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cast by the cow, air, water, fire, and the breath of a maiden.” (The Antichrist, 215.)
7. SANSKRITIC CULTURE AND THE “COMPARATIVE"
· The greatest differentium between the modern civilization and all that the world witnessed between the Chaldaean ages and the eve of the industrial revolution is the phenomenal expansion of the human mind. This has brought in its train a catholicity of interests and toleration of divergent views. In this emancipation of the intellect from the thraldom of parochial and racial outlook, Old India's contribution has probably been the most helpful and significant. The reason is not far to seek. The “discovery of Sanskrit” by the European scholars of the eighteenth century opened the portals to the series of sciences called “comparative.” And it is this that has rendered possible the recognition, though not complete yet, of the fundamental uniformity in the reactions of man to the stimuli of the universe.
The first fruit of the discovery was comparative philology.” Jones founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal at Calcutta in 1784, and in 1786 hit upon the hypothesis of a common source of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Celtic and Persian. The linguistic survey was pursued more systematically by the poet Schlegel, who, in his Die Weisheit der Indier (1808, The Language and Wisdom of the Indians) announced that the languages of India, Persia, Greece, Italy, Germany, and Slavonia were the daughters of the same mother and heirs of the same wealth of words and flections. Comparative philology was scientifically established by Bopp's Das Conjugationssystem” (1816) and “Comparative Grammar" (completed in parts between 1833 and 1852).
Once the unity of the Indo-Aryan or Indo-Germanic languages was realized, the road was opened to the interpretation of ideas, ideals, rituals, customs, superstitions, folk-lore, etc., on a more or less universal basis. This has ushered in the sciences of comparative mythology and com
parative religion, for which Max Müller's Sacred Books of the East series is chiefly responsible. The investigation has not stopped at this point. Secular, economic, political, and juristic institutions and theories have been attacked by the methodology of comparative science, and the result has been works like Maine's Village Communities (1871), Ancient Law, and Early History of Institutions (1876). More “intensive” studies have indeed compelled a modification of the conclusions of the pioneers; but, on the whole, in the field of social science Sanskritic culture has been demanding a gradually enlarging space.
The trend of latter-day scholarship is to detect, through the ages of history, the close parallelism and pragmatic identity between Hindustan and Europe not only in theology and god-lore, but in rationalism, positive science, civic life, legal sense, democratic ideals, militarism, morals, manners, and what not. The evidences from the Hindu angle are being supplemented in recent years by the findings of Egyptology, Assyriology, and Sinology, i.e., the sciences dealing with extra-Aryan culture-zones. The establishment of a comparative psychology of the races, past and present, Oriental and Occidental, is thus being looked for as the greatest work of anthropological researches in the twentieth century.
NOTES AND REVIEWS Mankind, Racial Values and the Racial Prospect. By SETH K.
HUMPHREY. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917.
223 pp. In the early chapters of the book, Humphrey tries to show that in the long ages that man has been on the earth his physical characteristics have remained practically the same, and that his brain capacity, as seen by his works, has shown little progress. In fact civilization imposes upon man conditions which effectually block-indeed reverse evolution. The only way in which we can hope to improve the race is by applying the principles of racial progress,—what the race needs is brains.
Society must not only discourage the multiplication of the unfit, but must also encourage the increase of the "fit.” The author does not oppose humane methods for the care of defectives, but pleads that philanthropy should not encourage the increase of the “unfit."
The Aryan race, he claims, is superior to any other, but that it must be kept pure in order to retain its position. Each nationality represents its own characteristics, and these will either remain distinct or be finally mixed with some other and cease to be. In considering the nations at war, he concludes that France and England are both past the zenith of their racial evolution; that Russia never will equal other great nations; that the strength of Germany has come through years of isolation and internal growth. The future world will be in the hands of either-English speaking people or Germans. In the light of facts and prophetic vision the author claims the English speaking peoples, America, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, on account of their youth and racial purity will finally put down the Germans. America, however, is warned concerning her “Melting Pot” idea regarding the Negro and immigrants of inferior racial stock.
The book closes with a chapter on “Eugenics,” and a discussion on the propagation of only the best after the “War.”
C. E. S.
The Philippines: To the End of the Commission Government. By
CHARLES BURKE ELLIOTT. Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Mer
rill Company, 1917. 541 pp. This book is a continuation of a volume entitled, The Philippines: To the End of the Military Régime. It gives an account of the instituting, by the United States, of a commission form of government in the Philippine Islands. The author, by drawing comparisons with the conditions which existed under Spanish control, endeavors to show the value of the work done since the American occupation: the introduction of new principles and ideals of life together with new methods of government. He shows that though the whole country has been changed as to law, order, education, rights of the people, and improved environment, the Filipinos are not Americanized; their fundamental character is not changed in the large. This is partly due to their isolation. Our policy in the Philippines is based on faith in the inherent capacity of the natives to govern themselves. Although the government is carried on as economically as possible we have tried to accomplish our end through the education of the natives and by introducing sanitary conditions and scientific methods of trade and agriculture, thus raising the standard of their civilization. Whether the United States has allowed itself to be hurried in its dealings with the Filipinos is a matter of diverse opinion among the officials working in the islands. Time alone can decide this question. The Jones Bill, the history of which is traced in detail, is the new law that organizes and regulates the relations between the United States and the Philippine Islands. By it, a new, although not different, form of government has been provided in which the Filipinos have a majority of members on the Commission Board and the local government is almost entirely in the hands of the natives.
M. T. M.
The Danish West Indies Under Company Rule (1671-1754). By
WALDEMAR WESTERGAARD. The Macmillan Company, New
York, 1917. 359 pp. The author, in this volume, gives a critical and elaborate history of the Danish West India Islands during the period from the time the Danish West India Company was organized in 1671 to 1754 when the islands were taken under the direct control of the King of Denmark. The work is based on the Danish royal archives, material which Dr. Westergaard is especially fitted to handle in an efficient manner. Besides being the son of Danish
parents to whom the Danish language is familiar, he is a trained student in history.
We are given an authoritative history of the colonization and the development of trade and agriculture in St. Thomas, St. Croix and St. John, the only islands of this group of about fifty large enough to have official names. A vivid picture is drawn of the slave trade, and of slave insurrections; of emancipation; and of the control of labor by legislation.
A supplementary chapter which is simply a brief outline of the history of the islands from 1755 to 1917 is added. It is to be hoped that this will be enlarged by the author in a later volume. A bibliography of twenty pages, an appendix, several illustrations, and maps, add to the value of this book.
M. T. M.
South-Eastern Europe; the Main Problem of the Present World
Struggle. By VLADISLAV R. Savic. Introduction by Nicholas Murray Butler. New York, F. H. Revell Co. 1918.
276 pp. $1.50. This volume is important to those who wish to understand the point of view of the educated leaders of Serbia. The particular aim of the author, who was formerly Head of the Press Bureau in the Servian Foreign Office, is to convince the American public of the justice of the claims of a greater Serbia. According to the Declaration of Corfu, signed July 20, 1917, by representatives of Serbia and of Committees of Serb provinces in Austria-Hungary, the greater Serbia, to be created after the war, is to comprise Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slovenia, a federal state with a total population of some 13,000,000 people. It is obviously impossible to satisfy these territorial demands of Serbia as well as those of Italy and of Bulgaria. The author is on firm ground when he argues that the new Jugo Slav state has better claims to Dalmatia and the islands of the Adriatic than has Italy; but his chapter on “The Serbo-Bulgarian Relations” should be supplemented by reading “Bulgaria's Case," by Professor Tsanoff, which was published in the January, 1918, issue of the JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT.
The Menace of Peace. By GEORGE D. HERRON. New York,
Mitchell Kennerley. 1917. 110 pp. The purpose of this collection of short essays is well expressed by the following quotation: "a peace that leaves Germany unde