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selected were all Europeans. In the extremely important North Atlantic Fisheries Case, in 1910, between the United States and Great Britain, the majority of the five judges (aside from the British and American representatives) were also Europeans. Finally, the same year, in the case between the United States and Venezuela over the claims of the Orinoco Steamship Company, two of the three judges were Europeans.

As for the Latin-American international disputes, probably the most important one in the last two or three decades, that between Argentina and Chile over the Southern Andes boundary, was referred to the decision of the sovereign of Great Britain, and the proceedings were held in London.

Neither is the United States afraid of submitting disputes to a council of conciliation in which Europeans may be in the majority. In fact, by the so-called Bryan treaties, we stand bound today with twenty states, many of them LatinAmerican republics, not to go to war before we have submitted every dispute, of whatever character it may be, to a council of conciliation, provided we are unable to settle it by diplomacy. The method of selecting the judges makes it possible, as in the Hague Court, that the larger number of the council may be Europeans.

Whether we ratify the League constitution or not, the United States will continue in the future, as in the past, to refer disputes to courts and councils of conciliation, in many of which the European members are in the majority.

Doctrine. It strengthens it in its most important aimthe protection of American territory against seizure by force. And more than that, the League constitution will for the first time place the Monroe Doctrine, in whole or in part, in the body of international law. Up to the present this Doctrine has been merely a policy of this country. If the League compact is adopted, the clause which guarantees the territory of every member of the League will give the

and the pledged support of all states of the World League.

While if any modification or amendment is made in the present draft of the League constitution by which the Monroe Doctrine is recognized either by name or by clear implication, it will then at last be made clearly and definitely a part of international law.

NOTES AND REVIEWS

By GOLDSWORTHY LOWES DICKINSON. The Choice before Us.

London, George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., Ruskin House,

40 Museum Street, W. C. 1917. 274 pages. The book has two main themes; militarism and internationalism. In the opening chapter the author pictures for his readers the future of mankind if wars and preparation for wars are to continue. Unless there is a deliberate and conscious change in the ideas of men wars of increasing brutality and destruction will continue, universal military training will be introduced into every country, and the whole world will become an armed camp. The author shows that many of the supposed reasons for war, such as the need for expansion, and the growth of population are inadequate explanations. Armaments, fear and suspicion are the great factors in producing war, and if the armaments were scrapped the fear and suspicion would disappear.

Internationalism, or the spirit of coöperation, is the only salvation for the world from war and ruin. In order to secure permanent peace armaments must be abolished and disputes must be settled by a process of law and arbitration.

The aim of the author is to have a League of Nations with an International Court and a Council of Conciliation. The Council of Conciliation could also exercise the function of a Legislative body dealing particularly with regulations of trade and commerce. The “open door” policy should become universal and free trade routes granted across independent States. All nations should discuss questions of State openly and the people should have as much right to determining foreign as domestic policies. “Wars have been made by intrigues of the few, arrived at in the dark.”

CLARA E. SCHIEBER.

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ALBANIA

Claims to Epirus........

History of.....
ALSACE-LORRAINE

Future of.........
German Atrocities...

German Expansion in..
BALKANS, THE

History under Turkish Control..........
BULGARIA

Case of Bulgaria.......
CHINA

Chinese in the Philippine Islands.
Chinese Labor Corps.....
Emergence of the Individual...
Part in the War....

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Far East

American Policy in the Far East..

Coöperation of Peoples of the Far East...........
GREECE

Asia Minor, Claims in........
Claims at the Peace Congress..
Epirus, Claims to........
Italian Islands, Claims in........

Thrace, Claims in...
INDIA

Educational System......

Influence on Western Civilization
ITALY

Interests in Epirus.......
JAPAN

Alliance of the Allied Countries with Japan.
Educational System. ........
Japan and the Present Crisis.........
Korean Buddhism..
Similarities between Japan and Germany.....
Strength of Japanese Officialdom....

Supremacy of Japan in the Pacific.
JUGOSLAVIA

Germany and Austria-Hungary in.......

Jugoslav Aspirations....
LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
LIBERIA

Attitude toward Native Races....
Democracy in....
European Attitude Toward.........
New Partition of West Africa. .......
Present Situation and Outlook....
West African Colonial Administration.

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