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woman; that madness was hereditary in the Hesse-Darmstadt family to which she belonged, twenty-two members of which had, during the last hundred years or so, been confined in lunatic asylums; that consequently a different standard of criticism must be applied to Alexandra Feodorowna than to an ordinary person in full possession of all her intellectual faculties."

The Czarina doubtless lived a most unhappy life but she was so tactless that she estranged those who would have befriended her She kept up continuous, secret communications with her

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Russia in Upheaval. By EDWARD ALSWORTH Ross, Ph.D., LL.D.

New York, The Century Company, 1918. 354 pages. The aim of the author is to show the social changes which have taken place in Russia up to the close of 1917. In order to do this successfully, a careful review is made of the early Russian customs and practices. The chapters dealing with the psychology of the peasant, his soil hunger and the land question, and a discussion of the roots of the revolution are good. Dr. Ross draws a new picture of the part woman has played in the great upheaval of Russia. The question of labor and capital as interpreted by the Sovyet is discussed at great length. The author also shows how the Orthodox Church has been affected by the Revolution.

As a solution for the Russian problem, the author suggests a great federated state, “The United States of Russia," using our own country as a model. The break-up of the great Empire into many independent states would mean continual strife among them so that Russians would “look back with regret on the vanished peace of the Czar!”

In the closing chapter the author points out how costly is social revolution, costly in life, in good-will, and in organization.

C. E. S.

The Lost Fruits of Waterloo. By JOHN SPENCER BASSETT. New

York, The Macmillan Company, 1918. 289 pages. One hundred years ago the world rejoiced at the overthrow of a great military autocrat. It was expected that universal peace would immediately follow. But the nations had forgotten that it was a principle and not merely a man that they had been contending against. That principle has lived on and has shown itself with renewed strength during the past few years. “To conquer the world and win a place in the sun" must be defeated or it will recur to distress future generations unless it is bound down by bonds that cannot be broken. The Lost Fruits of Waterloo has been written to show that “when Germany is beaten, as she must be beaten, steps should be taken, not only to insure that she shall not again disturb the earth, but that no other power coming after her shall lay the foundations and form the ambition which will put the world to the necessity of fighting the present war over again.”

The object of the author is to set before the reader the idea of a permanent peace through federated action. After the defeat of Napoleon Europe tried various alliances and the idea of the Balance of Power in the hope of establishing permanent peace. In fact the failure of the Concert of Europe and the Balance of Power, although they met certain emergencies, doubtless brought on the recent world crisis.

In the past, Germany has stood for efficiency, but her state morality has been corrupted by the influence of Bismarck and Treitschke who taught that wrong may be done that good may result. This is a false doctrine and leads ultimately to wars. Germany must be taught that nations are under the same obligations to do right as individuals.

Among the obstacles to enduring peace the author mentions: economic rivalry, false sense of patriotism, sense of nationality, autocratic classes in society, the powerful influence of munition makers and professional warriors.

The world has been gradually uniting into larger and larger political units, and ultimately all nations must either bow to one conquering state, or else all nations must unite and form a great federation of nations if enduring peace is to be realized.

The "fruits of Waterloo" were lost a century ago. The world should have learned through the bitter disappointment of years and the ravages of war to take greater care in arriving at a just peace which alone can have any hope of endurance.

C. E. S.

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..............

332

THE BOLSHEVIKI IN SIBERIA
By E. A. Yarrow......

................. 321 THE RESHAPING OF THE MIDDLE EAST

By Benoy Kumar Sarkar.................... PRESENT CONDITIONS AND THE OUTLOOK IN MEXICO

By Elisha Hollingsworth Talbot, Honorary Member National

Geographical and Statistical Society of Mexico..... .... 344
THE FUTURE OF THE PACIFIC

By J. MacMillan Brown, LL.D., Vice Chancellor of the Uni-
versity of New Zealand.........

.... 362 THE STRENGTH OF JAPANESE OFFICIALDOM, PARTICULARLY IN EDUCA

TION. By an American many years resident in Japan........ 373
THE BULGARIAN NATIONALITY OF THE MACEDONIANS

By V. K. Sugareff, M.A., Special Delegate of the Congress of
Macedonian Bulgars in the United States to the Mid-Euro-

pean Union........
THE STRUGGLE OF RACES AND SOCIAL GROUPS AS A FACTOR IN THE

DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: AN
EXPOSITION AND CRITIQUE OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF
LUDWIG GUMPLOWICZ
By Harry E. Barnes, of the Department of History and Inter-

national Relations, Clark University..
THE MONROE DOCTRINE AND THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION OF THE

LEAGUE OF NATIONS
George H. Blakeslee, Professor of Ilistory and International

Relations, Clark University........
NOTES AND REVIEWS..........

. ............................... 429

........ 382

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CLARK UNIVERSITY

WORCESTER, MASS.
LOUIS N. WILSON. Publisher

$3.00 A YEAR

ISSUED QUARTERLY

75 CESTS A COPY

GEORGE H. BLAKESLEE, Ph.D......... President G. STANLEY HALL, LL.D.

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dean David P. BARROWB, Ph.D.................. University of California Professor Franz Boas, LL.D......................... Columbia University Vice Chancellor J. MACMILLAN BROWN........ Christchurch, New Zealand Professor W. I. CHAMBERLAIN, Ph.D..................... Rutgers College Professor W. E. B. DuBois, Ph.D..

.............. New York GEORGE W. Ellis, K.C., F.R.G.S.......

........ Chicago WM. CURTIS FARABEE, Ph.D.................. University of Pennsylvania President A. F. GRIFFITHS....................... Oahu College, Honolulu Professor FRANK H. HANKINS, Ph.D.........................Clark College M. Honda, Japan Times.

............Tokyo, Japan Ass't-Professor ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON, Ph.D..........Yale University Professor J. W. JENKS, LL.D........................ New Yark University GEORGE HEBER JONES, D.D.........

....Seoul, Korea GILBERT REID, D.D..........

.............Shanghai, China Professor EDWARD KREABIEL................. Leland Stanford University Associate Professor A. L. KROEBER, Ph.D........ University of California Professor GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, LL.D................Yale University Professor EDWARD C. Moore, Ph.D.................. Harvard University K. NATERAJAN......... ............................. Bombay, India Professor HOWARD W. ODUM, Ph.D.................. University of Georgia JAMES A. ROBERTSON, L.H.D..

......... Manila Professor WM. R. SHEPHERD, Ph.D................... Columbia University David S. SPENCER, D.D............

........Nagoya, Japan Professor PAYSON J. TREAT, Ph.D.............. Leland Stanford University Ass't-Professor FREDERICK W. WILLIAMS.................. Yale University

PUBLISHER

Louis N. Wilson, Litt.D.....

.....Clark University

Articles intended for publication, and all correspondence relating to the editorial department of the JOURNAL, should be addressed to Dr. George H. Blakesloe, Clark University, Worcester, Magg.

Books for review, exchanges, subscriptions, and all correspondence relating thereto should be addressed to Dr. Louis N. Wilson, Clark University Library, Worcester, Mass.

Copyright, 1919, Clark University. The printing of this number was completed May 7th, 1919

THE JOURNAL OF
RACE DEVELOPMENT

APRIL, 1919

No. 4

• THE BOLSHEVIKI IN SIBERIA

By E. A. Yarrow Siberia is so much in the public eye these days that I thought you might be interested in my observations on the situation. It is very difficult to give an orderly impression of conditions which are disorderly. If I might put the Siberian situation into one word I should say, disorganization, absolute disorganization, no matter from what angle one looks at it; political, social, economic, transportation, financial, and religious. Of course all these categories intermingle and overlap each other until their boundaries are lost but it may make for definiteness if I take each one up separately, and the one which is most apparent everywhere and which the people feel most keenly is the

ECONOMIC DISORGANIZATION I noticed in Siberia the same condition that I found in the Caucasus, the almost total absence of manufacturies; and I suppose the causes are the same, the insecurity of capital invested in the provinces and the difficulty of getting protection for these industries from the Petrograd government. There seems to have been an influence emanating from such centers as Moscow which kept in definite centers the raw materials needed in industry. While the transportation facilities were in working order this did not do any great harm except in adding to the cost of manufactured

1 Mr. E. A. Yarrow has just returned from two months in Siberia. After spending two weeks in Vladivostok, he was placed in charge of a Sanitary Train on the Trans-Siberian Railroad which took Red Cross and Medical Units with medical supplies to the front. Mr. Yarrow has had an excellent opportunity of studying Siberian conditions all the way from Vladivostok to Omsk.

321

THE JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 9, NO. 4, 1919

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