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The German losses reported by the German Admiralty are:

BATTLESHIP
Ton-
Arma-

Date nage. ment. Sp'd. Completion. Pommern ....13,040 4 11-in. 19

1907 14 6.7-in.

BATTLE CRUISER Lutzow .....28,000 8 12-in. 27

1915 12 6-in.

LIGHT CRUISERS Rostock ...... 4,820 12 4.1-in. 27.3

1914 Frauenlob... 2,656 10 4.1-in. 21.5 1903

NEW LIGHT CRUISERS
Elbing ......
Wiesbaden ..

DESTROYERS
Five ........

TOTAL TONNAGE LOST British ....

......117.150 German .......

...... 60,720 TOTAL PERSONNEL LOST British ....

****.......... 2,414 German ....

[The fifth article of this series will appear in May.)

.. 6,105

A German Story of the Sinking of the Lützow

THE Telegraaf of Amsterdam has 1 published a statement made by a

deserter from the German Navy, a seaman of the first class who had been six years in the navy and received the Iron Cross after the Jutland battle. He stated that in the Jutland battle he was aboard the Lützow, which was sunk. Over 1,000 were saved of her crew, which totaled 1,600. He was taken aboard a destroyer, which was sunk five minutes later. The following remarkable details of the sinking of the Lützow formed part of his narrative:

It was 8 o'clock in the evening. We were first hit by a torpedo behind the foremast below the water line. The torpedo penetrated the walls and exploded within the ship, killing and wounding a great number of men and destroying the food store. The watertight compartment before the engine room held good, and everything was done to support the bulkhead, with the object of preserving the ship. Gradually, however, her condition became hopeless. The staff left the vessel about 10 P. M., the crew remaining on duty. After the staff had been transferred to a torpedo boat the Lützow received another hit, which destroyed the wireless room beneath the bridge. Every one within was killed. Afterward the ship received four severe hits from fifteen-inch shells. She was now proceeding at only three miles an hour.

At 3 o'clock in the morning the vessel appeared to be lost, and we were ordered to leave the ship. Four torpedo boats received 1,003 men surviving out of 1,600. Three hundred wounded remained on board, whom it was impossible to remove. Our torpedo boat was not 100 yards from the Lützow when it

was attacked by five English destroyers and two small cruisers. Our vessel was torpedoed and quickly sank. Three other German torpedo boats thereupon took .us over. Some time afterward the torpedo boat I was on was hit near the engine room. An order then arrived to retire from further operations by developing smoke. A heavy screen of smoke hid us and the Lützow from the English. That was our salvation.

To save her from falling into English hands we were ordered to sink the Lützow with 300 of her own wounded on board. This order was executed. One of our torpedo boats torpedoed this great German ship, which quickly sank, carrying with it our 300 wounded into the depths. The English then left us in peace, and proceeded in the direction where the Lützow had sunk. Apparently they had not seen through the screen of smoke that the Lützow had sunk. While they were vainly seeking the ship we escaped and steamed at full power southward for thirteen hours. We were then taken over by the small cruiser Regensburg, in which we steamed for five hours more before our return at midnight to Wilhelmshaven.

It is remarkable that all our ships hit in the Jutland battle were hit in the forepart. Many ships were severely damaged while proceeding homeward. All the badly damaged vessels have been repaired, and new ships are serving, or are shortly to serve, in the fleet. Among the new ships are the Baden, Bayern, and Hindenburg. Shortly also there will be a new Emden. while a new Karlsruhe is already in active service. An Ersatz Blücher is on the stocks in Danzig Dockyard. The Derfflinger, which was seriously damaged in the Jutland battle, is again in service. The dockyards are now exclusively constructing submarines and large cruisers, because the greatest losses have been suffered in these types.

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S was explained in Part I. of this S. Michigan. The design of this last ship A article, the United States Navy has been imitated by all the navies in T fell back in tonnage from second their dreadnoughts. The design of her

to third place in the period of parent ship, the Roanoke, will be of inforeign naval increase, from 1906 to terest because some of the foreign navies 1911. Through all these years our navy have reverted to the plan of the Roanoke, was restricted to the two-battleships-a- as will be seen later. year program.

In the recognized first essentials of Fortunately, as has been shown when

sea power the strength of the United making comparisons with the British and

States Navy is given as follows: German navies. tonnage does not tell the UNITED STATES NAVY-BUILT AND

BUILDING whole story. The United States Navy Dreadnoughts ........... ........... 17 has been the leader in the development Predreadnought battleships............... 21 of the “ all-big-gun" battleship of today, The United States Navy has no battle called the “ dreadnought.” From the first cruisers. single-turret ship, the Monitor, to the As the object of this article is to give two-turret monitors, then to the U. S. S. the strength of the navies at correspondRoanoke—these were the three great ing stages of their building programs, strides in such ships designed by the two of the dreadnoughts should be United States Navy in the epoch-making omitted from this list, the Tennessee and times of the civil war, which led to the California, as their percentage completed plan of big guns in turrets aligned over is small. The three ships of the class of tise keel.

the Mississippi, recently launched, should With the present article are shown be included on this basis, as these three plans of the U. S. S. Roanoke and U. S. ships might be hurried to completion, in

U. S. S. MICHIGAN, 1906.
Armament: eight 12-in. 45 cal. B. L, R., twenty-two 3-in. 50 cal. R. F., four
3-pdr. Saluting. Armor belt: 10 in., 11 in., 12 in., at top; 8 in., 9 in., 10 in., at
bottom. Casemate: 8 in. at top; 10 in. at bottom. Side plating forward and aft,
13-in. nickel steel. Protective deck forward, 124-in., after, 3-in, nickel steel.

*By courtesy of U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings.

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U. S. S. PENNSYLVANIA
Length, 600 feet. Beam, 97 feet. Mean draught, 28 5-6 feet.
Ahead: 6-14 in.
Broadside: 12-14 in.

Astern: 6-14 in.

view of the indicated non-completion of is the developed design of the Michigan, the building programs of the British and with three guns in each turret instead of German Navies. A look at the chart on two. It is probably safe to say that this Page 90 showing battle formation in ship and her sister ship, the Arizona, are Lieutenant Gill's article, will confirm the most powerful battleships in the what was said about this in Part I. of world. The nearest approach would be this article. The dates of the ships are the Japanese battleships of the Fu-So conclusive.

class. The Japanese ships, while closely Consequently, the dreadnoughts in the imitating ours in armament, followed corresponding program of the United our earlier design of the Arkansas, also States Navy should be fifteen.

shown, in which the twelve guns are The Battle Fleet

carried in six turrets instead of four. Above is given the plan of U. S. S. This arrangement of turrets in the Pennsylvania. As will be seen, this ship Japanese battleships has made necessary

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