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to realize its declared ambition of giving a "square deal” to all men.

Race appreciation draws its materials from an enormously variegated list of sources. Perhaps the prime ones are anthropology and history, but psychology, sociology, political economy, commercial economy, geography and other branches of science all contribute their quota.

II. RACE APPRECIATION IN THE PAST

Until very recent years race appreciation has been mostly unconscious, or at least unformulated. Nevertheless it has been a very vigorous factor in the growth of civilizations. From the very earliest days of human or semi-human existence man has invented things to meet his needs in his unceasing combat with his environment, and, if the invention was found good, it was speedily copied or improved upon by men other than its inventor. This process has

history of mankind, and to it is due the highly synthetic character of most great civilizations, notably of our own West European civilization and of Chinese civilization. The growth of civilizations, then, may truthfully be said to have been caused by an unconscious race appreciation. That is, various societies have discovered from time to time, or have had it forcibly brought to their attention, that other societies possess admirable material and social institutions which well merit emulation. Thus the best in outside cultures has been made a part of societies alien to them, and the latter have, thereby, gained in excellence and strength by means of a process of race appreciation. One has but to dip back a little into the history of Egypt or of Rome or of Scandinavia to see how the process works. Indeed, an analytical examination of modern West European civilization as a whole reveals the process mentioned developed far toward its logical conclusion.

The process of unconscious race appreciation, however, has been by no means universal in its operation. As millenia and centuries have rolled by some societies have shown greater aptitude for it than have others. Sometimes this disparity may be accounted for by geographical considerations. In ancient America, for example, complete isolation from all contactual influences derived from other cultures and societies brought about a curious semi-stagnation after a certain point had been reached. Again, other peoples, such as the early Australians and the Andamanese, seem to have made no progress at all, doubtless on account of the fact that their country offered few inducements to outsiders of high culture to come thither. Then too, one can find a number of cases where race appreciation of the unconscious variety has operated up to a certain point and then, for one reason or another, suddenly ceased. Examples of this type of society may be found in the Philippines (where Chinese influence was able to advance native culture up to a certain point), in the Canary Islands (where there are traces of North African influences), and in Rhodesia (where it is clear the Arabian or other traders were important in this way).

Owing to this irregularity in the aptitude or opportunities for race appreciation among different peoples there has come into being with the passage of time a wide divergency between the cultural advancement of various peoples and races. As some have, for a variety of reasons, less actively participated in the unconscious process of race appreciation than others, so have they now less developed cultures and less developed mental powers. The mentality of the West Europeans or of the Chinese and Japanese as contrasted with that of the Bushmen or of the Arawaks of central Brazil shows exactly the degree of disparity which has thus been created.

So much, then, for the entirely unconscious race appreciation of the past. In more recent times, especially since the beginning of the period of explorations by Europeans in the fifteenth century, race appreciation has been gaining in practical and political importance for the reason that West European culture (elaborated by the processes already outlined) has been brought into intimate contact with less elaborated cultures or with civilizations which, being very different in their elaboration, have seemed to the Europeans to be inferior to their own because they were different. In some cases, as, for example, in Hispanic America, various societies of by no means despicable native attainments have, as it were, been knocked on the head and forced into a cultural straight-jacket, to the great detriment not only of themselves but also of those who did the knocking and the forcing. Again, other high cultures have had other fates in connection with their relations to West European civilization.

III. RACE APPRECIATION IN THE WORLD OF TODAY

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The British

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This brings us to a point whence we can survey the present status of race appreciation. As I said before, race appreciation has been mostly unconscious or at least unformulated in the past. I have sketched the significance of entirely unconscious race appreciation, and I now purpose to outline the unformulated variety of it.

In my opinion, the British and the French have been the best exponents of unformulated race appreciation. In their colonizing activities they have usually displayed a lively appreciation of the good qualities of the natives of their colonies. The British in India, in Burma, in Egypt, in Sarawak, in the Pacific Island possessions and elsewhere have consistently manifested a desire to mould the political and social institutions created by themselves upon models furnished by the native institutions of the country. The use of headmen in Burma and the whole fabric of Indian colonial government are eloquent of this. The French, in Morocco, in Annam, in Madagascar, have done likewise. As a result, the English and the French are the best colonizers in the world. One can, of course, only conjecture what would have been the course of events in Mexico and in South America had the British or the French, and not the Spanish, conquered those regions. But the indications are that the native institutions would have been preserved and would have been adapted to modern needs, just as analogous ones in regions already mentioned

have been. British failure to do anything of this sort in North America is explained by the fact the native culture there was too lowly to command respect, the population being scanty into the bargain. The French in Canada did what they could along these lines among the more highly developed Iroquois.

The United States, in the Hawaiian Islands and Philippines, has likewise shown a desire to follow out the unformulated principles of race appreciation. Perhaps the worst colonists have been the Dutch and the Spanish. The latter, especially, used native institutions, when they used them at all, only as a means of oppression.

The perfectly natural outcome of the situation outlined here is that in the British and French colonies the population is wholesome, sturdy and contented; it is likewise loyal to its European instructors and is aiding them magnificently in this war. On the other hand, in Mexico, in the Andean countries and in other lands formerly under the rule of Spain, the bulk of the population is in a state which is profoundly deplorable on account of the fact that its native good qualities have long been ignored and neglected, being supplanted by alien and unsuitable institutions arbitrarily erected over a mixed population of which only a very slight proportion is fitted to receive and use such institutions.

IV. RACE APPRECIATION MUST BE CONSCIOUSLY

APPLIED

Everything bearing on such matters in contemporary life indicates that race appreciation must be consciously applied to the needs of world civilization. Just as many lands will always have a population made up of a number of ethnic elements, so also will the world. And just as the civilization of each of those lands will, to be fair and salutary, have to comprise institutions derived from those of each racial element, so will the future world civilization be built up of many stones brought from many and widely separated quarries.

To go from the lesser to the greater, I will first discuss the importance of race appreciation in national affairs, then I will take up the matter of its application to world affairs.

Lands which have a population consisting of two or more distinct races and their blends fall into two groups. The larger is that in which the races involved are the native race with its culture and the West European race with its culture. (Morocco, Annam, Burma, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru and Egypt are all examples of this group.) The smaller group is that represented by the United States where the small and humbly cultured native population has been well nigh exterminated and where it has been replaced by two or more intrusive elements (the West Europeans and the Negroes and the Orientals). The race problem here concerns races all of which are alien to the soil, and only one of which is capable of sounding the correct cultural note. The problem here is that of making the others approximate as closely as possible to the culture of the West Europeans. There is here no question of preserving native institutions for the benefit of natives, for the institutions are unimportant, and the natives (i.e., Indians) are very rapidly merging themselves, both by blood and culturally, with the West European element.

In Mexico and the Andean countries, on the other hand, a good native stock, with great potentialities still, has long been crushed down and dwarfed by a total lack of race appreciation on the part of the ruling class. The political institutions of those countries have always been manufactured in Europe ever since the Spanish conquest. No account of the native characteristics of the people for whom they were designed has been taken, nor has any effort ever been made to discover what possibilities of a governmental nature might be latent in the native institutions of the country. Once a course of systematic and intelligently conducted race appreciation is instituted in those countries, we may expect to see a general and rapid improvement in the very nature and temper of those nations. From the point of view of the Mexican govern

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