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And yet,' observed Gaymore, • Doubtless !' rejoined Arisor; and • Poor Tom was an instance of that his keeping hounds and horses he very ruin, which is the mere effect of never made use of; losing his money a generous disposition.'
among sharpers who disgraced him, • Pray will you be kind enough to and drinking wine that he did not tell ine, for I was not acquainted with love, to please the company he could the gentleman, in what was his ge- not enjoy, were the inevitable confenerolity displayed ?
quences of the generosity of his dif•O! in every thing! He kept the position.' belt stable of horses in the county, • But pray,' resumed Observator, though he feldom rode himself; and what became of his steward, after a pack of immensely fine hounds, al- this unhappy catastrophe? Can you though he had no taste for hunting : inform me of that?' for his generous mind could not bear O that was a pickled rascal, with that any person who came to visit him a vengeance. He set up his coach should want the means of such diver- shortly after; and bought a considerfion as might suit his taste ; and every able part of the estate in his own body visited him ; all the world re
Tom was always sorted to his house; it was the eyer- too generous to his servants. He open' mansion of hospitality, where never would be persuaded to look every hearty fellow had a welcome, after his own affairs ; but believed and as much claret as he could carry; every one to be as honest as himand then your wits and men of let- felf.” ters lived upon him by dozens. He • That is to say, fir, if I underhad an immense library for them also: stand you rightly, he was too geneand, indeed, when he had no other rous to take the trouble of securing company to compel himn to drink, to himself the means of generosity; which he had not much delight in, or and therefore resolutely shut his eyes to tempt him to rattle the dice-box, against the experience of every day, which it muit be confessed he rather and suffered the mechanical villany of enjoyed; rummaging over these mutty a low-born blockhead to monopolize volumes, and conversing with these what virtue and genius ought to have ragamuffins, constituted his principal shared, and to dispossess him of that delight. Then he had laid out his abundance, which he might still have grounds too in a molt delightful style; enjoyed in respectable magnificence, and was 'always making some im. amid the honourable gratulations of provements in his gardens, and in the rewarded merit, and the blessings of old family hall : more, as it was be- indigence relieved. lieved, to keep the tenants and vil • I shall not animadvert with any lagers employed, than for his own considerable severity on the blemishes gratification; for he was mighty in- and inconsistencies of this character ; different himself about every thing of for I respect the very foibles of a bethis fort. But, ah! poor Tom? it nevolent man, even when those foibles was soon over with him; and every (as in the present instance) are not thing was sold to satisfy his rascally, in any degree to be considered as the unfeeling creditors.'
consequences of that benevolence : Unfeeling rascals, indeed!' said neither fall I call upon you to reArisor, could they not be satisfied mark, how considerably his genewith beholding all this generosity? rosity might have been extended But must they expect to be paid (even during the short continuance of too??'
bis prosperity) by retrenching the *Well! well!' returned Gaymore, wasteful expences of his weakness and • Tom was a fine fellow! as generous oitentation. But I cannot help oba lad as ever cracked a bottle.' serving, that it appears on the very
surface of your own narrative, that, of my friend Tom, rather supports notwithstanding his profufion, his li- than contradicts you opinion. It is berality need never have been en- true, indeed, in the elegant language tirely bankrupt, had not his negli. of fashionable diffipation, he was done gence of his most important concerns up; but he was not absolutely ruined. been greater than either his virtu- Tom fell, indeed, like others of his ous liberality or his more expensive disposition, sometimes among leeches, vices.'
who dropped off as soon as they were • Facts and experience,' said Bio- gorged ; but his acquaintance had graphus, ' are undoubtedly on your been too extensive, and too various, fide; and whatever we may hastily not to endear him to some who had conclude from the partial confidera- both the power and the will to serve tion of a few particular instances, it him. Some there were, who recertainly is not in the memoirs of the membered with gratitude the favours liberal benefactors of mankind, that they had received, and others who rewe are to look for the melancholy collected with tenderness the hours of records of the vicissitudes of fortune. social intercourse and pleasure they Few men that I remember to have had participated with him; and while heard of, have done half so many the liberality of one friendly associagenerous actions as Helvetius. He tion redeemed a portion of his patridid not only entertain, he even made monial estate, the interest of another permanent provision, and that liberally procured him a little appointment; too, for several men of merit; he was and, in short, as misfortune had taught the father of the country that fur- him some little prudence, his affairs rounded his mansion ; and wherever began foon to wear a more promising distress or genius appeared, he had appearance: and I really believe that, one hand ready to relieve and the but for an unfortunate affair of hoother to reward. And yet Helvetius, nour, which robbed him of his life, fo far from impairing his fortune, and human nature of an ornament could afford to follow at once the and a friend, Tom Heedless would dictates of philosophy and sensibility, again have made a figure in life, and in the same year resign the lu- and have repeated his generosity crative, but oppreslive office of farmer- without his follies.' general, and take to his arms an • But what will you say to Loamiable and unportioned bride, as
renzo ?' continues Gaymore, little inclined to avarice as himself. but how low he has fallen : and fallen But Helvetius had economy: a vir- as your don Dismal of a tragediantue without which no man can ever what do you call him ? - Rowe! exbe generous to any very extensive presses it, like stars that fall, to rise degree.'
no more? Where is the friend who . But pray,'
said Benevolus, unit- will relieve-who will even regard ing again the broken thread of our him in his distress ?' discourse, what was the catastrophe • Aye! what say you to him ?' of this generous victim of impru- echoed Arifor, was net Lorenzo a dence? of all who had baked in the generous fellow, who not only spent sunshine of his profusion, were there every shilling he was worth himself, none to cheer the long wintry night but dispensed, with equal liberality, of his misfortunes ? Did beggary and the property of his fifters, his wards, unkind reproach descend with him to his relations, and all who were conthe grave? and a broken heart de- nected with him? And spent it too in feat the flow malice of emaciating fa- such acts of gratuitous benevolence,
that no one could ever divine the least No: by no means, replied Ami- prospect of any return either in pleacus; nothing like it. The hittory fure, reputation, or improvement,
from any of the numerous associates morals and felicity of mankind, than who shared his bounty !'
that so much encouraged among us • Oh! name him not,' exclaims of late, by certain diflipated writers, Ardens, indignantly, 'name him not, that profusion and diffipation naturally I beseech you. A being who had the suppose a generous disposition.' peculiar art of dissipating an ample Nothing can be farther from the fortune without appearance, benefi- truth.' cence, or enjoyment; who plunged • I grant you, indeed, that a man into all the expences of diffipation, of extravagant pleasures may often without partaking either of elegance feel a generous emotion--may sometimes or gaiety, and courted rather the noise do a generous action ; but those feel and levity of society, than the friend- ings must generally expire in impotent Tips and connections it might be- regret, and those actions can never be ftow. Whoever heard of the merit frequently repeated. Self swallows he rewarded ? or the family he re- up every thing, wherever the love of scued from distress ?--Nay, who ever pleasure preponderates, and whenever fpoke of the embellishments of his liberality of conduct happens, in a house or gardens ? or partook of the few partial occurrences, to go hand elegant entertainment he had pre- in hand with such a disposition, it is pared? Appetite, and not pleasure, generally because the contrary dewas the object of his pursuit; and the portment would interfere with the only idea he could form of gentility, personal gratification of the minute.' was that of spending a great deal of As for the connection between exmoney. His reputation for generosity penfive pleasures, and liberality of had no other basis, than the
profufion disposition,' said. Observator, I think with which he treated and trulted a it is very well illustrated in the chafwarm of low-born sharpers, by whom racters of three young men, with he was surrounded, and by whom, if whom we are all acquainted.' possible, he was even more despited Sordidus is a being without the than flattered; and the sum total of leaft grain of generosity in his soul, his praise is, that he was an inoffen- and who, nevertheless, never had refive companion to all but the relatives solution enough to keep a guinea for whom he injured, and to whom his four and twenty hours in his pocket. atonement was mo:ole brutality.' His childish imagination is firuck with
Nay, nay,” said Arifor, · Good every bauble he beholds, and in toys nature-you muit I am sure allow him and fopperies, he dissipates more mogood nature; for he would treat even ney than would support the expences those who had insulted him to his' of an elegant appearance ; yet will he face; do the errands of every jack- wear a thread-bare coat for almost a anapes, who was too lazy to do his twelvemonth, beat down his taylor to own; and could not even refuse the fave an odd fixpence in his bill, and requests and invitations of those, whom procrastinate payment from period to he had not the least inclination either period, till the loss of time and of thoeto accompany or oblige!'
leather, has more than eat away the Generosity, my friend Gaymore!' profit. The slave of appetite, he continued the indignant Ardenis. "No, cares not at whose expense it is inno, depend upon it, fir, generosity is dulged; if he is going out with a the virtue of men of foul, of intellect, party, he will be ture to empty his of feeling ; and if Lorenzo is in any money into his box, that he may have respect entitled to companion, it is a pretence for calling upon fome one because he was never capable of fo (friend or stranger) to pay his reckrefined a feelirg.
oning, which he never offers to re• There is not,' continues Observa- fund; if he goes into a room where 10:, a d.lusion nore fatal to the wine is on the table, he drinks glass
after glass, without waiting for the object of compassionwhen a tale of ceremony of invitation; and will even misfortune appeals to his better feelhave recourse to childish importunities ings, and his hand goes instinctively for those dainties, which he has not the to an empty pocket, he grieves to reopportunity to seize; and when he has collect the dissipated pleasures that have thus pampered himself at the expence disappointed the benevolent wishes of others, will retire to his own apart- of his heart. In short, though Diffiment, to enjoy in folitude and secrecy, patus has the reputation (among his the delicacies he has procured at his gay companions) of being a fine geown expence. Yet, according to nerous-minded fellow, no one has been some calculators, even this paragon less distinguished by generous actiof meannes must be ranked among ons, or has been reduced to more expethe victims of generosity : for who is dients bordering upon meanness, than there that spends his money more ra- he has had the mortification to subpidly than Sordidus ? or who is more mit to. frequently embarrassed by his extra • Edwin, on the contrary, though vagance ? For the calls of selfish ap- confiderably younger than either of petite are importunate and loud ; and the preceding, and with a narrow being capable of no other pleasures, income-Edwin, who is at once an he knows not how to restrain them ; economist and a calculator, and takes so that his gratifications, though as especial care never to exhauft his fullen as the gloomy passions that de- purse till he is sure of a fresh supply form his countenance, and sordid as -Edwin, who has no showy dissipahis felf-admired form, are not a whit tion to attract regard; no occafional less expensive than all the pleasures of embarrassments to reitrain the libegaiety, exalted by sentiment, and in- rality of his heart ;-Edwin, I say, creased by social participation : But does more generous actions every Sordidus is, I believe, a lufus naturæ, month of his life, than a hundred an isolated phenomenon in the sphere such characters as Dilipatus will perof moral agency ; for, I thank heaven, form in years; and has more gratifiI have never encountered his equal.? cations, a thousand times, than Sora
• The character of Diffipatus, is didus will ever taste or conceive. Yet: more common and more worthy of the whole of his pleasures (tliose of observation. This young man has benevolence excepted) are derived really a considerable thare of good from his books, and now and then a nature, and a heart naturally attuned frugal excursion into the country, to generosity; but wanting steadiness with a visit to some antiquated castle, of disposition, and whirled away by or some rural, romantic scene.' his love of expenfive pleasures, his • His spirit and vigilance always virtues are but too frequently swal- ihield him from impolition ; but nolowed
up in the vortex of dissipation, body ever dealt fairly with him, even or serve to no other effective purpose, in the minuteft trides, who had not than to betray him to the impofitions reason to admire his liberality. Coun: of more fordid libertines, and accu- terfeit misery would tremble before his, muiate upon his own, the expences darting eye; but real distreis ties imof the gratifications of others.' mediately to his heart, and his purse
You will naturally conclude, from is sure to sympathise with its expanthis representation, that Diftipatus has fion. Liberal of his own, he is teno time to go in quest of objects of nacious of the rights of others; and benevolence; but when the means the delicacy with which he always and the opportunity happen to occur takes care to have every balance settogether, he scorns to be awkward in tled in his own disfavour, di.covers any generous exertion. This, how- more real generosity of mind than all ever, is but feldom the case: and fre- the oitenta ir ns profusion of rakes and quently when his eye encounters an libertines,'
Account of the TRIAL by ORDEAL among the HINDUS; by ALI
IBRAHIM KHAN, Chief Magistrate at Benares : Communicated by WARREN HASTINGS, Ef. Concluded from Page 94.
IN the year of the Messiah 1783, for the heat of fire to be resisted, and a man was tried by the hot ball at for the hand that held it to avoid beBenares in the presence of me Ali ing burned. An order was accordIbrahim Khan, on the following oc- ingly fent to the pandits of the court casion : : a man had appealed one San- and of Benares to this effect: Since car of larceny, who pleaded that he the parties accusing and accused are was not guilty; and as the theft could both Hindus, and will not consent to not be proved by legal evidence, the any trial but that by the hot-ball, let trial by fire-ordeal was tendered to the ordeal desired be duly performed the appellee, and accepted by him. in the manner prescribed by the Mi
This well-wisher to mankind advised taclhera, or commentary on Yagyathe learned magistrates and pandits to walcya.' prevent the decision of the question by When preparations were made for a mode not conformable to the prac- the trial, this well-wisher to mankind, tice of the company's government, attended by all the learned professors, and recommended an oath by the wa- by the officers of the court, the Sipahis ter of the Ganges and the leaves of of captain Hogan's battalion, and tulasi in a little veffel of brass, or by, many inhabitants of Benares, went the book Herivansa, or the stone Sal- to the place prepared, and endeagram, or by the hallowed ponds or 'voured to dissuade the appellor from basons; all which oaths are used at requiring the accused to be tried by Benares. When the parties obiti- fire, adding, · if his hand be not nately refused to try the issue by any burned, you shall certainly be imprione of the modes recommended, and foned.' The accuser, not deterred insisted on a trial by the hot ball
, by this menace, persisted in demandthe magistrates and pandits of the ing the trial : the ceremony, therecourt were ordered to gratify their fore, was thus conducted in the prewishes, and, setting aside tho e forms sence of me Ali Ibrahim Khan. of trial in which there could be only The pandits of the court and the city a distant fear of death, or loss of pro- having worshipped the god of knowperty, as the just punishment of per- ledge, and pretented their oblation of jury by the sure yet ilow judgment of clarified butter to the fire, formed nine heaven, to perform the ceremony of circles of cow-dung on the ground; ordeal agrecably to the Dherma Satra: and, having bathed the appellee in the but it was not till after mature deli- Ganges, brought him with his clothes beration for four months, that a re wet; when, to remove all suspicion of gular mandate issued for a trial by the deceit, they washed his hands with pure red-hot ball; and this was at length water; then, having written a state granted for four realons ; first, •be- of the case and the words of the Mencause there was no other
tra on a Palmyra-leaf, they tied it on denning or absolving the person ac- his head; and put into his hands, cused: Secondly, because boih parties which they opened and joined togeWere Hindus, ard this mode of trial ther, feven leaves of pippal, seven of was especially appointed in the Dher- jend, seven blades of darbha grass, a ma Saitra by the ancient la:v-givers : few flowers, and some bariey moistened thirdly, because this ordval is prac- with curds, which they fastened with tiled in the dominions of the Hindu leven threads of raw white cotton. Rajas: and fourtily, bucias: it might After this they made the iron-ball be useful to inquire how it w poflible red-hot, and taking it up with tong,