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The following table summarizes the returns, showing by class of accident the number of accidents, fatal and nonfatal, relating to each class of persons:

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS DURING 1905, BY CLASS OF ACCIDENT.

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From the above it will be seen that during the year 1,099 persons (148 passengers, 399 employees, and 552 others) were killed and 6,459 persons (2,368 passengers, 3,800 employees, and 291 others) were injured by accidents due to the running of trains or the movement of railway vehicles. The figures for the previous year (1904) were 1,073 persons killed and 6,889 injured, while the average for the previous nine years was 1,149 persons killed and 6,651 injured.

The 39 passenger fatalities in train accidents during 1905 were largely due to two disasters, in one of which 21 passengers were killed and in the other 10. For the year (exclusive of holders of season tickets) there was 1 passenger killed in each 30,744,156 carried and 1 injured in each 3,027,834 carried. In 1904 (exclusive of holders of season tickets) there was 1 passenger killed in each 199,758,000 carried and 1 injured in each 2,244,472 carried. The number of passengers and other persons (exclusive of railway employees) killed in train accidents in 1905 was 40, as compared with an average of 23 for the previous thirty-one years, while the number injured in 1905 was 404, as compared with an average of 730 for the previous thirty-one years.

Of railway employees (engineers, firemen, guards, and brakemen) in train accidents in 1905, there was 1 killed in each 14,201 employed and i injured in each 755 employed. In the thirty-one years previous to 1905 the yearly average of railway employees killed was 14 and the yearly average injured 136.

The number of passengers killed in 1905 in accidents connected with the movement of trains and railway vehicles (exclusive of train accidents) was 109 and the number injured 1,972. In the 25 years previous to 1905 the yearly average of passengers killed was 106, and in the 9 years previous to 1905 the yearly average of passengers injured was 1,589. Excluding season tickets, taking the number of journeys into account, it was found that in 1905 there was 1 passenger killed in every 11,000,202 journeys and 1 injured in every 608,023 journeys, as compared with 1 killed in every 8,394,206 journeys, and 1 injured in every 704,657 journeys, on an average, in the previous periods of 25 and 9 years.

Not including contractors' employees, in this second class of railway accidents in 1905 there were 381 railway employees killed and 3,661 injured. The yearly average of railway employees killed in the previous 25 years was 460, and the yearly average injured in the previous 9 years was 3,964. The accidents to persons other than passengers and railway employees who were killed or injured in 1905 were incurred, with few exceptions, either deliberately or through carelessness.

Accidents on railway premises not due to train accidents or to the movement of trains and railway vehicles resulted in the death of 18 passengers, 38 employees, and 25 other persons, and injury to 782 passengers, 10,535 employees, and 460 other persons. These accidents, with few exceptions, were not attributable to railway operation and should not properly be classed as railway accidents.

During 1905, through coming in contact with electric “live” rails, there were 14 accidents to railway employees (1 fatal and 13 nonfatal) and 6 to trespassers (1 fatal and 5 nonfatal).

The total length of the railways of the United Kingdom at the end of 1905 was 22,847 miles; the total track mileage (single track) was 38,431 without sidings and 52,322 with sidings. Mustrations of Methods of Dust Extraction in Factories and Work

shops. Report to the Secretary of State for the Home Department. 1906. 93 pp.

In the United Kingdom during the last decade great improvements have been made, either by voluntary effort or by statutory obligation, in the hygienic conditions of many industrial occupations, more particularly in trades in which injurious dust or fumes are generated.

The present report, by the chief inspector of factories, consists of 58 plates of sketches and plans with descriptive text, collected from various sources, showing methods of extracting dust in different processes in flax, hemp, jute, and tow manufactures, wool-sorting and wool-combing works, metal grinding and polishing, bronzing, etc.; also various systems for humidifying workrooms. Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops, for

the Year 1906. Report to the Secretary of State for the Home Department. xvii, 379 pp.

At the end of 1906 there were upon the registers of the factory department 106,337 factories, 6,940 laundries (with and without power), and 141,912 workshops (other than men's workshops), or a total of 255,189 establishments, an increase over 1905 of 3,377 establishments. The works under inspection during 1906 did not include

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docks, warehouses, buildings, etc., or (in general) domestic workshops. The number of persons employed in factories was (approximately) 4,150,000, in workshops (excluding men's workshops) 700,000, and in laundries, 100,000.

For purposes of inspection the l'nited Kingdom is divided into five inspection districts, each under a superintending inspector, as follows: Southern division, midland division, northeastern division, northwestern division, and the Scotland and Ireland division. The report of eacı supervising inspector comprises for his district an account of the organization of the working staff and the scope of the work of inspection; complaints from officials, operatives, and others respecting sanitation, safety measures, hours of labor, illegal employment, etc.; industrial developments and state of trade in the district; sanitary conditions and improvements; industrial accidents; safety devices, their efficiency and defects, etc.; industrial poisoning (anthrax, arsenic, mercury, and lead poisoning, etc.); dangerous trades; employment and hours of labor, especially relating to children and women; to holidays, overtime, half time, night work, and meal times; the employment of children as half-timers and of those not exempt from school; action of the local sanitary authorities in connection with the factory department; administration of the law relating to particulars for piecework; operation of the truck acts; prosecutions for violations of the factory laws; inquest notices, etc. In addition, there are reports from the superintending inspector for dangerous trades, the principal lady inspector, the inspector of textile particulars, the electrical inspector, and the medical inspector. Tables presenting in detail and in summary form statistics pertaining to the various features of factory and workshop employment accompany the inspection reports.

The establishments added to the registers of the factory department during 1906 numbered 27,144 (417 textile and 7,405 nontextile factories, 372 laundries with power and 513 without power, and 18,437 workshops, other than men's workshops), while those of the different classes removed from the registers numbered 23,767, resulting in a net gain in the establishments added of 1.3 per cent.

The number of persons (children, young persons, and adults) employed in textile factories during 1904, together with comparative total figures for 1901, are given in the following table:

PERSONS EMPLOYED IN TEXTILE FACTORIES IN 1904 AND IN 1901.

Number employed.

Class of employees.

Percentage of whole
Total for number employed.

United
Kingdom. Males.

Females.

Males.

| Females.

Children (half-timers under 11).
Young persons (full-timers under 18).
Adults...

14,548
70, 965
297, 302

17, 176 137, 038 483, 329

31, 744 209,003 780.631

1.4 6.9 29.0

1.7 13.3 47.7

Total for 1904..
Total for jimit

382, 835
379,211

643,543
630, 142

1,026,378
1,029,353

37.3
36. 8

62.7
63. 2

Of the total 1,026,378 persons employed in 1904 in the textile factories of the United Kingdom, 822,451 were employed in England and Wales, 133,035 in Scotland, and 70,892 in Ireland; of the total 1,029,353 employed in 1901 in the textile factories, 821,267 were employed in England and Wales, 137,948 in Scotland, and 70,138 in Ireland.

In the table following, the number of persons (children, young persons, and adults) employed in textile factories in 1904 is shown by kind of textile manufactured:

PERSONS EMPLOYED IN TEXTILE FACTORIES IN 1904, BY KIND OF TEXTILE MANU

FACTURED.

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The table following shows the number of children and young persons examined during 1906 for certificates of fitness for employment in factories, together with the number of those who were certified by the examining surgeons and the number of those who were rejected. The children and young persons are grouped in three classes—children under 14 years of age intended to be employed half time, young persons between the ages of 13 and 14 years intended to be employed full time, and young persons between 14 and 16 years of age to be employed full time.

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS, 1906.

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During the year there were also 181,497 medical examinations under regulations and special rules—131,293 of males and 50,204 of females. Under the Factory and Workshop Act power is likewise conferred on certifying surgeons to attach conditions of employment to certificates of fitness. This power was exercised with advantage in some 800 instances.

During 1906 there were 111,904 industrial accidents reported, 76,208 being reported to inspectors only, and 35,696 to certifying surgeons. Those reported to inspectors only were nonfatal in result and of a minor character. In the table following the accidents reported to certifying surgeons are shown by degree of injury (fatal and nonfatal) and by sex and age:

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In the textile industries there were 5,172 accidents (68 fatal and 5,104 nonfatal), in the nontextile industries 27,730 accidents (731 fatal and 26,999 nonfatal), and in other lines of industry (docks, warehouses, building construction, etc.) 2,794 accidents (317 fatal and 2,477 nonfatal). In the textile industries the greatest number of accidents was in cotton spinning and weaving, with 37 fatal and 2,958 nonfatal accidents, followed by wool, worsted, and shoddy, with 15 fatal and 1,202 nonfatal accidents; in the nontextile industries the greatest number of accidents was in shipbuilding, machines and machinery, and the metal trades, with 424 fatal and 16,920 nonfatal accidents.

The cases of industrial poisoning reported in 1906 numbered 708, of which 55 resulted fatally. Of the total, 678 were cases affecting adults (of which 52 were fatal) and 30 were cases affecting young persons and children (of which 3 were fatal). There were 632 cases of lead poisoning (of which 33 were fatal), 4 cases of mercury poisoning, 5 cases of arsenic poisoning, and 67 cases of anthrax (of which 22 were fatal).

The report of the superintending inspector for dangerous trades shows that during 1906 there were in the United Kingdom, where particular dangers arise and special precautions are necessary, 15,466 industrial establishments operating under special rules and regulations.

Generally, the employment of children as half-timers is becoming less frequent, though in certain towns the numbers have increased, chiefly owing to the raising of the age at which full-time employment is allowed by the local authorities.

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