von Hindenburg, who knew thor Hindenburg, feinting first toward one oughly the terrain of East Prussia. In flank, then toward the other, succeeded the period of his active service he had in rolling the Russian Army up in a commanded army corps at Königsberg confused and helpless mass, entangled and Allenstein, and had frequently com in the marsh lands. manded at manoeuvres in the Masurian Von Hindenburg's complete mastery Lake region. He loved the ground, and of the strategy of this great battle was knew it as no one else in the world did. evidenced as much by what he refrained
from doing as by what he did. Midway mobilization and strike without waiting of the battle he had a great victory sure to be struck. To their astonishment they ly within his grasp, and could have driven soon met the armies of Ruzsky and Brua defeated enemy headlong back into siloff, each with over a quarter of a millRussia. He withstood the temptation, ion men.
A third and smaller Russian and carried the battle on for sevaral days army under General Ewerts was to enwhile he continued to entangle Samsonov gage the Austrians while the larger arin a position whence there might be no mies should envelop them. escape. By Aug. 31 von Hindenburg had By Aug. 27 Brusiloff took Tarnopol scored the only complete victory of the after a hard battle, and a few days later
Samsonov and most of his corps he captured Halicz and proceeded to inand division commanders were killed. vest Lemberg, which was in the hands Perhaps 20 per cent. of the Russian force of the Russians by Sept. 3. In the escaped via Ortelsberg. The Germans week's series of battles the Russians took took nearly 90,000 prisoners and so much 100,000 prisoners and great quantities of artillery and booty that they had hard ordnance abandoned by the Austrian work to handle it.
armies, whose retreat was a rout. From This tactical victory made von Hinden Lemberg the Russians pursued the deburg a national hero, for, with a smaller
moralized Austrians into the Carpathian force, he had surrounded and destroyed passes, taking many towns en route. To the larger army. Von Hindenburg turned
the north, Ivanov, who had succeeded north against Rennenkampf, who instant Ewerts, attacked a mixed Austro-Gerly abandoned the attack on Königsberg,
man army under General Dankl and the and retreated precipitately into Russia
Archduke Joseph, and on Sept. 10 won a via Gumbinnen, where he fought a rear splendid victory. At Rava Russka, von guard action.
Auffenberg, in command of Dankl's
right, was crushed and his army dis
persed. The utterly defeated remnants To the south early in August the Ger of the Austrian armies retreated to mans crossed the frontier and occupied Cracow, Przemysl, and Jaroslav. The without opposition several towns in Austrians were expelled from Poland, Western Poland, and from the mining and the Russians were going deep into region began to ship coal back to Ger
Austria, many via Posen.
On the Serbian Front In Galicia Austria concentrated for an When Austria declared war on July 28 important campaign against Russian Po
a bombardment of the Serbian capital at land. One army, whose base was at Belgrade began, but the Dual Monarchy Przemysl, was for the attack toward the
met unexpectedly stiff resistance when north, while the second army, with a base
attempts were made to cross the Danube. at Lemberg, faced east. These armies A combined Serbian and Montenegrin numbered over 300,000 men each.
force invaded Bosnia, and advanced toThe first army pushed north with no ward Serajevo. On Aug. 17 a larger very serious opposition. A Russian army Austrian army was soundly beaten at under General Ruzsky crossed the fron Shabatz by a Serb force, and a few days tier, took Sokal, and advanced upon Lem later they suffered another reverse on berg. General Brusiloff, with another the banks of the Jadar. Both defeats army, joined in the attack upon Lem were costly, and the Serbs took many berg. The fighting was general along a prisoners and much artillery. They line between the Vistula and the Dnies showed a surprising ability to withstand ter. Austria's plan was to take advan whatever forces Austria dared divert tage of the expected slowness of Russian from the Russian front.
[Continuation in May Issue]
By Lieutenant Charles C. Gill
United States Navy This article, describing the concluding phases of the Battle of Jutland, is the fourth oë a series contributed to CURRENT History MAGAZINE by Lieutenant Gill of the superdreadnought Oklahoma-with the sanction of the United States Naval Department-for the purpose of deducing the naval lessons furnished by the sea engagements of the European war.
IV.-The Battle of Jutland_Continued
The Third Phase The British Grand Fleet Joins in the Battle
URING the first and second
phases of the battle the Grand Fleet was closing at utmost
fleet speed on a southeast by south course. Three battle cruisers, led by Rear Admiral Hood in the Invincible, together with screening light cruisers and destroyers, were in advance operating as a fast wing. At 5:45 an outpost light cruiser was engaged with a division of German light cruisers. At 6:10 Admiral Beatty's engaged squadron was sighted by the Invincible. At 6:21 Admiral Hood led his squadron into action, taking station in the van just ahead of the Lion and closing at 6:25 to a range of 8,000 yards. A few minutes later the Invincible was sunk by gun fire.
In the meanwhile the British battle fleet was coming into action, filling the previously mentioned gap opening up between Admiral Beatty and Rear Admiral Evan Thomas. At 5:55 advanced British armored cruisers, light cruisers, and destroyers were engaged with German cruisers and destroyers. At 6:16 the armored cruisers Warrior, Black Prince, and Defence under Sir Robert Arbuthnot were drawn between the lines and disabled by close-range fire from the German battleships. At 6:14 Admiral Jellicoe formed the Grand Fleet in battle line, and during deployment at 6:17 the first battle squadron opened fire on a German battleship of the Kaiser class. At 6:30 the other battle squadrons engaged ships of the König class. The four battleships of the Elizabeth class, previously engaged during the second phase, formed astern of the main battle
fleet. At this time the Warspite of this fifth battle squadron had her helm jam with right rudder, causing her to turn toward the German line, where she was subjected to severe fire, but the trouble being soon corrected she was extricated from this predicament. Admiral Jellicoe reports:
Owing principally to the mist, but partly to the smoke, it was possible to see only a few ships at a time in the enemy's battle line. Toward the van only some four or five ships were ever visible at
More could be seen from the rear squadron, but never moro than eight to twelve.
The action between the battle fleets lasted intermittently from 6:17 P. M. to 8:20 P. M., at ranges between 9,000 yards and 12,000 yards. During this time the British fleet made alterations of course from southeast by east to west (169% degrees) in the endeavor to close, but the enemy constantly turned away
and opened the range under cover of destroyer attacks and smoke screens. The alterations of course had the effect of bringing the British fleet (which commenced the action in a position of advantage on the bow of the enemy) to a quarterly bearing from the enemy's battle line, but at the same time placed us between the enemy and his bases. During the somewhat brief periods that the ships of the High Seas Fleet were visible through the mist the heavy and effective fire kept up by the battleships and battle cruisers of the Grand Fleet caused me much satisfaction, and the enemy vessels were seen to be constantly hit, some being observed to haul out of the line and at least one to sink. The enemy's return fire at this time
not effective and the damage caused to our ships was insignificant.
Series of Local Actions From the reports it appears that the area of the battle was covered by mist and smoke of varying density, interspersed with sections wherein opposing ships could see each other at the battle range. This gave rise to a series of local actions during which all ships of the
DIAGRAM OF LATER PHASES OF BATTLE OF JUTLAND
battle fleet became engaged, but at no time simultaneously. These detached actions were for the most part between few ships for brief periods. The aggregate fighting, however, seems to have been considerable, as may be gathered from the following synopsis of the principal incidents reported by Admiral Jellicoe and Vice Admiral Beatty:
At 6:17 the third battle squadron engaged German battleships, battle cruisers, and light cruisers at a range of 11,000 yards. The fourth battle squadron, in which was place'i
Commander Chief's flagship Iron Duke, engaged the battle squadron, consiste
ing of the König and Kaiser classes, as well as some of the German battle cruisers and light cruisers. The mist rendered range taking difficult, but the fire of the squadron was effective. The Iron Duke opened at 6:30 on
a battleship of the König class at 12,000 yards range, hitting on the second salvo, and continuing to hit until the target ship turned away. The fire of other ships of the fourth squadron was principally directed at enemy battle cruisers and cruisers as they appeared out of the mist. The ships of the second battle squadron were in action with vessels of the Kaiser and König classes between 6:30 and 7:20. and fired also at a battle cruiser which had dropped back, apparently severely damaged. The first battle