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Opinion of the Court.

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for grant of letters of administration was required to be made to the ordinary of the county of the residence of the deceased, if a resident of the State, and if not a resident, then in some county where the estate or a portion thereof was situated.

The next section, prescribing the notice to be given of an application, reads as follows:

“Sec. 3394. (2503.) The citation. The ordinary must issue a citation, giving notice of the application to all concerned, in the gazette in which the county advertisements are usually published, once a week for four weeks, and at the first regular term after the expiration of that time, the application should be heard or regularly continued."

The order of appointment is recited to have been made at the May term, 1896. It reads as follows:

“The petition of Logan Bleckley for letters of administration on the estate of Hugh A. Haralson, deceased, having been de y

у filed, and it appearing that citation therein was issued and published according to law, requiring all concerned to appear at this term and show cause, if any they could, why said letters should not be granted; and it also appearing that said deceased died a resident of said county, intestate, and that said applicant is a citizen of this State and lawfully qualified for said administration, and no objection being offered thereto, it is therefore ordered by the court that the said Logan Bleckley be, and he is hereby, appointed administrator on the estate of said deceased, and that letters issue to him as such, upon his giving bond, with approved security, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars, and taking and subscribing the oath as provided by law."

As said by this court in Veach v. Rice, 131 U. S. 293, courts of ordinary in Georgia are courts of record, having exclusive and general jurisdiction over the estates of decedents, and no question has been raised as to the observance of the requirements of the statutes of Georgia in the proceedings which culminated in the appointment of the Georgia administrator.

The transcript referred to, however, undoubtedly only justifies the inference that none other than the statutory notice by publication was given, and that no contest was had in respect to the grant of letters.

Opinion of the Court.

Jurisdiction is the right to hear and decide, and it must be exercised, speaking in a broad sense, in one of two modes – either in rem or in personam.

It will be observed that the statutory notice above referred to was not required to be directed against named individuals nor had it for its object the obtaining of specific relief against any one, but it was to be general, and its purpose was to warn all persons that it was proposed by the court of ordinary to determine whether a legal representative should be appointed to administer the property of the deceased within the State of Georgia. The notice and proceeding was obviously intended to have no greater force or efficacy against persons resident in the State of Georgia than against individuals who might be resident without the state. It results that the proceedings referred to were not intended to constitute and did not amount to an action in personam. This results from the fact that they were devoid of the elements essential to an action in personam ; and, if not proceedings purely in rem, they possessed so much of the characteristics thereof, as not to warrant the allowance of greater efficacy than is accorded to a proceeding of that nature.

An essential characteristic, however, of a proceeding in rem is that there must be a res or subject matter upon which the court is to exercise its jurisdiction. In cases purely in rem, as in admiralty and revenue cases for the condemnation or forfeiture of specific property, a preliminary seizure of the property is necessary to the power of the court to adjudicate at all. In other cases, where the proceedings are in form in personam, but the court is unable to acquire jurisdiction of the person of the defendant, by actual or constructive service of process, the action may proceed, as one in rem against the property of which a preliminary seizure or its equivalent has been made; or, jurisdiction may be exercised without such preliminary seizure, where the relief sought is an adjudication respecting the title to or validity of alleged liens upon real estate situate within the jurisdiction of the court. Roller v. Holly, 176 U. S. 398. To the class of cases where the proceedings are in form in rem may be added those connected with the grant of letters either testamentary or of administration,

Opinion of the Court.

From the record of the proceedings instituted in the De Kalb County Court it is apparent that the ultimate purpose was to adjudicate upon and decree distribution of the estate of the de ceased, the appointment of an administrator being a mere preliminary step in the management and control by the court of assets of the estate. The question of domicil would seem to have been important only as establishing the particular court of ordinary which was vested with jurisdiction to administer the assets within the State of Georgia. The subject matter or res, upon which the power of the court was to be exercised, was, therefore, the estate of the decedent.

The sovereignty of the State of Georgia and the jurisdiction of its courts, however, did not extend to and embrace property not situated within the territorial jurisdiction of the State. To quote the language of Mr. Chief Justice Marshall in Rose v. Ilimely, 4 Cranch, 241, 277:

"It is repugnant to every idea of a proceeding in rem to act against a thing which is not in the power of the sovereign under whose authority the court proceeds; and no nation will admit that its property should be absolutely changed, while remaining in its own possession, by a sentence which is entirely ex parte.

As said also in Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 U. S. 714, 722:

· Except as restrained and limited by the Constitution, the several States of the Union possess and exercise the authority of independent States, and two well established principles of public law respecting the jurisdiction of an independent State over persons and property are applicable to them. One of these principles is, that every State possesses exclusive jurisdiction and sovereignty over persons and property within its territory.

“The other principle of public law referred to follows from the one mentioned; that is, that no State can exercise direct jurisdiction and authority over persons or property without its territory. (Story, Confl. Laws, c. 2; Wheat. Int. Law, pt. 2, C. 2.) The several States are of equal dignity and authority, and the independence of one implies the exclusion of power from all others. And so it is laid down by jurists, as an elementary principle, that the laws of one State have no operation out

Opinion of the Court.

side of its territory, except so far as is allowed by comity; and that no tribunal established by it can extend its process beyond that territory so as to subject either persons or property to its decisions. Any exertion of authority of this sort beyond this limit,' says Story, “is a mere nullity, and incapable of binding such persons or property in any other tribunals.' Story, Confi. Laws, sect. 539."

Now, it is undeniable that the sovereignty of the State of Georgia and the jurisdiction of its courts at the time of the adjudication by the De Kalb County Court, by the grant of letters of administration on the estate of Haralson, did not extend to or embrace the assets of the decedent situated within the territorial jurisdiction of the District of Columbia, and, viewed as a step in a proceeding in rem relating to property within the jurisdiction of the court, the adjudication of a grant of letters would have no binding probative force in contests respecting property lying outside of the territorial dominion of the State of Georgia. The decision in Robertson v. Pickrell, 109 U. S. 608, and in the cases there relied upon, furnish illustrations of this principle. Thus, in the case just named, it was held that the act of Congress declaring the force and efficacy which the records and judicial proceedings of one State should have in the courts of another State did not require that they should have any greater force and effect in another State than in the State where such records and judicial proceedings originated and were had; that the probate of a will in one State, by a proceeding not adversary in character, merely established its sufficiency to pass all property which could be transferred in that State by a valid instrument of that kind, and the validity of the will in that State; and that such probate did not conduce to establish the facts upon which the probate proceeded, in proceedings respecting real property situated in another State, except as permitted by the laws of such other State.

The reasoning upon which we base the conclusion that the transcript of record of the grant of letters by the De Kalb County Court was not entitled to probative force in the courts of another State in the controversy over the administration of assets not within the territorial jurisdiction of the State of Geor

Opinion of the Court.

gia, at the time the grant of letters was made, finds support in the opinion delivered by Lord Blackburn in Concha v. Concha, 11 App. Cas. p. 541, a case referred to in terms of approval in Thormann v. Frame, 176 U. S. 350, where was involved a controversy in some of its features analogous to that presented in the case at bar. The facts in the Concha case were as follows:

After contest between a daughter of a decedent and the executors named in a document which purported to be a last will and testament, the paper was admitted to probate by a judge of a probate court in London, and he expressly decided, upon an issue framed in a contest between the daughter and executors as to the domicil of the decedent, in favor of the domicil being in England, and not in Chili, as was claimed by the daughter. In a subsequent action before the Court of Chancery for distribution of the assets, the daughter again sought to litigate the question as to the domicil of her father, and her right to do so was finally adjudicated by the House of Lords. The executors or those who had succeeded them in the management of the administration suit attempted to avail of the decree of the probate court as conclusive upon the question of domicil, first, as a proceeding in rem, which operated an estoppel against all the world; and, second, as a proceeding inter partes, operative as res adjudicata, by reason of the actual contest made by the daughter. The decree of the probate court, however, was held not conclusive in rem as to the domicil, because the finding as to domicil was not necessary to the decree of the judge of probate, nor conclusive inter partes, as the pending controversy was substantially between the daughter and the residuary legatee, and as the latter could not be bound by an adjudication upon a question not necessary to be litigated in the probate court, and as estoppels must be mutual, the daughter could not be bound. This decision of the House of Lords, it will be borne in mind, was as to the effect to be given in one judicial tribunal in England to the decision of another court of the same country. In the course of his opinion, Lord Blackburn (who perhaps had in mind doubts intimated in the Court of Appeals, 29 Ch. D. 268, 276, as to whether the findings on which a judgment in rem is based, are in all cases conclusive against the world) said (p. 562):

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