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ture of pulp and paper was carried on in 31 pulp mills and 28 paper mills comprised in 38 different establishments, employing 8,606 work people (8,250 men and 356 women). To these employees a total of $1,820,268 was paid in wages, and they turned out a product valued at $34,617,666. There were under construction during the year 8 pulp mills and 4 paper mills, 5 of the pulp mills and 3 of the paper mills constituting 5 new establishments.

The chapter concludes with three contributed papers, as follows, relating to the industry: “ History of paper making in Maine, and the future of the industry;" “ Chemical wood pulp and paper-how made," and "Maine forests, their preservation, taxation, and value."

RAILROADS.- For the year ending June 30, 1906, there were 8,843 persons, including general officers, in the service of the 20 steam railroads operating in the State. The aggregate amount of wages, including salaries, paid during the year was $5,084,191.82. The number of employees, excluding general officers, was 8,781, an increase of 71 over 1905. The total number of days worked by employees, other than general officers, was 2,549,607, and the total amount paid this class of employees in wages was $4,909,906.08. The average daily wages of the same class was $1.93, an increase from $1.88 for the year 1905. Statements are presented showing for the years 1905 and 1906 the total mileage, gross earnings, passengers carried, freight hauled, passenger and freight train mileage, etc.

The number of men employed, including general officers, upon the street railways of Maine for the year ending June 30, 1906, was 1,336. To these were paid wages and salaries aggregating $834,464.35.

Accidents on steam railroads for the year ending June 30, 1906, resulted in 38 persons being killed and 222 injured by the movement of trains. Of those killed, 17 were employees, 2 were passengers, and 19 were other persons; of those injured, 136 were employees, 54 were passengers, and 32 were other persons. On the street railways accidents resulted in 7 persons being killed and 48 persons injured. Of those killed, 3 were passengers and 4 were other persons; of those injured, 6 were employees, 37 were passengers, and 5 were other persons.

CHILD LABOR.-In the report on factory inspection tables are presented in which it is shown that the number of children working under certificates in certain manufacturing establishments of the State was 813 in 1905 and 877 in 1906. The factory inspector recommends additional legislation regulating child labor in the State.


Fifteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics and Information

of Maryland, 1906. Charles J. Fox, Chief. 214 pp. In this report the subjects following are presented: The childlabor law, 35 pages; inspection of clothing and other manufactures, 23 pages; strikes and lockouts, 55 pages; free employment agency, 8 pages; cost of living, 19 pages; in labor circles, 11 pages; agricultural statistics, 1906, 3 pages; new incorporations, 1906, 25 pages; immigration, 5 pages; State reports, 9 pages; conferences and conventions, 2 pages; financial statement of the bureau, 1 page.

THE CHILD-LABOR LAW.—The State legislature of 1906 placed upon the labor bureau the work of enforcing what is generally known as the child-labor law. In this chapter is given the results of the work of six months under this law-from July 1 to December 31, 1906. To children between 12 and 16 years of age 10,289 labor permits were issued, 5,896 to boys and 4,393 to girls. Of the total permits issued 9,294 were for Baltimore City, 5,251 to boys and 4,043 to girls. Applicants for permits to the number of 1,046 were refused.

A summary of the work of the various district inspectors shows that in 90 manufacturing establishments, with salesrooms, visited there were 248 boys and 129 girls under 16 years of age employed, whose weekly earnings averaged $2.64}; that in 356 stores, mercantile establishments, and offices visited there were 565 boys and 177 girls under 16 years of age employed, whose weekly earnings averaged $3.48, and that in 949 manufacturing establishments visited there were 1,175 boys and 1,688 girls under 16 years of age employed, whose weekly earnings averaged $3.641. Also, there is given the degree of intelligence of the children, hours of labor per day and time allowed for lunch, sanitary condition of surroundings, etc.

The chapter, further, contains a report on the applications for relief investigated by the Charity Organization Society and the Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, the need of relief being based upon the alleged loss of wages of children to whom labor permits had been refused. Cases in the counties outside of Baltimore were investigated by the secretary of the Maryland Child-Labor Committee, whose report closes the chapter.

INSPECTION OF CLOTHING AND OTHER MANUFACTURES.—During the year 1906 the work of inspecting establishments where clothing and other articles are made which come under the act commonly known as the "sweat shop law” was vigorously pursued and with satisfactory results. It is stated that the old-time sweat shop has in large measure been eliminated from the manufacture of clothing in the city of Baltimore. The opinion of the State court of appeals declaring the factory and workshop inspection law constitutional has practically revolutionized conditions in the garment-making trades.

After inspection and report thereon, during the year 1906 there were 1,441 permits issued to contractors and individuals to work and employ 25,822 people in the manufacture, chiefly, of various articles pertaining to the clothing trade. Of the total permits, 929 were issued to proprietors of factories and workshops and 512 to proprietors who worked in tenements and dwellings. The number of people who were authorized to be employed in the factories and workshops aggregated 24,519, and in the tenements and dwellings 1,303, Of children under 16 years of age there were employed 173 males and 583 females; of those under 14 years of age there were employed 54 males and 104 females. Tables, by inspection districts, give in detail number of employees by age and sex, hours of labor per day, kind of articles made, and conditions, sanitary, social, etc., existing in connection with each tenement, dwelling, and factory inspected.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.—There are given for the year 1906 statistics of 24 strikes, which threw out of employment 2,051 persons (1,742 males and 309 females), with an estimated wage loss of $103,762. Of the 24 strikes reported, 15 were ordered by organizations and 9 were not; 9 were for increase of wages, 5 were against the employment of nonunion men, 4 were for reduction of hours of labor, and 6 were for other causes; 7 strikes were successful, 4 were partly successful, and 13 were unsuccessful. A brief description is given of each strike, together with an account of several minor labor troubles which could not be characterized as strikes. No lockouts were reported for the year.

FrEE EMPLOYMENT AGENCY.—During 1906, the year covered by this report, there were 644 applications for positions—617 by males and 27 by females. Of the applicants, 231 were laborers, 63 were clerks, 46 were watchmen, 30 were carpenters, 27 were timekeepers, 24 were drivers, and the remainder were distributed among various occupations. Applications for help numbered 521—for male help, 459; for female help, 62. There were 141 positions filled-129 by males and 12 by females. As to character of positions filled, 113 were laborers, 12 were farm hands, 7 were general houseworkers, etc.

Cost of Living.–Under this title comparative prices of various articles of food and fuel in the Baltimore markets are presented for the years 1892, 1895, 1905, and 1906. A table is also given showing the average monthly retail prices of the principal articles of food for 1906 compiled from prices quoted in the daily papers of Baltimore. In conjunction with the prices of food commodities, etc., there are presented the yearly earnings of 10 representative families with budgets of expenditures; also for 537 persons engaged in 31 different occupatio 1906, hours worked and earnings per day, days worked during the year, and average yearly earnings. For persons engaged in a part of the occupations the average yearly earnings for 1906 are placed in comparison with those for 1905 and 1904.

IN LABOR CIRCLES.—Under this caption is presented the returns received from 62 labor organizations, having a reported membership of 10,073. A list of the unions reporting is given, with name of each organization, name and address of secretary, membership, hours of labor per day, and daily rate of wages. Of the total unions, 14 reported the hours of labor as 8 per day, 8 as 9 per day, and 3 as 10 per day, the remaining unions not reporting as to hours. Less than $3 per day per member were the earnings reported by 40 unions and from $3 to $4 per day per member the earnings reported by 20 unions. There is given for 22 unions the number of members reported idle for each month during 1906.

IMMIGRATION.-For the year ending December 31, 1906, 65,284 aliens, exclusive of transits, were admitted at the port of Baltimore. Of this number only 5,712 were destined to Maryland.


Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial

Statistics, including the Fourteenth Annual Report of State Inspection of Factories. 1907. Malcolm J. McLeod, Commissioner. XV, 535 pp.

This report contains 20 chapters, of which Chapters I to X, 336 pages, are devoted to inspection of factories, stores, hotels, tenement shops, etc. Labor and industrial statistics are presented in

, Chapters XI to XX under the following titles: Organized labor, and labor disturbances in 1906, 48 pages; free employment bureaus,

; 13 pages; statistics of industry, labor, and wages, 18 pages; prison and reformatory statistics, 17 pages; manufacture of beet sugar, 32 pages; Portland cement and brick industries, 20 pages; tanning industry and manufacture of wire fence, 6 pages; power used in manufacturing in Michigan, 9 pages; statistics of important industries, 17 pages; coal industry, 18 pages.

ORGANIZED LABOR AND LABOR DISTURBANCES IN 1906.-This canvass made of organized labor in Michigan covers the period from July 1, 1905, to July 1, 1906. A summary of the returns shows 539 local organizations canvassed, which are believed to embrace fully 95 per cent of the local labor unions in the State. These 539 locals canvassed represent 91 distinct occupations in 63 trades. The number of members on July 1, 1905, was 35,369, and on July 1, 1906, the number was 39,787. Members worked an average of 9.2 hours per day and an average of 10.6 months per year. In 1905 average daily wages of members were $2.59 and in 1906 they were $2.63. There were 146 unions which reported that organization had shortened the work day, 476 unions which reported that differences had been settled by arbitration, and 323 unions which reported that they had an agreement with employers. During the year covered 48 unions were involved in strikes, 24 of which were successful. Strike benefits were paid to the amount of $48,817.85. There were 188 unions which paid an average weekly sick benefit of $5.21, the aggregate paid by all locals in sick benefits during the year being $22,390. There were 375 unions which paid an average death benefit of $227.39, the aggregate paid by all locals in death benefits during the year being $89,526.

The second part of this chapter, devoted to labor disturbances for the year ending December 31, 1906, consists of the report of the work of the State court of mediation and conciliation. A brief account is given of the 13 labor disputes investigated by the court. The work of the court was entirely that of mediation or conciliation, no case of arbitration or public investigation of disputes having occurred.

FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS.-Under this title is presented a detailed report of the work done in the two bureaus of the State—one opened at Detroit on June 12, 1905, and the other at Grand Rapids on July 1, 1905. The table following summarizes the work done at the Detroit bureau from the date of opening to November 30, 1906, and the work done at the Grand Rapids bureau from the date of opening to December 31, 1906 :


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STATISTICS OF IndustRY, LABOR, AND Wages.—This presentation shows for 7,170 manufacturing establishments canvassed in 1905 and for 7,770 canvassed in 1906 the number, wages, and hours of labor of all wage and salaried employees, together with the average number of days worked per month and months worked per year. The aggregate amount of wages paid all employees in 1905 was $122,953,324, in 1906 it was $138,393,607; the average hours worked per day were 9.9 in 1905 and 9.7 in 1906; the average days worked per month were 26.4 in 1905 and 25.6 in 1906; the average months worked per year were 11.1 in 1905 and 11.8 in 1906.

The facts collected have been compiled and presented in detailed form, showing the various items by counties. From a summary of the investigation the following table is given, which shows the number of employees of each class and the average daily wages paid in 1905 and 1906 1... cutablishments canvassed :

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