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to continually increased strength in their standing before the me munity.
Labor leaders, on the other hand, believe that trade union bir not be incorporated, because the individual member would be le responsible for the actions of the organizations, also became te organizations would be held responsible for the action of the di vidual member, or, in other words, the responsible members would be liable on account of the irresponsible ones. They are further opper to incorporation for the reasons, as they advance, that their fx would be liable to attachment.
The public view is that incorporation is desirable both from t. standpoint of the public and the unions, for, while it might limits it certain degree the freedom of action of the unions in wars who do not now exist, and at times the unions might be embarrassed a legal proceedings directed against them, these disadvantages wud be more than offset by the greater willingness of their employersi, deal with the wions when they feel that the unions are in responsible bodies.
The legal profession, which is perhaps in a better position to jwig impartially of the matter than any other, for the reason that it 192 have as clients both employers and employees, is of the opinion that it would not be inimical to the interests of trade unions to be incorp rated. The legal profession declares the difficulty with traile utiti at present to be their irresponsible character. Incorp ration would mean responsibility, and actions by responsible mici would be accepted as a pledge of good faith by responsible emplopers
In addition, the report presents a brief history of the origin. di velopment, and present status of trade unions in England and is America, the corporation laws of the United States, seven States a the Union, and five foreign countries, the Taff-Vale decision, and : bibliography of works relating to the origin, development, and pro ent status of trade unions.
STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES, 1904, 1905.--This is the twentieti of a series of annual reports on manufacturing statistics. The statistics presented are compiled from the returns of 5,019 establish ments, each of which made a report for the two years under consid eration. ('omparative tables are given showing, for the years 19:14 and 1900, the number of establishments controlled by private firma by corporations, and by industrial combinations, together with the number of partners and stockholders interested therein; the capital invested (for 1904) and the capital devoted to production (for 1905) the cost value of stock and materials used and the selling value of the goods made; the smallest, greatest, and average number of per sons employed, and aggregate employees, by months; the total wages paid cluring each year, average yearly earnings per employee, and classified weekly wages in selected industries, by sex and age; the days in operation during each year, and the proportion of business done. Seventy-nine classified industries are represented.
The principal facts as to ownership are shown in the following table:
FIRMS, CORPORATIONS, AND INDUSTRIAL COMBINATIONS, AND PARTNERS
AND STOCKHOLDERS IN 5,019 IDENTICAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 1904 AND 1903.
From the above table it will be seen that the tendency continues to be toward an increase of number of establishments controlled by corporations and a decrease of establishments under private control.
The following table presents statistics separately for 9 principal industries, in aggregate for 70 other industries, and totals for the 79 industries reported on for the years 1904 and 1905: .
Boots and shoes.
642 $100,959, 088 $116, 826, 010 +$15, 866.922
13 7.353.357 7,566, 620 + 213,263
81 17,177, 040 19,376, 489 + 2,179, 449
41 29,987, 350 37, CO8,537 + 7,621, 157
+15.72 + 2.90 + 1. 86 +35, 69 +14. 74 +26.71 +12. 69 + 8. 13 +25, 41 + 7. 29
(+) or decrea se (-).
Per cent of
(+) or decrease (-).
In the above table the 9 specified industries, the aggregate for 70 other industries, and the total for the 79 industries all show an increase in value of materials and products and in wages paid in 1905 over 1904. The greatest increase in wages paid in the 9 special industries appear in worsted goods, machines, and machinery, metak and metallic goods, and boots and shoes. The greatest increase is value of stock used and in goods made was in the leather industr.
In 1904 the capital invested in the 79 industries amountei 1 $801,271,310, and in 1905 the capital devoted to production in the industries amounted to $603.229,765.
Data relative to employees, earnings and days in operation are pre sented in the table following, the establishments considered being the same as in the table preceding:
AVERAGE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE YEARLY EARNINGS, AND APEL
AGE DAYS IN OPERATION IN 9 PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES, IN 70 OTHER INLCI TRIES, AND IN ALL INDUSTRIES, 1904 AND 1905.
Average number of em- Average yearly earn- Average days it aperto ployees.
crease 1904. 1905.
Boots and shoes,
63,686 69,900 + 9.76 $513. 86 $530.84 +3.30 296.12 213 # nfo Carpetings
5, 429 5.624 + 3. 59 423. 46 429.58 +1.45 290.54 300.91 ('otion goods.
86,636 95,372 +10.08 366.95 361.66! - 1.44 280. 49 295 % leather..
7, 455 7,950 6.25 494. 70 495. 444.15 300.27 299.41 - 3 Machines and machinery.. 27,092 30,933 + 14.18 509. 69 572.25 + .45 300.45 296.5 -13 Metals and metallic goods., 22, 238 24,986 +12. 36 553. S6 559.74 +1.06 304.09 296. 17 -10 l'aper..
11, 529' 11.780 + 2.18 466.31 473.10! +1.46 294.01 290.44 -12 Woolen goods.
25, 614 25,734 + 47 421. 67 432.67 +2.61 297.36 296.01 Worsted goods..
18.044 ! 20, 478 + 13. 49 399.00 407.70 +2.18 302.55 31.6 Other industries (70) 1102, 393 170,343 + 4 90 484.79 488 63 +.79 295. 30 29306 - %
430, 149 463, 106 + 7.66
+1.02 233.64 2248 +.
All of the principal industries show an increase in the average number of employees, and all but one an increase in average yearly earnings in 1905, as compared with 1904, while but three of the indus. tries show an increase in average days in operation. In all industries an increase is shown in the three items of average employees, average yearly earnings, and average days in operation.
For the total 79 industries the proportion of business done of full or maximum production was 69.14 per cent in 1904 and 70.92 per cent in 1905; the proportion of actnal running time of possible working time was 95,96
per cent in 1901 and 96.68 per cent in 1905. The table following shows the number of employees (wage-earners
) earning the indicated weekly wages. The number of employees giren is the number reported in each industry for the week in which the largest number was employed, and does not, therefore, agree with the number shown in the table preceding.
NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE ADULTS AND OF YOUNG PERSONS IN 79
INDUSTRIES, BY CLASSIFIED WEEKLY WAGES, 1904 AND 1905.
The figures in the above table are not comparable, except as to the totals in the last column under each year, due to the fact that a broader classification for young persons was used in 1905 from that used in 1904. Comparing the totals for each class it is seen that there was a material falling off in 1905 in the number earning under $5 per week as compared with 1904, while the number in each of the other wage classes showed an increase in 1905 as compared with 1904.
In order to show the actual result of the productive forces of industry, the element of cost of material must be deducted from the total value of product, and the remainder will show only the industry product, or the new values created. This has been done in the case of the nine leading industries, also the division of industry product between the wage fund and the fund devoted to profit and minor expenses, as insurance, interest, rent, freight, commissions, salaries, etc. The results for the years 1904 and 1905 appear in the table following:
INDUSTRY PRODUCT, WAGES, AND PROFIT AND MIXOR EXPENSES IN NINE INDUSTRY PRODUCT. WAGES, AND PROFIT AND MINOR EXPENSES IN NINE
SELECTED INDUSTRIES, 1904 AND 1905.
Per cent of industry product.
Devoted Paid to profit in
and wages. minor
Boots and shoes.
$59, 172, 647 $32,725, 760
3, 495, 208 2, 298, 953 ! 49, 637, 433 31, 790, 769
7,919, 082 3, 704, 301 29, 490, 870 15, 433, 993 24, 309, 226 12, 316, 718 13, 778, 125 5, 376, 093 21, 623, 760 10, 800, 738 15, 580, 719 7, 199, 557
$26, 446, 887
1, 196, 255 17, 846, 664
4, 214, 781 14,056, 877 11,992, 508
8, 402, 032 10, 823, 022 8 381, 102
55. 31 65. 77 64. 05 46. 78 52. 33 50. 67 39. 02 49.95 46. 21
44. 69 34. 23 35. 95 53. 22 47. 67 49. 33 60. 98 50. 05 53. 79
SELECTED INDUSTRIES, 1904 AND 1903- -Concluded.
In five of the nine industries, in 1904, more than one-half of the industry product was paid out in wages, the largest showing being in carpetings, with 65.77 per cent, followed by cotton goods, with 64.05 per cent, and boots and shoes, with 55.31 per cent. The industry devoting the lowest proportion of the industry product to labor was paper, with 39.02 per cent. In 1905, likewise, five industries paid out more than one-half of the industry product in wages. The boot and shoe industry paid the highest proportion, 60.17 per cent, and the leather industry the lowest, 38.15 per cent.
LABOR LAWS OF MASSACHUSETTS.—This part of the report contains all the statutes in the revised laws of the State relative to labor, together with all laws passed since 1902, with indications of amended laws and an extended index with copious cross references.
LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL CHRONOLOGY.—This chronology presents for each of the cities and towns of the State, for the year ending September 30, 1906, data relative to strikes and lockouts, wages and hours of labor, trade unions, industrial changes, and welfare work.
Under the section relating to strikes and lockouts have been recorded all labor disputes engaged in during the year which seemed to be of sufficient importance to consider. Slight disputations caused on account of employment of nonunion workmen, or other tradeunion principles, where only a few were directly involved and their leaving work did not affect others or cause any cessation of work, have been included under the section devoted to trade unions.
In wages and hours of labor the changes showed a still further tendency for a shorter workday, the nine-hour day being substituted for the ten-hour without change in wages, and the eight-hour day for the nine-hour schedule. The weekly half holiday during the summer months has become almost general in the various industries and trades. The early-closing movement, so long urged by organized