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placed it in his hands : he walked deities, conformably to the Saftra : with it ftep by ftep, the space of three then, having read the incantation pregaz and a half, through each of the scribed, he places a round pan of feven intermediate rings, and threw gold, silver, copper, iron, or clay, the ball into the ninth, where it burnt with a diameter of fixteen fingers, and the grass that had been left in it. He four fingers deep; and throws into it next, to prove his veracity, rubbed one fer, or eighty ficca weight, of fome rice in the husk between his clarified butter or oil of sesamum. hands ; which were afterward ex- After this, a ring of gold, or silver, amined, and were fo far from being or iron, is cleaned and wafhed with burned, that not even a blister was water, and cast into the oil; which raised on either of them. Since it is they proceed to heat, and when it is the nature of fire to burn, the officers very hot put into it a fresh leaf of of the court, and people of Benares, pippala, or of bilwa : when the leaf near five hundred of whom attended is burned, the oil is known to be fufthe ceremony, were astonished at the ficiently hot. Then, having proevent; and this well-wisher to Inan- nounced a mentra over the oil
, they kind was perfectly amazed. It oc- order the party accused to take the curred to his weak apprehension, that ring out of the pan; and, if he take probably the fresh leaves aad other it out without being burned, or withthings which, as it has been mention- out a blister on his hand, his innoed, were placed on the hands of the cence is considered as proved; if not, accused, had prevented their being his guilt. burned; beside that, the time was but A brahman, named Rishiswara fhort between his taking the bale and Bhatta, accused one Ramdayal, a throwing it down: yet it is positively linen-painter, of having stolen his declared in the Dherma Sastra, and goods : Ramdayal pleaded not guilty ; in the written opinions of the most re- and, of much altercation, confented spectable pandits; that the hand of a to be tried, as it had been proposed, man who speaks truth cannot be burn- by the vessel of oil. This well wisher ed; and Ali Ibrahim Khan certainly to mankind advised the pandits of the faw with his own eyes, as many court to prevent, if pofsible, that mode others also faw with theirs, that the of trial; but, since the parties infifted hands of the appellee in this cause on it, an ordeal by hot oil, accordwere unhurt by the fire : he was con- ing to the Saftra, was awarded for the sequently discharged; but, that men fame reasons which prevailed in remight in future be deterred from de- gard to the trial by the ball. The manding the trial by ordeal, the ap- pandits who affiited at the ceremony pellor was committed for a week. Af- were, Bhishma Bhatta, Nanapathac, ter all, if such a trial could be seen Manirama, Pathaca, Menirama Bhatonce or twice by several intelligent ta, Siva, Anantarama Bhatta, Cripamen, acquainted with natural philo- rama, Vishnuheri, Chrishnachandra, sophy, they might be able to allign Ramendra, Govindarama, Hericrishna the true reason why a man's hand may Bhatta, Calidasa : the three last were be burned in some cases and not in pandits of the court. When Ganesa others.
had been worshipped, and the homa Ordeal by the vessel of hot oil, ac- presented, according to the Sastra, cording to the comment on the Dher- they sent for this well wisher to manma Sastra, is thus performed : the kind; who, attended by the two ground appointed for the trial is Dalroghas of the Divani and Faujdari cleared and rubbed with cow-dung, courts, the Cotwal of the town, the and the next day, at sun-rise, the other cfficers of the court, and most Pandit worships Ganesa, presents his of the inhabitants of Benares, went
boured to dissuade Ramdayal and his species of homa there were, it was father from submitting to the ordeal; answered, that different species were and apprized them, that if the hand adapted to different occafions; but of the accused should be burned, he that, in the ordeals by hot iron, and would be compelled to pay the value hot oil, the same sort of oblation was of the goods stolen, and his character used. When he desired to know the would be disgraced in every company. meaning of the word mentra, he was Randayal would not defiit: he thrust respectfully told, that in the language his hand into the vessel, and was of the pandits, there were three such burned. The opinion of the pandits words, mentra, yantra, and tantra: was then taken ; and they were una- that the first meant a passage from one nimous, that, by the burning of his of the Vedas, in which the names of hand, his guilt was established, and certain deities occurred; the second, he bound to pay Rishiswara Bhatta the a scheme of figures, which they write price of what he had stolen ; but if the' with a belief that their wishes will be ium exceeded five hundred alhraâ s, accomplished by it; and the third, a his hand must be cut off, by an ex- medical preparation, by the use of press law in the Saltra ; and a mulet which all injuries may be avoided; also must be imposed on him accordo for they are said to rub it on their ing to his circumstances.
hands, and afterward to touch redThe chief magiitrate therefore hot iron without being burned. He caused Ramdayal to pay Rishiswara then asked, how much barley moistseven hundred rupees in return for the ened with curds was put into the goods which had been stolen ; but as hands of the accused person ; and the amercements in such cases are not answer was, nine grains. usual in the courts of judicature at His other questions were thus anBenares, the mulet was remitted and swered : “ that the leaves of pippala the prisoner discharged.
were spread about in the hands of the The record of this convi&tion was accused, not heaped one above ano, transmitted to Calcutta, in the year ther: that the man who performed of the Mefiah 1783; and in the the fire-ordeal was not much agitated, month of April 1784, the governor- but seemed in full poffeffion of his fageneral Imaduddaulah Jeladet Jang culties : that the person tried by hot Behader, having seen the preceding oil was at first afraid, but persisted, account of trials by ordeal, put many after he was burned, in denying the questions concerning the meaning of theft; nevertheless, as he previously Sanicrit words, and the cases here re-' had entered a written agreement, that ported ; to which he received respect- if his hand should be hurt, he would ful answers. He first desired to know pay the value of the goods, the mathe precise meaning of homa, and giftrate for that reason thought himwas informed, that it meant the obla- lelf justified in compelling payment : tions meant to please the deities, and that when the before-mentioned incomprised a variety of things ; thus gredients of the homa were thrown in the agni homa, they throw into into the fire, the pandits fitting round the fire several sorts of wood and grass
, the hearth sung the flocas prescribed as palas wood, c'hadira wood, racta in the Saftra : that the form of the chandan, or red sandal, pippal-wood, hearth is established in the Veda and fami, and culha grass, dubha, toge- in the Dherma Sastra; and this firether with some forts of grain, fruit
, place is also called Vedi: that for the and other ingredients, as black sesa imaller oblations they raise a little mum, barley, rice, sugar-cane, cla- ground for the hearth and kindle fire on rified butter, almonds, dates, and it; for the higher oblations, they fink gugal or bdellium.
the ground to receive the fire, where To his next queftion, how many they perform the homa; and this fa.
Georgius Bowles, Arm. 3 Custodes,
Cred hearth they call cunda.' The go- while others insisted, that the trial by vernor then asked, why the trials by fire was distinct from that by the vel-, fire, by the hot-ball, and the vessel fel; though the trial by the hot-ball of oil,' if there be no effential differ. and the head of a lance. were the : ence between them, are not all called same; but that, in the apprehenfion : fire-ordeals; and it was humbly an- of his respectful servanit; they were fwered, that, according to some pan- all ordeals by fire. dits, they were all three differentt; A Description of WarsTEAD CHURCH; in Efex: With a Perspective
View of that beautiful Structure. "HE village of Wanstead is situated the circular windows; at the eaft end
on the skirts of Epping Foreft, of the galleries, are also of stained fix miles from London. The first glass; that, on the right of the altar, ftone of the present beautiful church being the royal arms; and the corwas laid at the north-east angle of respondent one, the arms of the pa.. the foundation, by the patron, fir tron, fir James Tylney Long. These James Tylney Long, baronet, assisted stained windows were executed by by the Reverend Dr. Samuel Glasse, Mr. Eginton of Birmingham. The rector, George Bowles, efq. and other pews in the body of the church are of gentlemen, on Friday, July 135 1787: right wainscot ; and, in the chriftenOn this stone is engraved the followé ing pew, is a font of curious working inscription :
manship. In the chancel is a superb Lapidem hunc angularem
monument of white marble (removed
from the old church) to the memory Ecclefiæ Stae. Mariae de Wanitead,
of fir Jofiah Child, baronet, grand. Ad Gloriam Jehova,
father of the late earl Tylney, ando Posuerunt
on a tablet, under the window of the Jacobus Tylney Long, Baronettus, chancel, is the following insoription :
Hujus Ecclefiæ Patronus,
Hoc edificium in Dei gloriam erigendum, 2 Sacrorum
Summâ fundavit pietate J. T. Long, Arthurius Lord, Gens.
$tudio promovit indefeffo Geo. Bowles, Anno Domini
Largis adauxerunt muneribus noftrates :
ferè universe ; Simplicity and neatness were aimed Consecravit Reverendus admodum Beilby at in this rural temple by the archi Episcopus Londinensis, tect, Mr. Thomas Hardwick, of Ratha Die Junii XXIV, A. D. MDCCXC. bone-place, Oxford street. The por
S. Glasse, s. T. P. Rectore, tico is of the Doric order; and the
Arth. Lord, Gen... }Cuftodibus
. cupola is supported by eight lonic columns. The whole of the external The ground on which the church is part of this edifice is faced with Port- situated was given to the parish, by land stone. The internal order is fir James Tylney Long, out of his Corinthian. The pavement of the own park; from this pious motive, church, which is remarkable for its that the remains of the persons inbeauty and neatness, was brought terred in the old church and churchfrom Painswick in Gloucestershire : yard might not be disturbed, and that that of the chancel is of the same divine service might continue, withkind of stone, intermixed with black out interruption, while the new strucmarble dots. The window of the ture was erecting. chancel is of stained glass; the sub Wanstead is adorned with several ject, Our Saviour bearing the Cross: villas, among which, that of George