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The Berlin workhouse is most efficiently conducted. In appointments, cleanliness, hygiene, and general attractiveness it far exceeds any of the so-called labor colonies, except so far as that they are in the country and agricultural, while the Berlin workhouse is in a suburb of the city (Rummelsburg) and therefore occupies less space, and is industrial. The following statistics from the report for 1907 show the character of this workhouse:

INMATES OF EACH DEPARTMENT OF THE BERLIN WORKHOUSE FOR YEAR

ENDING MARCH 31, 1907, AND AVERAGE FOR EACH YEAR, 1897 TO 1906.

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The following table gives statistics of work done at the Berlin workhouse for the year ending March 31, 1907:

DAYS WORKED BY INMATES OF BERLIN WORKHOUSE, AND AMOUNT PAID FOR

WORK, YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1907.

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Outside the institution:

Out-of-door work, April to October
City departments...

City orphanages and asylums.
Inside the institution, for city departments:

Sewing
Laundry
Woodcutting
Other interior work

Agricultural work.
Other public institutions-laundry.
In the work oflices.
Outside parties.
Bookbinding..
Picking bed Icathers.

24, 814
4, 562
1,084

2,381 3, 812 24, 814 4,562 1,084

881 5,542

245. 33 6,817. 16 1,618 41

757.52

180. 59 1,574. 54 659. 71

1. 75 140. 47 33. 19

167 . 167 a. 269

. 119

881

5,542

103

. 167

Total paid work..

103 9, 434 4,8251

.015

9,431
4,8252

.007

243, 060

7,074

250, 134

30, 567. 43

a. 122

a This is not the correct average according to the items shown, but it is the exact equivalent of the average given in the original official report.

934

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

DAYS WORKED BY INMATES OF BERLIN WORKHOUSE, AND AMOUNT PAID

WORK, YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1907--Concluded,

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a Not separately reported.

The following statisties are reported as to the inmates in 1907 NUMBER OF IXILATES OF EACH SEX IN BERLIN WORKHOUSE, BY_OCCUPA

TIONS, CLASSES OF ('ONVICTION, LENGTH OF ('OMMITMENT, AND AGE, 1919

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RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.

MASSACHUSETTS.

Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor.

January, 1907. Chas. F. Pidgin, Chief. XXX, 664 pp.

This report (following a general review of the work of the bureau, etc.) is made up of six parts, as follows: Part I, The apprenticeship system, 85 pages; Part II, Trained and supplemental employees for domestic service, 37 pages; Part III, The incorporation of trade unions, 119 pages; Part IV, Statistics of manufactures, 1901, 1905, 83 pages; Part V, Labor laws of Massachusetts, 60 pages; Part VI, Labor and industrial chronology for the year ending September 30, 1906, 256 pages.

THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM.—This subject is introduced by a brief consideration of the apprenticeship system in general. In order to ascertain public opinion concerning the apprenticeship system, the bureau issued circular letters of inquiry to employers representing some of the largest industrial establishments in the State and to trade union officials connected with the most influential labor organizations. Replies were received from 58 employers and 104 officers of trade unions. There were 26 specified lines of industry and 1 miscellaneous group represented in the replies. From consolidating the inquiries and the replies to the same the following statement is obtained:

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A table is also given showing for 134 named local and international unions the written and unwritten regulations or restrictions in regard to apprentices, embracing the length of the term of apprenticeship as restricted by the unions, the age limitations, and the limitations as regards the number of apprentices that the employer is permitted to employ.

Specimen apprenticeship agreements used by some of the manufacturing establishments of the State and the provision made for the employment of apprentices in the navy-yards of the country are given, together with the opinions of employers and trade-union officials on restriction of apprentices. Supplementing the subject of apprenticeship, descriptions are given of 11 of the trade schools of the State which give instruction in self-supporting trades.

TRAINED AND SUPPLEMENTAL EMPLOYEES FOR DOMESTIC SERVICE.— In January, 1897, the employment committee of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union resolved to make an attempt to get nearer the source of the difficulties recognized as existing in domestic service in this country. For this purpose they organized the Domestic Reform League. The league in 1901-2 sent out 5,000 question blanks, embodying certain inquiries, to the officers of each of the Federated Clubs of Massachusetts, and to all branches of the Association of Collegiate Alumnæ throughout the United States, with a letter asking that the blanks be distributed to the best advantage among such members of the organizations in question as would be most apt to be interested. There were only 260 replies received, which are given in whole or in part in the present report. The report is in two divisions, one relating to trained workers and the other to supplemental workers. One of the most complete sections of the report is that relating to living expenses and wages paid, from which was deduced the total cost per family for families employing 1 servant, 2 servants, and so on up to 8. There were 234 families, employing 425 domestics, represented.

The following statement presents the average weekly per capita cost of each domestic employee to the employer:

AVERAGE WEEKLY PER CAPITA COST OF EMPLOYEES TO EMPLOYERS.

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The Domestic Reform League has constantly advised the employment of day workers as a means toward the solution of the perplexing domestic problem. While not in a position to establish a training school for day workers, the league is in position to supply demands for that class of help. The growing demand for day workers is

*

shown in the numbers supplied by the league during the years 1898 to 1905, and is as follows: 580 in 1898, 700 in 1899, 731 in 1900, 836 in 1901, 931 in 1902, 1.289 in 1903, 1,639 in 1901, and 2,418 in 1905.

The results of the investigation indicate that “one of the most striking facts contributing to the present chaotic conditions in domestic service is apathy.

When the interest of women is a roused, either by education or through necessity, the domestic problem will be solved."

THE INCORPORATION OF TRADE Uxions.—The object of this investigation was to obtain the opinions of employers of labor, officials of trade unions, members of the legal profession, and of public individuals, either as employers of labor or as workingmen, on this question. Letters of inquiry were mailed to 963 persons, to which 301 replies were received—96 from employers of labor, 81 from labor leaders, 71 from public individuals (college professors, editors, etc.), and 53 from members of the legal fraternity.

The following six inquiries were submitted to the persons addressed:

First, would the incorporation of trade unions under general law similar to the general corporation law be inimical to their interests?

Second, would the liability of individual members of incorporated trade unions exceed their actual financial interest in such incorporated organizations?

Third, would it be legal (if possible) to have the strike funds placed in the hands of trustees and thus kept from attachment in case of legal process against the organization?

Fourth, if organized labor and organized capital are to settle their disputes by industrial agreement, is it not anomalous to have one party to the contract with its financial responsibility fixed by law, while the other party to such agreement has no financial limitation?

Fifth, if trade unions are incorporated, should not the manufacturers' and dealers' organizations come under the same law? Could not such a law contain provisions as to the enforcement of industrial agreements that would put such controversies as might arise on a legal basis and thus provide for the settlement of such questions as come up between employers and employees within the provision of an equitable law?

Sixth, can you suggest a just and equitable form of corporation for trade unions which, as regards financial responsibility for broken contracts, will be fair to both labor and capital?

The replies received to the inquiries are given in whole or in part, many of them being too long for full reproduction. Among the general conclusions derived from the various replies the following may be cited :

Employers believe that trade unions should incorporate, because the better class of members would be individually active in the management of the union for the purpose of conservative action leading

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