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Statement of the Case.

failure of said company to provide for or pay the interest due July 1, 1895, and January 1, 1896; that the American Trust and Savings Bank, in compliance with said request, declined and refused on January 28, 1896, to join with the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company in any proceedings whatsoever to enforce the provisions or conditions of said mortgage on account of the failure of the company to pay said interest. .

The bill further alleged that it was the wish of the holders of over 6500 of said bonds that the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company should be removed from its position as trustee under said mortgage, first, for failure to comply with the laws of the State of Illinois, and, second, for assuming to act or take pro ceedings under said mortgage, contrary to the request of the holders of a majority of the bonds issued under said mortgage. Thereupon the bill proceeded to pray that a new trustee should be appointed by the court to act, under and by virtue of said mortgage, in place and stead of the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company; that an injunction pendente lite should be issued, restraining and enjoining said the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company from taking any proceedings or bringing or prosecuting any suit or suits, or acting in any manner whatsoever under and by virtue of the terms, provisions and conditions of said mortgage or deed of trust, and that, upon final hearing, said injunction should be made perpetual ; and for other and further relief. A writ of injunction was forth with issued and served.

On January 31, 1896, the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company filed, in the Superior Court of Cook County, its petition to remove said cause into the Circuit Court of the United States. The petition alleged that the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company was a corporation organized under the laws of the State of New York, and a citizen thereof; that the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company, the American Trust and Savings Bank and the Northern Trust Company were corporations organized under the laws of the State of Illinois, and citizens thereof; that in said cause there were controversies between citizens of different States, which controversies could be fully determined as between them, and that said controversies were between the petitioner on the one part, and the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company on the other, and were as follows:

Statement of the Case.

1. A controversy concerning the right of the petitioner to act as trustee under the mortgage. 2. A controversy concerning the removal of the petitioner as trustee under said mortgage. 3. A controversy concerning the enjoining of the petitioner from taking any proceedings or bringing or prosecuting any suits, or acting under and by virtue of the terms, provisions and conditions of the mortgage.

The petition further alleged that if the controversy in the cause was one and inseparable, then such controversy was wholly between citizens of different States, and could be fully determined between them, and that said controversy was between the petitioner. on the one part and the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company on the other part, and that said other defendants, the American Trust and Savings Bank and the Northern Trust Company, were not proper or necessary parties in the cause.

The petition further alleged that on January 30, 1896, it had exhibited in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of Illinois its bill in chancery for a foreclosure of said mortgage, and in doing so was acting under and by virtue of the terms, provisions and conditions of said mortgage; that its said bill of complaint was filed prior to the commencement of this suit or of any notice thereof to the petitioner, or of any notice to the petitioner of the temporary injunction issued in this cause, and that the suit so commenced by the petitioner is still pending and undetermined ; that the bringing of this suit and the issuing of said injunction tends to obstruct and impede the administration and jurisdiction of the said Circuit Court of the United States in the suit so commenced

petitioner in said Circuit Court of the United States, and interferes with the property thereby brought into said Circuit Court, and that there is therefore involved in this suit a controversy arising under and by virtue of the laws of the United States, which controversy affects the jurisdiction of said Circuit Court of the United States in said cause so commenced therein by the petitioner.

The petition made profert of a bond in the penal sum of five hundred dollars, conditional for the entering in the Cir

by the

Statement of the Case.

cuit Court of the United States, on the first day of its next session, a copy of the record in this suit, and for paying all costs that might be awarded if said Circuit Court of the United States should hold that this suit was wrongfully or improperly removed thereto.

The petitioner thereupon prayed the court to proceed no further in the cause, except to make an order of removal, as required by law, and to accept said surety and bond, and to cause the record therein to be removed to said Circuit Court of the United States, according to the statute in such case made and provided.

The Superior Court of Cook County having denied the removal, thereafter, on February 4, 1896, the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company procured an order from the Circuit Court of the United States giving leave to file a transcript of the record of this suit in the United States court, whereupon, on that day, such transcript of record was filed and the cause was docketed.

Thereafter motions were severally made by the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company, the Northern Trust Company and the American Trust and Savings Bank, in the Circuit Court of the United States, for an order remanding the cause to the Superior Court of Cook County. These motions were accompanied by statements denying, among other things, that the suit involved controversies between citizens of different States, and alleging that the bond filed by the petitioner was insufficient in that said bond was not signed by the petitioning company, but by sureties only.

On March 16, 1896, after argument, the Circuit Court of the United States overruled and denied the motions to remand.

In February, 1896, the American Trust and Savings Bank, and on April 24, 1896, the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company, filed, in the Circuit Court of the United States demurrers to the bill of foreclosure. On April 21, 1896, the Circuit Court, on motion and after argument, set aside the ex parte injunction that had been entered by the state court, after the bill of foreclosure had been filed in the Federal court; and thereupon an appeal was taken from this order, setting aside the injunction, to the Circuit Court of Appeals of the Seventh Circuit, which appeal

Statement of the Case.

answer.

was, on January 9, 1897, overruled and dismissed. 77 Fed Rep. 769.

On March 18, 1896, a motion was made in the state court to attach for contempt the attorney of the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company in disobeying the ex parte injunctional order. Thereupon the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company entered a special appearance in the state court, and moved to quash the service in the case; and on the same day, on a motion by the counsel of the Lake Street Elevated Company, the court entered an order finding that it had jurisdiction of the parties and the subject matter, and ordering that the special appearance and motion by the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company should be stricken from the files as having been improperly and improvidently filed. The Farmers' Loan and Trust Company then applied for leave to enter a general appearance and for time to

Leave so to do was granted by the court, on condition that the answer be on or before March 25, 1896. Upon the coming in of the answer on that day the court appointed May 8, 1896, for a final hearing. The Farmers' Loan and Trust Com pany had leave to file an amended answer, in which, besides denying the several charges made against it in the bill, it was alleged that the state court did not have jurisdiction ; that the case had been removed to the Circuit Court of the United States, and that, by reason of the action of that court in refusing, on motion by the Lake Street Elerated Railroad Company, to remand, the state court should not proceed with the case.

On May 28, 1896, the state court made its findings in favor of the Lake Street Elevated Railroad Company, the complainant, and on June 4, 1896, entered a final decree in the case.

By this decree it was decreed that the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company should be and was removed from its position as trustee, and it was further ordered that "the said defendant, the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, and its attorneys, solicitors, officers, agents and servants, and each and every of them, be and they hereby are perpetually enjoined and restrained from taking any proceedings, or bringing or prosecuting any suit or suits, to foreclose said mortgage or trust deed from said complainant to said American Trust and Savings

Opinion of the Court.

Bank and said Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, or acting in any manner whatsoever under and by virtue of the terms, provisions and conditions of said mortgage or trust deed."

It was further ordered that the American Trust and Savings Bank should, by an instrument in writing, appoint a trustee in place of the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, and that the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company should execute an instrument of transfer to vest in such new trustee "all the property, privileges and rights" of the said Farmers' Loan and Trust Company under said trust deed.

In October, 1896, an appeal from this decree was taken to the Appellate Court for the First District of Illinois, and on February 9, 1897, that court affirmed the decree of the trial 68 Ill. App. 666.

court.

On appeal to the Supreme Court of the State the decree of the Appellate Court was affirmed on June 7, 1898. 173 Ill. 439. It was held by the state courts that the case was not properly removed to the Circuit Court of the United States for the reason that the bond filed with the petition for removal was not signed by the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, the petitioner, but only by the sureties. Those courts likewise held that the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company was properly removed as trustee because of its non-compliance with the provision of the state statute, requiring foreign trust companies to make a deposit of securities with the state auditor.

On July 7, 1898, a writ of error from this court to the Supreme Court of Illinois was allowed.

Mr. John J. Herrick and Mr. William Burry for plaintiff in error. Mr. Herbert B. Turner was on their brief.

Mr. Clarence A. Knight and Mr. T. A. Moran for defendant in error. Mr. Levy Mayer was on their brief.

MR. JUSTICE SHIRAS, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.

Whether the state courts erred in refusing to accept the peti

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