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The next question is as to whether in that area an Armenia could be constituted to be controlled and governed by Armenians alone. This question would have been a much fairer question to ask and much easier to answer before

Armenians. At the present time, after such severe losses, there are few indeed who would advocate the creation of an Armenia to be put under the control of Armenians alone. In fact, the Armenians themselves are not asking for this, but they are asking that that entire area, including an outlet on the Black Sea and also on the Mediterranean, extending somewhat beyond the so-called six Armenian provinces, shall be given a separate government, wholly independent of the Turk or of any possible Turkish government that may exist on the West, controlled by some European or Western nation that will guarantee to the country a measure of self-government and prepare the region for absolute self-government in the future. This request and desire is not unreasonable and is capable of realization if only the Western nation can be discovered with strength enough to command the respect and confidence of all the other nations of Europe and the world and with ability to organize a government that shall guarantee safety to all the people within its borders and that shall develop the resources of the country and train the people gradually in selfgovernment.

The nation that assumes this responsibility must be one of sufficient size and strength to command confidence and with revealed ability to develop the resources of the country, industrial, as well as intellectual and moral. Among the large nations of Europe there is probably none that could be agreed upon because of the fear of political ambitions and that the territory would be governed in the interests of the governing nation. Under any condition, Russia is out of the question. She has more than she can do at home in organizing self-government. This leaves in Europe, England, France, Italy of the Allies, and Germany an enemy country. Unquestionably Germany must be eliminated as a possibility for either the control of Constantinople

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or of Armenia. Whether or not France and England could agree that either one of them should hold that important position remains to be seen. The position if held by Great Britain would strengthen her hold upon India and give her a new basis for defence from any attack upon the north or west. Whether or not France would assume the responsibility for all of that area, including Northern Syria, remains to be seen.

As to whether any of the second-rate powers could be trusted with this responsibility is not so clear. Scandinavian countries have had little experience in colonization and in developing self-governing colonies. Spain has proven her inability by her government in the Philippines and in Porto Rico. Portugal has more than she can handle now in East and West Africa. Probably Holland would hardly wish to undertake more in this line than she has in the Congo District. Switzerland has never had experience in colonization and in the control of remote colonies and has probably not a sufficient military power to command the confidence of Europe. It is natural that again attention should turn to the United States as the country that has demonstrated its ability to give a good, safe local government to an Asiatic people and prepare them for self-government. The attention of Europe has been directed to America's achievements in this direction in the Philippine Islands and in Porto Rico, and this has given the United States a reputation for colonization possessed by no other country. There is a feeling in wide circles, including the Armenians, that if the United States should assume this responsibility she would perform it with credit to herself and with absolute justice to the people governed, and that in the course of years—perhaps a generation or more-a government could be established in the area above outlined which would be capable of administering its own affairs. Of course it would not be a government administered wholly by people of any one race, but all races would be drawn upon, as they had ability to contribute. There is no country that will be better able to develop the vast undeveloped internal resources of the country than the United States, and so put the whole area upon a self-supporting basis at an early date. There is a probability that this question will be put to the United States for a decision as soon as matters in Turkey settle down and the world is ready to take up the subject of re-construction and re-organization in the interests of permanent peace. There are few who doubt that the United States could accomplish all that could be expected of it, and more, in this direction, if it should give itself to the task.

JUGOSLAV ASPIRATIONS By Srgjan Tucić, Late Lecturer at the University of London,

(King's College)

Scarcely one outside Germany and Austria-Hungary knew before the war who the Jugoslavs were, where they live, and what were their struggles and aspirations. For the cabinets of Europe they were somewhere in the East, a troublesome, semi-barbaric race, disturbing Turkey and Austria-Hungary in their blessed work of “civilization," and complicating even more the Balkan tangle, so ingeniously inaugurated at the Congress of Berlin. The Jugoslav question was simply not existing, and that which the Jugoslavs themselves outlined as their problem, was left entirely to be settled by Berlin, Vienna and Budapest. The iron heel which is now oppressing almost the whole world, and against which the whole world rose in arms, was considered good enough and well deserved when it was applied only to the Jugoslavs. It is not exaggerated to say, that before the war the Jugoslavs had no friends in Europe, that every door on which they knocked remained shut for them, and that the voice of the few advocates they had in foreign countries remained a voice in the desert. Partitioned as they were, and subject to three rulers, they were considered only troublesome, but never dangerous for the intentions of either group of European powers, which based their policy on deceiving catch-words like that of “balance of power" and "peaceful penetration.” And whereas the Teutonic powers very cleverly exploited all the advantages of a situation created by the blindness of their sentimental adversaries, the Entente powers not for a moment conceived that the Near-Eastern problem includes in itself all the threads of the Far-Eastern and Western problems. Things were left to go as they went, or far more as they were directed by Germany and Austria-Hungary, the only two powers which never ceased to pursue their Eastern policy with the utmost rationality, energy and directness. Knowing only too well that war-preparedness is the strongest

pared feverishly, without making a secret of it, inviting even the remainder of sleepy Europe to be onlooker of their rising military growth. The biggest lie in history, that German and Austrian armaments have the innocent intention to be the strongest guardian of peace, was accepted by European diplomacy as ready money, and except France, there was no European power which conceived, that if peace is to be guarded with armaments, German and Austrian armaments ought to be counterbalanced by equal armaments. German propaganda, one of the most wonderful organizations in the world, and being an integral part of the preparedness policy, succeeded marvelously in deceiving Europe even on this point, and whenever a suspicion rose or a protest made itself just a little more credible, the peace assurances were doubled, and Europe was assured that Germany must be strong for her mission as the world's saviour against the Pan-Slav monster. It did not matter that at the same time the Pan-Slav monster was cajoled and invited to join Germany and Austria-Hungary against the other powers. European diplomacy cared little to penetrate into the real and true facts, it sufficed to have whatever excuse to muddle away, whatever straw to catch at, and Germany was never too tired to spread all over the world whole trusses of straw for the convenient use of European diplomacy. And so those whose duty it was to hear everything, and to see everything, preferred to remain deaf and blind, and passive in face of all the events. But events have their own logic, which no diplomatic tricks can turn aside from its straight-on way, and this logic is proceeding mercilessly towards its goal. The moment was to come, when the logic of events in the Balkans and the logic of events in the remainder of Europe has to come to a tremendous clash at whatever cost on either side. Europe, that Europe which pretends to be democratic, human and civilized, but which not only allowed, but protected Turkish and

THE JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 9, No. 1, 1918

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