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35,000 35 10 14-in.
Characteristics not determined
a longer hull and armor spread over more turrets--a less powerful fort with less available guns.
The recent building program of our first-line dreadnought
dreadnought battleships is given below: Comp'a Displace
Speed in Name. ment. Armament. Knots. 1912. , Arkansas 26,000
| 21.00 1912. . Wyoming
12 12-in.... 1 21.22 1913. Texas
27,000' 10 14-in... 21.0 1914.. New York.... 27,000 10 14-in. 21.0 1915..Nevada 27,500
5 20.35 1915..Oklahoma 27,300 / 10 14-in.... ( 20.05 1916. . Pennsylvania. 31,400 1916.. Arizona
12 14-in.... 21.05
31, 100) Idaho
32,000 Mississippi 32,000 12 14-in.... 21.0 New Mexico.. 32,000)
In addition to the dreadnought battleships of the first line, it should be understood that our predreadnought battleships are better than those of other navies. Our consistent policy of making the gun the main thing has given many of these second-line battleships a clear title to be factors in a battle of modern fleets. UNITED STATES VESSELS BUILDING
AND AUTHORIZED Name. Displace Main Where Battleships.ment. Sp'd.battery. building. Tennessee 32,300 21 12 14-in. New York California · 32,300 21 12 14-in. Mare Island Colorado...
8 16-in N'port News
Camden W. Virginia
N'port News No. 49
Characteristics not determined 52 53 54
States Navy has been authorized. As this is for future years it has nothing to do with this article. But the program is here given because some of its features point out the real weakness of our navy-our weakness in auxiliaries of the battle fleet.
Auxiliaries of Battle Fleet Our lack of battle cruisers does not now seem the fatal defect so often proclaimed in the first months of the war. Battle cruisers are not now considered equal to the task of standing up against battleships. The development of the submarine has lessened the raiding value of the battle cruiser, which was thought destined to be the knight errant of the
In consequence, the tactical use of battle cruisers, by such a navy as the
German or Japanese, against a navy the great sums expended on them. Outwithout battle cruisers, seems restricted side of the limitations imposed on their to the use of these ships as scout cruisers use by the weather, the development of and screen.
anti-aircraft guns compels them to fly at Undoubtedly they would give great such great heights that their usefulness trouble to such a fleet as ours, but their is diminished. It is obvious that we limitations are
now realized. As will should have some of these craft of a be seen from the above table, unless reliable type—but there should not be a there is some change, we are to build great deal of money and energy diverted six battle cruisers in our three-year pro to aircraft. Their usefulness at sea is gram. It is possible that we may be the greatly diminished, because they are unlast to build them.
able to navigate. Out of sight of land, or The authorization of ten scout cruis out of sight of the mother ship, they ers draws attention to the real weakness
are lost. and greatest need of our navy. We have
Armament absolutely no scouts in the modern sense of the word-and from the great sums
The details of the principal guns of
the United States Navy were given in given by Congress to the navy a large
Part I. of this article. The twelve dreadnumber of these ships should be built as
noughts completed of the battle fleet soon as possible.
carry sixty-four 12-inch guns and sixtyIn destroyers also we are below the
four 14-inch guns. The three ships of needs of our fleet. We have sixty-three
the Mississippi class will add thirty-six built and building. The tactics of the
14-inch guns to this total. battle of Jutland and the development of
In addition to these, the two ships of the torpedo and submarine indicate an
the Michigan class, which are more powincreased value for these craft. A great
erful than many foreign dreadnoughts, number should be built as soon as pos
carry sixteen 12-inch guns. Of the other sible. Many are authorized in the future
predreadnought battleships six carry program-and these should be rushed to
twenty-four 45-calibre 12-inch guns, and completion.
eight carry thirty-two 40-calibre 12-inch Fortunately, without any guiding wis
guns, which would make these ships dom of our own, the war has given our
factors in any battle of modern fleets. country great elements of preparedness.
This cannot be said to the same extent Where there were practically no high
of the predreadnought battleships of the explosives available, we now have a great
other navies. Every gun in this list is stock on hand. Many kinds of munitions
available for a broadside because all our of war are available for seizure in our
big guns are carried in turrets aligned emergency.
over the keel. The same conditions have developed an The shortage of men is too much emefficient type of submarine that has been
phasized in current comment on our navy. built-and can be built-in great num It should be realized that we have a highbers in an unprecedentedly short time. ly trained personnel, that even the secThis is fortunate for our nation, as in ond-line ships in reserve are in being our problem of defense submarines will with skeleton crews-and that we have be of great value. Our coasts are long, unusually intelligent classes to draw and the danger of raids by battle cruisers upon for our war strength. was very real before the war developed Great Britain's lesson in unprepared. the submarine. Now only specially built ness should be studied by our country. monitors dare to stay near a coast long On land and sea it was not the lack of enough to attempt a serious bombard men that was the trouble. It was the ment.
lack of weapons for the men. Aircraft are now given a vogue, in On land our energies should be conspite of the fact that in the war very centrated on providing munitions and small tactical results have resulted from equipment-on the sea to provide ma
FRENCH DREADNOUGHT NORMANDIE
Astern: 4--13.4 in
terial is still more urgent. Great as is the need of more trained men for our navy, our need of scouts is outstanding; and with every resource of American ingenuity we should hasten the building of a fleet of scout cruisers.
The French Navy The French Navy was for many years second only to the British Navy, but in the abnormal increase from 1906 to 1911 there was no effort made to keep pace with Great Britain and Germanyand this was probably wise from the peculiar situation of France. The strength of the French Navy in the main accepted essentials is as follows: FRENCH NAVY-BUILT AND BUILDING Dreadnoughts
12 Predreadnought battleships.
17 The French Navy has battle cruisers.
The known recent building program is as follows: Comp'd Displace
Speed Name. ment. Armament. Knots. 1915.. Bretagne .23,172) 1915. .Loraine 23,172 10 13.4-inch.. 20.0 1915. . Provence
.23,172 1916.. Normandie .24,828) 1916.. Languedoc
.24,828 1916..Flandre .24,828 | 12 13,4-inch.. 21.5 1916. .Gascogne 24,828 1917.. Bearn
..24,828 As will be seen from the plans of the Normandie given above, the French have
.12 AC BEAM
reverted to the plan of U. S. S. Roanoke, with three turrets aligned over the keelbut with four guns in each turret. No other navy has adopted this arrangement
The French have always designed and
FRENCH NAVAL GUN IN USE ON THE
8 14-inch.... (28.0
built good battleships--and French ships have been of great use in the Mediterranean and elsewhere. But with the fearful drain of all the resources of France necessary to maintain her battle front, it is safe to say that not only has there been no completion of her naval building program, but that many of her ships are not now in active commission.
It is now known that equality in heavy artillery on the western front was only established by use of the French naval guns--many of them actually taken from French warships. Probably the French Navy was also drawn upon for men in this great emergency. Consequently the French Navy should be considered as a power in abeyance-not in proportion to its building program.
In auxiliaries of the battle fleet France is well equipped. Her submarines in particular are known to be very good, although, as has been the case with the British Navy, there has not been much chance to use them.
The Japanese Navy The strength of the Japanese Navy in the first essentials in the known building program is as follows: JAPANESE NAVY-BUILT AND BUILD
ING Dreadnoughts Predreadnought battleships.
13 Battle cruisers...
The recent building program, so far as known, is as follows:
DREADNOUGHTS Comp'a Displace
Name. ment. Armament. Knots. 1912.. Kawachi 20,800
12 12-inch.... 20.5 1912..Settsu
20.80 1915.. Fu-So
30,000 1918.. Yamashiro 30.60)
12 14-inch.... 22.0 1916.. Ise
30,000 1917. Hinga
BATTLE CRUISERS 1913.. Kongo
| 28.0 1914.. Hiyei 27,500
1 27.0 1914..Kirishima 27,5007
| 29.0 1915..Haruna 27,500)
The first two dreadnoughts have the ineffective arrangement of the turrets of the German Helgoland class, (Part I., Figure 2.) The four dreadnoughts of the Fu-So class are formidable battleships, but, as explained above, they have followed the design of the Arkansas, and are probably not as powerful as the battleships of the Pennsylvania design.
The Japanese predreadnought battleships are not as good as those of the United States Navy.
As a matter of course Japan, like the other nations at war, has given out no naval information since she entered the war. Undoubtedly there has been a great increase of the Japanese building program, but it is not probable that any new capital ships are ready for service.
The Battle Cruisers As in the case of the British Navy, it will be noted that the Japanese naval program did not include battle cruisers for completion later than 1915. Whether
JAPANESE DREADNOUGHT FU-SO
Length, 673 feet.
Astern: 4-14 in.
JAPANESE BATTLE CRUISER KONGO
Astern: 4-14 in.
or not other ships of this class have been recently laid down is not known.
The four battle cruisers in the Japanese building program probably make up the most powerful squadron of their class afloat today, but it is also possible that the Japanese regret building these ships instead of battleships. Their fine armament is carried on hulls that cannot be trusted to resist a serious combat with battleships. Their tactical use would greatly embarrass such a battle fleet as our own, but they cannot any longer be considered a menace.
In all the auxiliaries of the battle fleet
it may be assumed that the progressive Japanese are well equipped. In guns they have closely followed us—and it is probable that they are going to larger calibres, as is the United States Navy.
The Russian Navy In the matter of sea power Russia has been at a disadvantage through being obliged to maintain two separate navies --the Baltic fleet and the Black Sea fleet. This unusual condition has come from closing the Dardanelles to Russian warships. Their strength in first essentials is as follows:
RUSSIAN DREADNOUGHT GANGOOT Length, 590142 feet. Beam, 8514 feet. Mean draught, 2714 feet. Ahead: 3--12 in. Broadside: 12-12 in.
Astern: 3-12 in.