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TABLE V.- YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907–

Continued.
(Average price for 1890-1899–100.0.)

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113 3

09.1 103 5 96.0 SS 6 993

106.3
104.8
106.5
103. 3

97.6

1

102.0
100.7
100), 3
1021
98.7
97.6
97.2
9.2
97.2
107.7
119.3
115.0
127.4
137. 4
110. ?
144.0
1997
108.6

146.0 143.3 115.7 113.7 90.9 82.6 93.7 53,1 74.4 82.6 93.7 882 70.9 72.3 62.7 68.3 76.1 77.2

134.9
132.9
106.0
106.0
86.7
92.5
104.0
61.7
82.9
92.5
104.0
94.4
79.2,
83.1
20.3
71.8

140.5
138. 1
110.9
110.9
88.8
87.6
98.9
58.4
78.7
87.6
99.9
91.3
73.1
77.7
66.5
69.1
76.9
78.7

110.8 110.8 101.9 101.3 99.4 91.8 918 91.8 91.8 106.3 120.3

96. 1 102.4 93. 2 87.6 86.9 108 4 121.2 112.0 98.7 93.5 111.3 106.3 112.0 153.9 196.8 237.7 278.8 304.0

93.3

US8 ONS! 078

97.6 9.7.8 107.3 121.1 1:'. 4

87.5 93. S 94.3 99.0 109.3 112.8 109.5 110.0 113.8 115.S 116.3 127.0 134.5

94.9 121.5 89. 2 69.6 69.0 75.3 75.9

los 5

117.0

13
te 3

1337
112.9
149.31
150
167.3

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TABLE V.-YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907

Continued.

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1890. 1891. 1892 1893. 1894. 1895.. 1896. 1897 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907.

92.5 98.9 95. 6. 97.3 96.1 104.0 102.7 101.6 103.8 107.6 106.5 109.7 107.4 106.9 108.6 108, 3 110.0 112.6

119.2
121.6
136.0
135. 4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64. 2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73. 4
41.8

109.0 94. 6 95. 8 104. 2 101,2 95.8 98. 2 99.4 98.8 100.6 104.8 104.8 104.8 103.6 104.8 104.8 104.8 104.8

102.2
138.2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75. 5
86.8
97.2
110.7
102. 1
102. 2
106.3
113. 2
107.9
105. 2
102.8
107. 1
103.9

126.3 109.9 99.8 96. 2 85.3 86.1 119.4 93.5 88.5 95.0 108.3 107.5 103. 2 103.4 99.8 88.5 80.7 98. 9

100.0

94.2 116.3 97.1 84.6 79.8 72. 1 104.8 123. 1 129. 8 129. 8 144.2 161.5 153.8 153.8 153.8 129.8 129.8

111.0 82. 4 70.8 101.3 96.8 78.0 88.6 99. 2 141.6 130.2 135.6 136.8 120.0 130.6 116.5 128.5 125.0 209.6

133. 1
102.0
88.7
87. 4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87. 2
120.9
135. 2
123.0
104.7
102.6
94.8
85. 4

98.91 91.0 106.7 95.5 82.0 78.7 78.7 106.7 127.0 134.8 134.8 140.4 146. 1 142.7 144.9 139.3 112. 4 112. 4

110.2 103. 6 102.9 100.5 S9.8 87.9 92.6 94.4 106.6 111.3 115.7 115.2 114.2 112.6 110.0 109. 1 101.2 109.6

67.4

72.2

a Shingles: red cedar, random width, 16 inches long. For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328.

Table V.-YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907–

('ontinued.

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Table V.-YEARLY RELATIVE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907–

Concluded.

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INTRODUCTION.
It was shown by observation long ago that certain occupations and
trades were dangerous to health. In the interest of wage-earners and
the public at large it is clearly desirable to study the relation of a
person's trade or occupation to his health and longevity, the source
and significance of the dangers, and the possible means for their
prevention or the mitigation of their injurious effects.

A pioneer study was made by Professor Ramazzini, of Padua, as
early as 1670, and his monograph was translated into English in 1705,
and also into French in 1777.

In 1810 the French Government issued a decree relating to "établissements dangereux, insalubres et incommodes," and in 1815 the English Parliament instituted a commission to inquire into the condition of factories, etc. In 1822 Mr. ('. Turner Thackrah, of Leeds, wrote a monograph “On the effects of the arts, trades, and professions, and of civic states and habits of living on health and longevity." In 1833 and 1865 the English Parliament again appointed commissioners, and in 1839 the “Academie des sciences morales et politiques" of France, and subsequently Bavaria, Prussia, and the German Empire directed similar investigations. As a result of these efforts and numerous independent investigations, it is known that the character of the occupation influences to a great extent not only the average expectation of life, but also the prevalence of certain diseases.

It is known, for example, that bronchitis, pneumonia, and tuberculosis are extremely frequent in dusty occupations, and that the sharp angular particles of iron and stone dust are more liable to produce injury of the respiratory passages than coal, flour, grain, and other kinds of dust. It is also known that workers in lead, mercury, arsenic, phosphorus, poisonous dyes, etc., suffer from their injurious effects, and that other occupations, such as mining, railroading, and those which necessitate working with or around moving machinery involve special danger to life and limb.

In 1833, 1864, 1867, and 1870, England enacted the so-called "factory laws.” France provided a child labor law in 1841 and in 1874 a more satisfactory labor code. Germany and other continentai governments enacted suitable legislation between 1859 and 1886.

According to Miss S. S. Whittelsey's “Essay on Massachusetts Labor Lerislation," child labor received attention in Massachusetts as early as 1836. The first law as regards safety and sanitation was enacted in that State in 1877, since which time all the States and Territories have enacted some form of labor or factory laws.

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