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labor, met with more generous response from employers than formerly. During the year marked increases in wages took place, the most pronounced of which were in the wages paid to employees engaged in transportation and in the textile industries.

Under the section relating to trade unions is given information indicative of the current movements of organized labor during the year. The new unions formed, new affiliations, disbanding of old unions, presentation of new trade agreements, and resolutions passed on certain subjects, commendatory or otherwise, as the case may be, form part of this compilation.

Of industrial changes during the year, 200 new establishments were incorporated, with an authorized capital stock of $13,611,600; 161 private firms were changed to corporations, with an authorized capital stock of $9.214,200, and there were 56 reorganizations, with an authorized capital stock of $19,931,100, making a total of 417 manufacturing establishments incorporated, with an authorized capital stock of $12,756,900. Considering the incorporations by industries, machines and machinery lead with 50, followed by metals and metallic goods with 41, boots and shoes with 30, and clothing with 20, the remaining 276 incorporations being distributed among some 60 industrial groups.

The section devoted to welfare work recounts the actions taken by employers to benefit the condition of their employees, or measures taken by trade unions or employees themselves for the betterment of the social and industrial condition of the workingmen. Some of the subjects embraced in the welfare work relate to improving the sanitary, working, and other conditions in mills, factories, and shops, to various forms of recreation, to educational classes, to housing, and to provident funds.

NORTII CAROLINA.

Twentieth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Printing of the

State of North Carolina for the year 1906. H. B. Varner, Commissioner. 350 pp.

This report consists of seven chapters, as follows: Condition of farmers, 98 pages; condition of the trades, 29 pages; miscellaneous factories, 72 pages; cotton, woolen, and knitting mills, 59 pages; furniture factories, 18 pages; newspapers of the State, 47 pages; railroad employees, 9 pages.

CONDITION OF FARMERS.—The report on this subject is compiled from returns made by representative farmers residing in different sections of the State. The data is presented, by counties, in five tables, which show condition of land and labor, wages and cost of living, cost of production of principal crops, market price of crops, and profit on production. In all (97) counties labor was reported scarce; 96 counties reported that negro labor was unreliable and 1 that there was no negro labor; 66 counties reported that employment was regular and 31 that it was irregular; 57 counties favored immigration, 37 opposed it, and 3 did not report; cost of living was reported as having increased in 95 counties and in 2 as not having increased. The highest and lowest monthly wages paid farm laborers in each county were reported, and for men the average of the highest wages so reported was $21.71, and of the lowest $13.09; for women, like averages were $13.18 and $8.65, and the average wages of children were $8.01. For all classes of farm labor an increase of wages was reported.

CONDITION OF THE TRADES.—The data from which the tables presented under this title were compiled were secured from representative men engaged in the various trades considered. These reports from the wage-earners of the State show daily wages and wage changes, working conditions and cost of living, hours of labor, conditions of apprenticeship, etc. Of the wage-earners making returns, 62 per cent reported an increase of wages, 3 per cent a decrease, and 35 per cent no change; 61 per cent made full time and 39 per cent part time; 84 per cent reported cost of living increased, 1 per cent decreased, and 15 per cent no change; 31 per cent favored an 8-hour day, 13 per cent a 9-hour day, 55 per cent a 10-hour day, and 1 per cent a 12-hour day; 88 per cent favored fixing a day's work by law and 12 per cent opposed it; 20 per cent favored immigration and 80 per cent opposed it. The average wages paid per day in the different trades were: Blacksmiths $2.09, boilermakers $3, brass and iron molders $2.75, brickmasons $3.50, carpenters $1.85, electricians $3.50, harness makers $1.23, lumbermen $2.50, machinists $2.44, miners $1.75, painters $2.33, plasterers $1.05, printers $2.02, stonecutters $3.50, textile workers $1.40, and wheelwrights $1.75.

MISCELLANEOUS FACTORIES.—Under this classification the number of factories reporting was 541, of which 467 reported an invested capital amounting to $31,239,510; 436 reported the number of employees as 22,438, and 530 the number of persons dependent on them for a livelihood as 75,243. An 8-hour day was reported by 4 factories, a 9-hour day by 6, a 9.1-hour day by 3, a 10-hour day by 389, a 104-hour day by 4, an 11-hour day by 48, a 12-hour day by 70, while the remaining factories did not report as to the workday. An increase of wages was reported by .74 per cent of the factories, no change by 17 per cent, while 9 per cent made no report. Of the adult employees 82 per cent were able to read and write and of the children 84 per cent. The highest daily wages paid was $2.29 and the lowest $0.8 1. In 64 per cent of the factories wages were paid weekly, in 17 per cent semimonthly, in 11 per cent monthly, in 1 per cent daily, while the remaining 7 per cent made no report. The

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tables presented show for each establishment the product manufactured, capital stock, horsepower, days in operation, hours of labor, number of employees and number of persons dependent on factory, highest and lowest wages, etc.

COTTON, WOOLEN, AND KNITTING MILLS.—The number of mills covered by this presentation is 318, with an aggregate invested capital of $41,278,160. The number of spindles in operation was 2,558,114, of looms 52,747, of knitting machines 5,237, together requiring 115,671 horsepower.

The number of employees reported by 96 per cent of 268 mills (265 cotton and woolen and 3 silk) was 22,878 adult males, 18,558 adult females, and 7,188 children, a total of 48,624. The number of persons dependent upon 82 per cent of these mills was 112,427. Of the adult employees 87 per cent, and of the children 79 per cent, were able to read and write. The average hours constituting a day's work were 104. The average of the highest daily wages (based on the highest wages paid to any employee by each establishment) was $2.42, lowest $0.77, for men; for women the average highest wages were $1.18, lowest $0.64, and for children the average wages were about $0.54. An increase of wages was reported by 81 per cent of the establishments, 8 per cent reported no change, and 11 per cent made no report.

The number of employees reported by the 50 knitting mills was 1,196 adult males, 2,275 adult females, and 826 children, a total of 4,297. The number of persons dependent upon 74 per cent of these mills was 5,986. Of the adult employees 96 per cent, and of the children 95 per cent, were able to read and write. The average hours constituting a day's work was 101. For men the average of the highest daily wages was $1.90, the lowest $0.70; for women the average of the highest daily wages was $1.29, the lowest $0.50, while for children the average daily wages were $0.53. An increase of wages was reported by 65 per cent of the establishments, 16 per cent reported no change, and 19 per cent made no report.

Relative to the employment of children under 12 years of age in the factories, 84 per cent of the cotton and woolen mill employers were opposed to it, while 3 per cent favored it and 13 per cent expressed no opinion; 84 per cent of the knitting mill employers were opposed to it, while 5 per cent favored it and 11 per cent expressed no opinion.

FURNITURE FACTORIES. There were 105 furniture factories which reported capital stock, power, class of goods manufactured, wages, hours of labor, days in operation, number of employees, persons · dependent on factory, etc. The 105 factories had an aggregate capital of $2,998,201, used 10,040 horsepower, and employed 6,194 wageearners. The average of the highest daily wages paid adults was $2.27; the lowest, $0.85; the average daily wages paid children was $0.51. Of the adult employees 87 per cent and of the children 8) cent were able to read and write. An increase of wages was reportal by 86 per cent of the factories, 9 per cent reported no change and per cent made no report. Relative to the employment of children under 14 years of age, 68 per cent of the employers were approved in it, while 18 per cent favored it and 14 per cent expressed no opinion

RAILROAD EMPLOYEES.-- In this chapter statistics are presented showing, by occupations, for each railroad reporting, the number of employees and average wages paid. The following table shows the number and average daily wages of persons employed on the steam railroads of the State:

NUMDER AND AVERIGE DAILY WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES, BY WHIT

PATIONS, 1906.

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Resulting from the movement of trains, there were during the year 156 accidents to passengers, 1 fatal and 155 nonfatal: 970 postal clerks, express messengers, and Pullman employees, 1 fatal and 28 non fatal; 711 to employees, 42 fatal and 669 nonfatal, and 261 to other persons, 82 fatal and 179 nonfatal, making a total of 1: fatal and 1,031 nonfatal accidents. From causes other than the movement of trains there were 666 accidents to persons, 1 fatal and 605 nonfatal.

A presentation is also made concerning the operation of each of nine street railways, giving mileage, capital stock, funded delt, gross earnings, operating expenses, income from operation and from other sources, number of passengers carried, and passengers carriel per mile of track.

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RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.

AUSTRIA.

Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen in Österreich während

des Jahres 1906. Herausgegeben vom k. k. Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. 713 pp.

This volume contains the thirteenth annual report of the Austrian Government on strikes and lockouts. The information, which is compiled by the Austrian bureau of labor statistics, is given in the form of an analysis and six tables showing: (1) Strikes according to geographical distribution; (2) strikes according to industries; (3) general summary of strikes; (4) comparative summary of strikes for the ten-year period 1897–1906; (5) details for each strike in 1906; (6) details for each lockout in 1906. An appendix gives a brief review of industrial and labor conditions in Austria, statistics of trade unions, and notes concerning the strikes and lockouts reported in the preceding pages of the report.

STRIKES IN 1906.—The number of strikes, the number of establishments affected, and the number of strikers in 1906 showed a marked increase over the preceding year. There were 2,191,815 days lost by the persons directly affected in 1906 on account of strikes, or 90.+ per cent more than in the year 1905. During the year there were 1,083 strikes, which affected 6,019 establishments. Of a total of 276,424 employees in the establishments affected, 153,688 participated in the strikes and 13,098 others were thrown out of employment on account of them, the strikers representing 55.6 per cent of the total number of employees in the establishments affected. The average number of strikers in each strike was 142. After the strikes, 140,414 strikers were reemployed and 6,924 new employees took the places formerly occupied by strikers.

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