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TREND OF WAGES.-Under this title the value of wages relative to their purchasing power is discussed. A table is presented for the year 1897 and the years 1902 to 1906, showing the average daily wages of trade unionists in the several occupations. The average yearly earnings, based on the average daily earnings in connection with the average days of work per year, were $581 in 1897, and in 1906, $853, an increase of 47

per

cent. HOURS OF LABOR.-Of over 1,000,000 operatives employed in factories visited during the year, 53.6 per cent were working less than 58 hours per week. In 1901 the percentage of such employees working less than 58 hours per week was 38. Returns from workingmen's associations show that during the year 1906, 18,941 working people had their hours of labor reduced. The number of persons so benefited in 1906 was greater than for 1904 or 1905, but less than in the years 1901 to 1903. No cases of increased hours were reported in 1906. The number affected by increased hours of labor for each of the five preceding years was 319 in 1901, 5,234 in 1902, 342 in 1903, 66 in 1904, and 722 in 1905.

The following table shows, by industries, the reductions in hours of labor per week and the number of organized workers affected:

REDUCTIONS IN WEEKLY HOURS OF LABOR OF MEMBERS OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND MEMBERS AFFECTED, AS REPORTED BY LABOR UNIONS FOR THIE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1906.

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TRADE UNIONS.—On September 30, 1906, there were in the State 2,420 organizations, having a membership of 398,494. This is an increase for the year of 18 unions and 15,258 members.

37691-No. 75-08-21

The following table shows the number of unions, and the number of members, by sex, in each year from 1894 to 1906:

NUMBER OF TRADE UNIONS AND MEMBERSHIP, BY SEX, 1894 TO 1906.

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Of the 2,420 unions, with a total membership of 398,494 on September 30, 1906, 678 unions, having a membership of 260,008, were located in New York City. There were 19 unions with a membership of 3,103 composed entirely of women, and in the unions composed of both males and females there were 8,522 female unionists, making a total of 11,625 female members of trade unions, of whom 6,210 were in the clothing and textile industries, 2,429 in the tobacco industries, and 1,341 in the printing and binding industries.

The following table gives the membership of trade unions, by industries, on July 1 for the years 1894 and 1895, October 31, 1896, and September 30, for the years from 1897 to 1906:

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MEMBERSHIP OF TRADE UNIONS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1906.

Industry.

1834.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

Building, stone working, etc.
Clothing and textiles.
Metals, machinery, and shipbuilding.
Transportation.
Printing, binding, etc.
Tobacco..
Food and liquors.
Theaters and music.
Wood working and furniture
Restaurants and retail trade.
Public employment
Stationary engineen.
Miscellaneous.

49, 131
39,162

8. 309
18, 773
11, 059
8,722
5,340
5,688
5, 169
1,364
1,964,

975
1,341

53,683
51,921

9, 328
19, 134
11,998
9, 089
0,210
7,327
4, 477
1, 860
1.964
1,105!
2, 135

56, 363
30, 093
11,333
23, 469
13, 948
9, 799
7, 153
7,306
4,059
2, 437

993
1,239
2, 104

53, 303
32, 147
10, 124
23, 933
13. 413
9, 097
6,621
6,920
3,975
2, 217
1,667
2, 948
2, 089

59, 676
26, 444
11, 621
19, 065
15, 090
8, 889
6, 469
9,346
4, 468
2, 419
1.880
3,738
1,962

70, 031
29, 644
17, 779
25,981
16,051
8, 886
7,935
9,518
6,571
3,551
3, 797
5, 204
4,072

Total.

157, 197

180, 231

170, 296

168, 454

171,067

209, 020

MEMBERSHIP OF TRADE UNIONS, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1906–Concluded.

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The number and membership of trade unions in New York City and for the State, exclusive of New York City, for the years ending September 30, 1898 to 1906, are shown in the following table:

NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF TRADE UNIONS IN NEW YORK CITY AND OTIIER

LOCALITIES IN THE STATE, YEARS ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1898 TO 1906.

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HEALTH OF PRINTERS.---This section is a study of sanitary conditions in the printing trade, but since it has been incorporated in the article on industrial hygiene it is not necessary to give it extended notice here. Following a discussion of the effect of occupations in general upon the health of the employed are given statistics compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census, which show that the highest mortality among wage-earners results from consumption. The average death rate from this cause in the mechanical and manufacturing trades in 1900 was 2.62. In the printing trades alone the death rate from consumption was 4.35, this rate being exceeded only in the marble and stone cutting trades and in cigar making. It is also shown that of the persons employed

. in the printing trades who died during the census year from all causes, but 35.1 per cent had attained the age of 45 years, 14.3 per cent of the deaths having occurred under the age of 25.

Visits were made to ten establishments in New York City, including some of the largest, and from the records of the employees' mutual benefit societies data were secured which, taken in connection with the conditions described, bear out the theory that the sickness and mortality among compositors is due in a great degree to the sanitary conditions of their workrooms. Establishment A is described as being very unclean and insanitary. During the five years 1901 to 1905, 8 deaths (or 6.1 per cent of the employees sick) occurred among the membership of its mutual benefit organization, 4 of these being due to tuberculosis. The number of cases of sickness was 14.9 per cent of the average membership. Contrasted with this is establishment B, which was noted as being clean and well ventilated. In this establishment the number of cases of sickness was but 9.7 per cent of the average membership and the number of deaths but 4.3 per cent of the number sick.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth

of Pennsylvania. Vol. xxxiv, 1906. Part III, Industrial Statistics. John L. Rockey, Chief of Bureau. Pp. 287.

This report, for 1906, embraces data gathered from 3,057 establishments of the State engaged in manufacturing and mining industries, giving a record of the capital invested, value of products, average value of product per employee, days in operation, number of working people (men, women, and minors), aggregate wages paid, average yearly earnings, average daily wages, etc. Data relative to strikes and lockouts are reported for bituminous coal mining and for the coke, iron and steel, tin plate, and a few minor industries. The information gives for the various disputes cause of dispute, number of persons involved, days lost, method of settlement, and result. Data are further presented for the different industries showing the number of establishments making returns and giving statistics pertaining to number of employees owning their homes, average rent paid by those renting, working hours per week, nationality of employees, accidents, causes of time lost, and trade conditions.

The 3,057 establishments considered in this investigation had invested in plants and working capital a total of $932,842,453, and the market value of production for the year aggregated $1,630,168,935. The various industries were in operation during the year an average of 287 days and employed a total of 754,986 wage-earners (647,670 men, 75,208 women, and 32,108 minors), to whom were paid in wages the sum of $371,701,476 to the men, $23,484,131 to the women, and $6,955,675 to the minors. The average yearly earnings of all wageearners was $535.05 (of the men $573.91, of the women $312.25, and of the minors $216.63). The average daily wage of all employees was $1.86. For each employee the average value of product for the year amounted to $2,159.20.

IRON, STEEL, AND TIN-PLATE PRODUCTION.—The following summary statements show the more important items for the year 1906 relating to the production of pig iron, steel, rolled iron and steel, and tin plate:

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Value of product (not including the black-plate works)...

$173, 883, 481 Total employees (not including those in black-plate works)..

128, 209 Adult male employees (not including those in black-plate works)..

126, 739 Aggregate wages paid all employees....

$82, 623, 830. Aggregate wages paid adult male employees.

$82, 210, 762 Average days in operation.

302 Average yearly earnings of all employees....

$644, 45 Average yearly earnings of adult male employees..

$648. 66 a Including 345,180 tons of black plate and other shcets made by the black-plate works.

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