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The following table shows the number of accidents and the rate per thousand reported in some of the industries, grouped by age and sex: NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS OCCURRING AND RATE PER THOUSAND EMPLOYEES, IN

GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES, BY AGE AND SEX, 1905.

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The next table shows the total number of employees by sex and age groups, and the distribution of accidents among these groups according to results, for the year 1905: TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN INDUSTRIES REPORTING AND RESULTS A striking excess in the proportion of accidents to employees in the case of adult males over those occurring to other classes of employees is apparent from the above table.

OF ACCIDENTS, BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS, 1905.

Employees under Employees 18 years
18 years of age. of age or over.

Items.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Number of employees.

283,615 Per cent ()

8.09 Number of deaths.

56 Per cent (a).

3.81 Number of permanent disabilities...

324 Per cent (a)

7.06 Number of temporary disabilities (above 4 days). 18,622 Per cent (a).

7.43 Results unknown.

182 Per cent ().

5.73 Total cases of injury

19,184 Per cent (a)...

7.38
• Computed.

261,337 2,191, 142
7.46

62.50
8 1,390
.54 94.56
77

3,993 1.68 87.01 2,595 221,387 1.03 88.33

36 2,819
1.14 89.76

769,487
21.95

16
1.09

195 4,25 8,045 3.21

107 3.37

3,505,581

100.00

1, 170 100.00

4,589 100.00 250,649 100.00

3,174 100.00

2,716
1.04

229,619

88.36

8,363
3.22

259,882
100.00

From the mine inspectors' reports it appears that there were 330,796 persons employed in mines and quarries in 1905. The number of accidents was 33,742, of which 348 were fatal, 422 resulted in permanent disability, 32,331 in temporary disability (exceeding 4 days), while in 641 cases the results were unknown.

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Les Associations Professionnelles Ouvrières. Office du Travail, Min

istère du Commerce, de l'Industrie, des Postes et des Télégraphes. Tome II, 1901, 895 pp. Tome III, 1903, 679 pp. Tome IV, 1904,

821 pp.

These volumes are a continuation of a series of reports on trade and agricultural associations by the French bureau of labor. The first volume was issued in 1899, a digest of which appeared in Bulletin No. 31 (pages 1272–1274). As there indicated, the report consists of three parts, the first of which is devoted to a review of legislation on the subject considered, while the last (not yet issued) will present a historical account of the various local and national federations of unions of different trades and of labor exchanges. The three volumes named above, and the latter part of the first volume, are taken up with the second division of the subject, which consists of an account of the development of the various trade organizations in the principal cities of France which have become, under the law of 1884, the regularly incorporated local or national trade bodies.

In the first volume five groups of industries are discussed: (1) Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; (2) the extractive industries, mining and quarrying; (3) food products; (4) chemical industries, including the manufacture of tobacco; (5) printing trades. In volume two are discussed: (6) Hides and leather; (7) textiles and clothing; (8) furniture and woodworking. In volume three are presented: (9) Metal working; (10) stoneworking, and earthen and glass ware. The fourth volume discusses: (11) The building trades; (12) transportation; (13) various industries.

The discussion of the organizations found in these various industrial groups is quite detailed, and includes statistical data, an account of the origin of the different classes of unions or societies, the provisions of their constitutions and by-laws, accounts of strikes, methods of relief, benefit funds, trade congresses, etc.

A brief concluding chapter is devoted to the subject of women in trade organizations, and a list is given of 155 such bodies composed exclusively of women, the total membership being 13,873. In 73 other organizations, of 21,008 members, 16,603 are females, while 361 other bodies have smaller proportions of female members.

GERMANY

Jahresberichte der Gewerbe--lufsichtsbeamten und Bergbehörden für

das Jahr 1905. 1906. Band I, xliii, 667 pp.; Band II, xvii, 1235 pp.; Band III, vii, 1004 pp.; Band IV, 1092 pp.

These volumes present a report of the factory and mine inspectors of the German Empire for the year 1905. Each principal and subordinate division of the Empire is treated separately in the first three volumes, the fourth volume presenting summary tables for the whole country and an extensive analytical index. The subject-matter relating to each province or district is uniform throughout, and is treated under the following heads: (1) A brief general view of local conditions, showing the relations of the inspection office to employers and employees, the number of visits of inspection made, etc.; (2) statistics of the working force, under the heads of young persons (under 16 years of age), females, and all employees; (3) the protection of laborers, under the heads, injuries from accidents and sanitary provisions; and (4) economic and moral condition of the working people, provisions for betterment, and miscellaneous observations. The subjects considered include the enforcement of the laws governing the employment of children both as to age limit and hours of work, the hours of labor and rest for women, overtime, Sunday and holiday work, reports of accidents, safety devices, sanitation of factories and homes, wages and hours of labor, etc.

The following table shows for each group of industries the total number of establishments reported for the Empire, the number employing women and young persons, and the number of employees, by sex and age groups, for the year 1905 : ESTABLISHMENTS AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS, 1905.

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Total.

226,565

79,735

75,921 15,607,857

5,771

4,474

10,245

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No industry group is reported that does not give employment to employees of every class, though the number of children under 14 years of age is very small in the building trades. Compared with the total number of employees, however, there is a much smaller percentage of children in the mining, etc., industries than in any other. The textile and clothing industries together employ approximately 30 per cent of all children and young persons, while in these two groups are found considerably more than one-half of all females 16 years of age or over.

ITALY.

Statistica Industriale. Riassunto delle Notizie sulle condizioni In

dustriali del Regno. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Direzione Generale della Statistica. Part I, 243 pp. 1906. Part II, 405 pp. 1905. Part III, 131 pp. 1906.

These three volumes issued by the Italian bureau of statistics of the department of agriculture, industry, and commerce present a statistical and descriptive account of conditions of Italian manufacturing, mining, and related industries. The data presented have been collected by the statistical bureau during the years from 1885 to 1903 and published in the Annali di Statistica and in monographs relating to the separate Provinces or to specific industries. The matter thus presented has been revised and corrected, by the assistance of local and other Government officials and of chambers of commerce, so that the report is assumed to represent with sufficient exactness the conditions of private industries in 1903. For other industries, including mining, public works, and industries subject to Government inspection, the data presented are for a later period, in some cases for the year 1904, in others for the year 1905. The report does not include transportation.

The first volume contains statistics of production, imports and exports, mechanical equipment, labor, etc., for different industries in detail, and for different series of years. Maps are appended showing respectively the distribution of industrial labor, exclusive of home workers, and of mechanical motors used in industry.

The second volume contains tables only, showing for each Province by specific industries and by groups the number of establishments, of steam boilers, of motors by power used, total power developed, and number of employees by sex and age groups. Totals for the Kingdom are also shown.

In the third volume the same facts are presented, the industry being made the basis of tabulation, instead of the Province.

Industries are grouped under four principal heads: Mines and minerals, metal working, machinery, and chemical products; food products (including liquors, but not tobacco); textiles; and various industries.

The following table presents by groups of industries the number of establishments, the number of motors and total horsepower, and the number of employees by sex and age groups. For the period represented and for the classification of industries reference should be made to the foregoing text.

ESTABLISHMENTS, MOTIVE POWER, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, BY GROUPS OF

INDUSTRIES.

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Mines and minerals, metal.

working machinery, and chemical products. Food products (including liq.

uors, but not tobacco) Textiles Various industries..

33, 194 8,321
369, 353 353, 624 33,067

28, 461

3,823 418,975 62, 134 16, 265 213, 973 192, 243 11,161 14,754 7, 259

2, 259 220, 117 4,926 137, 803 93, 082 12,690 280, 260 66, 889 14, 820

452, 921 4,087 53,521 125, 841 22, 497 114, 286 45, 220 307, 844 117, 407 63,599 774, 650 764, 790 79, 415 437,761 118, 191 1,400, 157

Total....

In the group representing the manufacture of food products is found the greatest number of mechanical motors, both absolutely, and in comparison with the total number of establishments. The average horsepower per motor is small, however, being but 4.6 as against 44.4 per motor in the group of mines, minerals, etc., and 28.0 in the group of textiles.

The groups are not sufficiently well defined to admit of detailed comparisons of data as to employees. The large excess of female

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