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EMPLOYEES OF EACH CLASS AND AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN MANUFACTUR

ING ESTABLISHMENTS, 1905 AND 1906.

(Figures are for 7,170 establishments in 1905 and for 7,770 in 1906.]

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Further, the chapter gives statistics of 1905, showing the extent of the manufacturing industry in the United States by presenting for each State the number of establishments, capital invested, wages paid annually, expenses, cost of materials, and value of manufactured products.

PRISON AND REFORMATORY STATISTICS.—Under this title appear the reports of the wardens and superintendents of these institutions. Tables are given showing the number of officials and salary of each, number of inmates, cost of clothing and feeding of inmates, number of inmates employed at contract labor, rate per day of contract labor and hours of labor, and number of inmates employed in systems of labor other than contract.

MANUFACTURE OF BEET SUGAR.-In the beet sugar industries 16 factories were in operation during the year 1906, the same number as in 1905. These 16 factories represented a total cost of $10,900,000. The acreage devoted to beet raising in 1906 was 94,660, an increase over 1905 of 20,587 acres. The tons of beets grown in 1906 were estimated at 753,058 and the pounds of sugar made at 178,000,000. There were 553 skilled laborers and 3,401 other laborers employed in the factories, with an average daily wage of $3.09 for the former and of $1.95 for the latter.

PORTLAND CEMENT AND BRICK INDUSTRIES.—In the cement industry 15 of the 17 plants in the State were in operation at the time of the investigation. The aggregate cost of the plants in operation was $8,300,000, and their aggregate daily capacity 19,200 barrels. The estimated output for 1906 was 4,032,418 barrels. There were on the pay rolls 446 skilled laborers, at an average daily wage of $2.82, and 1,641 other laborers, at an average daily wage of $2.41. The average daily wages of all employees were $2.49. The annual pay roll amounted to $1,397,600.

There were 80 brickyards canvassed, located in 36 counties, representing an invested capital of $1,742,231. The number of bricks made in 1906 was estimated at 292,390,000, with an average value per 1,000 at the yards of $5.17. Employment was given to 67 superintendents at an average daily wage of $3.05, to 46 foremen at an average daily wage of $2.75, to 162 skilled laborers at an average daily wage of $2.57, to 1,868 common laborers at an average daily wage of $1.80, and to 37 children (under 16 years of age) at an average daily wage of 84 cents.

TANNING INDUSTRY AND MANUFACTURE OF WIRE FENCE. In the tanning industry 26 plants were canvassed, located in 17 counties, representing an invested capital of $6,557,347. The approximate value of tanned product for the 26 tanneries in 1905 was $14,511,014. The tanneries furnished employment to 27 superintendents at an average daily wage of $5.86, to 54 foremen at an average daily wage of $2.84, to 602 skilled laborers at an average daily wage of $2.07, to 1,211 common laborers at an average daily wage of $1.69, and to 100 female laborers at an average daily wage of $1.07. The wages paid during the year aggregated $1,186,848.

In 1906 there were 9 plants in the State engaged in the manufacture of wire fence, whose invested capital aggregated $1,805,000. The output of the 9 plants for the year was 77,400 tons of fence, valued at $4,370,778, the production of which gave employment to 9 superintendents at an average daily wage of $4.38, to 29 foremen at an average daily wage of $2.82, to 231 skilled laborers at an average daily wage of $2.11, to 269 other laborers at an average daily wage of $1.77, and to 2 children (under 16 years of age) at an average daily wage of 62 cents. The amount of the annual pay roll aggregated $635,273.

POWER USED IN MANUFACTURING IN MICHIGAN.-Of the 7,770 manufacturing establishments embraced in this presentation 3,227 used steam power, 1,069 used electric power, 949 used gas or gasoline power, 219 used water power, 412 used rented power (kind not reported), and 1,894 establishments required no power to operate. The total power generated in the 5,876 power-using establishments was 831,736 horsepower. Also, statistics are given of steam boilers and their equipment and kind of alarms in use and their condition. The data in detail are presented by counties.

STATISTICS OF IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES.--Under this head various industrial firms are mentioned, with descriptions of the establishments, number of persons employed, capital and product, aggregate pay roll, etc. In noticing some of the establishments considerable attention has been given to recently inaugurated industrial betterments.

Coal INDUSTRY.—In this industry there were 38 coal mines in operation during the year 1906, as compared with 33 mines during the year 1905. A condensed summary of the operations of the mines for the two years is presented in the table following:

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In 16 mines 33 accidents were reported. Of these 6 were fatal, 8 serious, 11 severe, and 8 slight.

OHIO.

Thirtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the

State of Ohio, for the year 1906. M. D. Ratchford, Commissioner.

671 pp.

This report consists of six parts in which are presented the following subjects: Laws governing the bureau, recent labor laws, and court decisions, 22 pages; manufactures, 350 pages; coal mining, 221 pages; prison labor, 4 pages; sweat shops, 21 pages; free public employment offices, 18 pages; chronology of labor bureaus, 3 pages.

MANUFACTURES.- Tables are given for 1905, showing, by industries for each of the five principal cities, the remaining cities and villages, and totals for the State, the number of establishments reported, capital invested, value of goods manufactured, amount paid for rent, taxes, and insurance, total amount paid in wages, number and monthly pay of salaried employees, number of male and of female wage-earners, number employed by occupations, and average number of days worked, average daily wages, average yearly earnings, and average hours of daily labor. Other tables show, by industries, the number in each occupation affected by a change of wages during the year.

The 8,514 establishments from which returns were received for 1905 reported an invested capital of $149,702,188, and goods produced or manufactured to the value of $873,698,493.60. Wages paid 306,155 males and 57.683 females, or a total of 363.838 wage-earners, , aggregated $189,977,399.23, and salaries aggregating $38,508,446.16 were paid to 35,467 employed as office help, etc. During the year 56,106 persons received an average increase in wages of 7.5 per cent, and 2,600 persons suffered an average reduction in wages of 7.2 per cent.

The number of establishments reporting in 1905 was 753 more than in 1904, the value of manufactured products was $153,035,850.85 more than that of 1904, and the amount paid in wages during the year was increased by $25,660,464.33. The aggregate invested capital exceeded that reported for 1904 by $43,869,561, and the salaries paid superintendents, office help, etc., showed an increase of $3,329,046.96.

Coal Mining.–Tables are given, by counties, showing number of mines reporting, average number of employees, capital invested, value of production, wages and salaries paid, average daily wages, average yearly earnings, average days worked, average hours of daily labor, etc. The following comparative table presents a summary of mining statistics for the years 1904 and 1905:

STATISTICS OF COAL MINING, 1904 AND 1905.

Items.

1904.

1905.

Increase +, decrease

+669

Number of mines reporting..
Average number of employees (monthly).
Average number of salaried employees (monthly).
Invested capital..
Value of production...
Amount paid for rent, taxes, and insurance.
Amount paid in wages..
Amount paid in salaries.-
Average days worked per employee..
Average daily wages per employee.
Average yearly earnings per employee.
Average hours of daily work.
Number affected by advance in wages.
Number affected by reduction in wages.
Average per cent advance in wages.
Average per cent reduction in wages.

596

587 37,004

37,673 1.014

970 $36, 661,245.00 $36,630,252.00 $24,703,137.47 $24,986,266.90

$778,159.40 $610,508.04 $18,718,249.43 $18,872,894.72 $981,220.56

$973,388.40 173

173 $2.46

$2.48 $125.58

$129.04 8

8 61

164 29,313

2 9.4

8.9 5.6

13.2

--$30,993.00 +$283,129. 43 -$167,650. 46 +$154,645.29 -$10,832.16

+ $0.02 +$3.46

+100 - 29,341

-.5 +7.6

Prison LABOR.—This is a brief inquiry relating to the manufacture of shovels, spades, and scoops by convict labor in the Ohio Penitentiary and to the manufacture of the same articles by six establishments employing free labor, arising from the complaint that, in the industry named, prisoners beyond the number allowed by law were being employed.

SWEAT SHOPS.—This inquiry, confined to the cities of Cleveland and Cincinnati, embraces the tenement-shop manufacture of clothing and that of cigars, stogies, and cigarettes.

In the city of Cleveland, in the clothing industry, 91 shops were canvassed, employing 1,076 wage-earners, 314 males and 762 females. The hours of labor per week averaged 56.3, and the average earnings per week were $12.45 for adult males and $6.93 for adult females. In the manufacture of cigars, stogies, and cigarettes 63 shops were canvassed, employing 174 wage-earners, 134 males and 40 females. The hours of labor per week averaged 49.8 for males and 48.3 for females. The average earnings per week were $10.71 for adult males Cand $5.93 for

1. females.

In the city of Cincinnati, in the clothing industry, 112 shops were canvassed, employing 1,194 wage-earners, 326 males and 868 females. The hours of labor per week averaged 54.6 for males and 54.5 for females. The average earnings per week were $11.73 for adult males and $5.99 for adult females. In the manufacture of cigars, stogies, and cigarettes 74 shops were canvassed, employing 327 wage-earners, 208 males and 119 females. The hours of labor per week averaged 50.7 for males and 53.7 for females. The average weekly earnings were $10.26 for adult males and $6.76 for adult females.

FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES.—In addition to an itemized statement of the expenses of each office for the year ending October 31, 1906, and text reports from each of the five offices, tables are given showing by years the results of the operations of each office from date of organization, and for each week of the year ending October 25, 1906.

The following table shows the operations of the five free public employment offices of the State for the year ending October 25, 1906 :

OPERATIONS OF FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, YEAR ENDING OCTOBER

25, 1906.

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Since the organization in 1890 of the five free public employment offices there has been a total of 432,773 applications for situations wanted, 390,954 applications for help wanted, and 263,753 positions secured. Of applications for situations 60.9 per cent were filled, and of applications for help 67.5 were filled.

The expenses of the five offices for the year ending October 31, 1906 (excluding salaries), were $2,236.81, of which the expenses of the Cleveland office were $408.26, the Columbus office $146.17, the Cincinnati office $470.65, the Dayton office $462.78, and the Toledo office $448.95.

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